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HYDROCHLORIC ACID

See Occupational Exposure Standards

Human Health Effects:

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity in humans of hydrochloric acid. There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity in experimental animals of hydrochloric acid. Overall evaluation: Hydrochloric acid is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. 54 206 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Human Toxicity Excerpts:

BURNS ON THE FACE MAY PRODUCE SERIOUS AND DISFIGURING SCARS. DIGESTIVE DISEASES ARE FREQUENT AND ARE CHARACTERIZED BY DENTAL MOLECULAR NECROSIS IN WHICH THE TEETH LOSE THEIR SHINE, TURN YELLOW, BECOME SOFT, POINTED, AND THEN BREAK OFF.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1085]**PEER REVIEWED**

MISTS OF HEATED METAL PICKLING SOLN MAY CAUSE BLEEDING OF NOSE & GUMS, AS WELL AS ULCERATION OF NASAL AND ORAL MUCOSA. ...
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 4490]**PEER REVIEWED**

AFTER INGESTION OF MURIATIC ACID (27% HCL), FINDINGS IN 24 PATIENTS CONSISTED OF MUCOSAL EDEMA, SUBMUCOSAL EDEMA OR HEMORRHAGE, ULCERATIONS, SLOUGHING OF MUCOSA, ATONY, & DILATATION. STRICTURES OF ESOPHAGUS WERE PRESENT IN CHRONIC PHASE.
[MUHLETALER CA ET AL; AM J ROENTGENOL 134 (6): 1137-40 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not gastroduodenal acidification with either 400 ml of pH 1 citric acid or pH 0.85 hydrochloric acid resulted in ulcer type pain in patients with endoscopically documented active symptomatic duodenal ulcer under double blind randomized conditions. Gastric acidification equivalent to 80 mmol/hr failed to induce pain in most patients with active symptomatic duodenal ulcer. These observations suggest that duodenal ulcer pain is largely unrelated to duodenal acidification.
[Harrison A et al; J Clin Gastroenterol 4 (2): 105-8 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

SYMPTOMATOLOGY (after ingestion or skin contact): 1) Corrosion of mucous membranes of mouth, throat, and esophagus, with immediate pain and dysphagia. The necrotic areas are at first grayish white but soon acquire a blackish discoloration and sometimes a shrunken or wrinkled texture; the process is described as a "coagulation necrosis." 2) Epigastric pain, which may be associated with nausea and the vomiting of mucoid and "coffee-ground" material. At times, gastric hemorrhage may be intense, and the vomitus then contains fresh blood. Profound thirst /SRP: may be present/. 3) Ulceration of all membranes and tissues with which the acid comes in contact ... . /Acids/
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. II-102]**PEER REVIEWED**

SYMPTOMATOLOGY (after ingestion or skin contact): 4) Circulatory collapse with clammy skin, weak and rapid pulse, shallow respirations, and scanty urine. Circulatory shock is often the immediate cause of death. 5) Asphyxial death due to glottic edema. 6) Late esophageal, gastric and pyloric strictures and stenoses, which may require major surgical repair, should be anticipated. Signs of obstruction commonly appear within a few weeks but may be delayed for months and even years. Permanent scars may also appear in the cornea, skin and oropharynx. 7) Uncorrected circulatory collapse of several hours' duration may lead to renal failure and ischemic lesions in the liver and heart. /Acids/
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. II-102]**PEER REVIEWED**

A case is reported of a hospital pharmacist's arithmetic error that resulted in a fatal dose of hydrochloric acid 20 times stronger than the strength ordered. To correct a fluid imbalance, hydrochloric acid 100 mmol/l/24 hr had been ordered.
[Aust J Pharm 63 (Sept): 596-8 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A plant based case control study was undertaken to investigate a possible excess of brain tumor mortality identified at a Texas chemical plant from a sample based cohort study. No statistically significant associations were found.
[Bond GG et al; J Occup Med 25 (5): 377-86 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CONCN OF 50 TO 100 PPM ARE TOLERABLE FOR 1 HR. CONCN OF 1,000 TO 2,000 PPM ARE DANGEROUS, EVEN FOR BRIEF EXPOSURES. MORE SEVERE EXPOSURES RESULT IN PULMONARY EDEMA, AND OFTEN LARYNGEAL SPASM. MISTS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID ARE CONSIDERED LESS HARMFUL THAN ANHYD HCL, SINCE DROPLETS HAVE NO DEHYDRATING ACTION.
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. 1545]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the lung can cause /SRP: delayed/ pulmonary edema. In order for hydrogen chloride in air to reach the lung, it must be transported either as an aerosol or as a deposit on soot particles of less than 3 um in diameter. Particulates in smoke from incineration of chlorinated polymers can transport HCl gas to the lung.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. 12(80) 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ingestion of hydrochloric acid causes edema of the glottis.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric Acid (Draft) p.99 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The toxicity of hydrochloric acid after inhalation or ingestion is due to local effect on the mucous membranes at the site of absorption.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V54 200 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... A REPORT BY SOVIET INVESTIGATORS THAT WORKERS EXPOSED TO HYDROCHLORIC ACID SUFFERED FROM GASTRITIS. A NUMBER OF CASES OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WERE ALSO OBSERVED.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.773]**PEER REVIEWED**

CONTACT WITH CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID IN CLEANING METAL GIVES RISE TO SMALL BURNS AND ULCERATIONS OF THE HANDS.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2961]**PEER REVIEWED**

Upper limit of safety for man ... about 45 mg/cu m (30 ppm) ... even this might be harmful if daily exposures were continued over periods longer than 1 month.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.51 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Although corrosive action is a drastic form of toxicity, many of the compounds that produce it are easily detoxified or excreted if presented in low concn and some, such as hydrochloric acid and iodine, are essential to the normal function of the body.
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology Volume 1. General Principles. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991. 170]**PEER REVIEWED**

Caution: Corrosive burns may result from the inhalation of acid fumes and from skin contact with or the ingestion of strong acid. Symptoms after ingestion or skin contact include immediate pain and ulceration of all membranes and tissues which come in contact with the acid. Ingestion may be assoc with nausea, vomiting and intense thirst; corrosion of the stomach may lead within a few hours or a few days to gastric perforation and peritonitis. Late esophageal, gastric and pyloric strictures and stenoses should be anticipated. Contact of conc acid with the eye can cause extensive necrosis of the conjunctiva and corneal epithelium, resulting in perforation or opaque scarring. Chemical pneumonitis can be expected after respiratory exposure to acid vapors or after tracheobronchial aspiration of ingested acid. Death may occur due to complications such as circulatory shock, asphyxia due to glottic or laryngeal edema, perforation of the stomach with peritonitis, gastric hemorrhage, infection or anition due to stricture formation.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sharp, pungent irritating odor; recognition odor in air 10 ppm; TLV = 5 ppm; 35 ppm causes irritation of throat; 50-100 ppm can be tolerated for 1 hr. Longer exposure may result in pulmonary edema and laryngeal spasm. Concn of 1,000-2,000 ppm are dangerous even for brief exposure. Anhydrous fumes are more harmful than mists. Can damage vision. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, intense thirst, and circulatory collapse.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995. 740]**PEER REVIEWED**

Inhalation of hydrochloric acid at irritating concentrations causes coughing, pain, inflammation, and edema of the upper respiratory tract. At high concn, the gas causes necrosis of the bronchial epithelium, constriction of the larynx and bronchi, and closure of the glottis. Concentrations of the 1000 to 2000 ppm and higher are immediately dangerous. One fatal case of overexposure has been reported; postmortem examination showed severe pulmonary hemorrhage, edema, and pneumonitis.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 4489]**PEER REVIEWED**

Short term exposures have been reported to induce transitory obstruction in the respiratory tract, which diminishes with repeated exposure, suggesting adaption. Acclimatized workers can work undisturbed with a hydrogen chloride level of 15 mg/cu m (10 ppm), but long-term exposure can affect the teeth, resulting in erosion of the inciso-labial surfaces.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.19 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The major effects of hydrogen chloride are those of local irritation . It is generally believed that exposure to hydrogen chloride does not result in effects on organs some distance from the portal of entry.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.19 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Small quantities are reportedly more easily detected by taste than by smell ... 52 mg/cu m (approx 35 ppm), a level below the threshold for taste or eye irritation, can induce sneezing, laryngitis, chest pain, hoarseness, and a feeling of suffocation.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.75 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In addition to determining odor threshold levels ... tests /were conducted/ to evaluate the effects of hydrochloric acid aerosols on optical chronaxie, blood vessel tone, dark adaptation, and respiration. The results varied. Inhalation of the aerosol in concentrations of 0.6-1.5 mg/cu m (0.40-1.01 ppm) shifted the value for optical chronaxie, but those of 0.2-0.4 mg/cu m (0.13-0.27 ppm) did not induce any appreciable effect. The threshold level for this test was determined statistically to be 0.6 mg/cu m (0.40 ppm), a value higher than the odor threshold reported by this author. Changes in blood vessel tone were also observed at levels above the values related to odor threshold. Only at, or above 0.5 mg/cu m (0.34 ppm) did inhalation of hydrochloric acid aerosols effect changes in vascular reactions. In contrast, the threshold levels for dark adaptation and respiration effects were similar to that for odor perception, i.e., 0.2 mg/cu m (0.13 ppm) and 0.1-0.2 mg/cu m (0.07-0.13 ppm), respectively.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.73 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exposure to hydrochloric acid can produce burns on the skin and mucous membranes, the severity of which is related to the concentration of the solution. Subsequently, ulceration may occur, followed by keloid and retractile scarring. Contact with the eyes may produce reduced vision or blindness. frequent contact with aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid may lead to dermatitis. ... Dental decay, with changes in tooth structure, yellowing, softening and breaking of teeth, and related digestive diseases are frequent after exposures to hydrochloric acid.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V54 201 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In one of eight asthmatic volunteers exposed to an aerosol of unbuffered hydrochloric acid at pH 2 for 3 min during tidal breathing, airway resistance was increased by 50%. bronchoconstriction was increased in all eight subjects after inhalation of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and glycine at pH 2.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V54 201 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dysphagia and transient ulceration of the oesophagus with luminal narrowing are usually observed following ingestion of hydrochloric acid.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V54 201 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ingestion by healthy volunteers of hydrochloric acid at 50 mM/day for four days resulted in a fall in blood and urinary urea, with a concomitant rise in urinary excretion of ammonia.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V54 200 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Acid aspiration leads to an inflammatory response characterized by the activation and pulmonary entrapment of platelets and white blood cells.
[Huval WV et al; Surgery 94 (2): 259-66 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Splash contact of concentrated strong acids, such as hydrochloric acid can prove as severely and devastatingly injurious to the eye as splashes of strong alkalies.
[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986. 46]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dental erosion of the incisors was observed in 90% of picklers in a zinc galvanizing plant in the Netherlands, who spent 27% of their time in air containing concentrations of hydrogen chloride above the exposure limit (7 mg/cu m).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V54 201 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

... HYDROGEN CHLORIDE WAS IMMEDIATELY IRRITATING WHEN INHALED AT CONCN OF 5 PPM OR MORE.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.773]**PEER REVIEWED**

A corrosive irritant to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. ... A concn of 35 ppm causes irritation of the throat after short exposure.
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1835]**PEER REVIEWED**

Caution: Corrosive burns may result from the inhalation of acid fumes and from skin contact with or the ingestion of strong acid. Symptoms after ingestion or skin contact include immediate pain and ulceration of all membranes and tissues which come in contact with the acid. Ingestion may be assoc with nausea, vomiting and intense thirst; corrosion of the stomach may lead within a few hours or a few days to gastric perforation and peritonitis. Late esophageal, gastric and pyloric strictures and stenoses should be anticipated. Contact of conc acid with the eye can cause extensive necrosis of the conjunctiva and corneal epithelium, resulting in perforation or opaque scarring. Chemical pneumonitis can be expected after respiratory exposure to acid vapors or after tracheobronchial aspiration of ingested acid. Death may occur due to complications such as circulatory shock, asphyxia due to glottic or laryngeal edema, perforation of the stomach with peritonitis, gastric hemorrhage, infection or anition due to stricture formation.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Drug Warnings:

Warning: ... Correcting metabolic alkalosis ... soln of hydrochloric acid ... proved toxic and caused side effects (in cats).
[PATOL FIZIOL EKSP TER 1: 52-7 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Medical Surveillance:

The following medical procedures should be made available to each employee who is exposed to hydrogen chloride at potentially hazardous levels: 1. Initial medical examination: A complete history and physical examination: the purpose is to detect existing conditions that might place the exposed employee at increased risk, and to establish a baseline for future health monitoring. Examination of the respiratory system, skin, and eyes should be stressed. 14" x 17" chest roentgenogram: Hydrogen chloride causes lung damage. Surveillance of the lungs is indicated. FVC and FEV (1 sec): Hydrogen chloride is a respiratory irritant. Persons with impaired pulmonary function may be at increased risk from exposure. Periodic surveillance is indicated. 2. Periodic Medical Examination: The aforementioned medical examinations should be repeated on an annual basis, except that an X-ray is necessary only when indicated by the results of pulmonary function testing or by signs and symptoms of respiratory disease.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.1]**PEER REVIEWED**

Populations at Special Risk:

PERSONS SUFFERING FROM SKIN, RESPIRATORY, OR DIGESTIVE DISEASES SHOULD /SRP: BE PROTECTED AGAINST WORK RELATED EXPOSURE TO HYDROCHLORIC ACID/.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1085]**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Process sampling, maintenance, and breakdowns /during hydrocarbon chlorination and dehydrochlorination/ may result in limited short term exposure.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.32 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emergency Medical Treatment:

Emergency Medical Treatment:

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The following Overview, *** HYDROGEN CHLORIDE ***, is relevant for this HSDB record chemical.

Life Support:
   o   This overview assumes that basic life support measures
       have been instituted.
Clinical Effects:
  0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
   0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Hydrogen chloride is a severe corrosive irritant to the
         skin, eyes, nose, mucous membranes, respiratory tract
         and gastrointestinal tract. The extremely irritating
         effects of hydrogen chloride on the eyes, nose and
         throat are usually sufficient to cause withdrawal from
         exposure before severe damage ensues.
     B)  Inhalation of hydrochloric acid fumes produces nose,
         throat and laryngeal burning and irritation, pain and
         inflammation, coughing, sneezing, choking, hoarseness,
         dyspnea, bronchitis, chest pain, laryngeal spasms and
         upper respiratory tract edema, as well as headache and
         palpitations.
      1)  Inhalation of high concentrations can result in
          corrosive burns, necrosis of the bronchial epithelium,
          constriction of the larynx and bronchi, nasoseptal
          perforation and glottal closure. Chemical pneumonitis
          and pulmonary edema can also occur after inhalation,
          particularly if exposure is prolonged.
      2)  The current NIOSH IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE OR
          HEALTH (IDLH) air concentration for hydrogen chloride
          is 50 ppm.
     C)  Contact with fumes or liquid can produce corrosive
         burns. Dermal exposure also results in irritation,
         pain, dermatitis and ulceration. Contact with
         refrigerated liquid can produce frostbite.
     D)  Eye contact with fumes is extremely irritating. Contact
         with liquid produces pain, swelling, conjunctivitis,
         corneal erosion, and necrosis of conjunctiva and
         corneal epithelium with perforation or scarring. Liquid
         splashed in the eye can result in permanent ocular
         damage.
     E)  Ingestion of the liquid produces corrosive burns of the
         gastrointestinal tract. Signs and symptoms of ingestion
         include pain, irritation, nausea, vomiting (with
         'coffee-ground' emesis), thirst, difficulty swallowing,
         salivation, chills, fever, uneasiness, shock,
         nephritis, and burns, ulceration and perforation of the
         gastrointestinal tract.
      1)  Stomach corrosion can result in gastric perforation
          and resultant peritonitis. Strictures and stenosis
          (esophageal, gastric and pyloric) can also result from
          ingestion.
     F)  Death after exposure to hydrochloric acid may result
         from circulatory shock, asphyxia (with laryngeal and
         glottal edema), or stomach perforation (with
         peritonitis, gastric hemorrhage and infection).
     G)  Chronic or prolonged exposure may be associated with
         changes in pulmonary function, chronic bronchitis,
         dermatitis, decay and erosion of dental enamel,
         bleeding of nose and gums, nasal and oral mucosal
         ulceration, conjunctivitis, and overt upper respiratory
         tract abnormalities. No significant effects have been
         seen with chronic exposure to low levels of gaseous
         hydrogen chloride. Symptoms may be delayed 1 or 2 days.
     H)  For information about the medical effects of exposure
         to liquid hydrochloric acid, refer to the "ACIDS"
         MEDITEXT(TM) Medical Management.
   0.2.1.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     A)  Chronic or prolonged exposure may be associated with
         changes in pulmonary function, chronic bronchitis,
         dermatitis, erosion of dental enamel, conjunctivitis,
         and overt upper respiratory tract abnormalities. No
         significant effects have been seen from chronic
         exposure to low levels of gaseous hydrogen chloride.
         Symptoms may be delayed 1 or 2 days.
      1)  Chronic exposure to the anhydrous form is unlikely
          because of its highly affinity for water.
      2)  Because of its highly irritating and excellent warning
          properties, acute poisoning from hydrogen chloride
          occurs only rarely in controlled industrial
          environments except in accidental exposures. Poisoning
          can occur from inhalation, dermal, or oral exposure;
          it is a strong irritant of the eyes and skin. When
          heated to decomposition, hydrogen chloride emits toxic
          fumes of chloride.
      3)  True systemic poisoning is highly unlikely because
          both hydronium ions and chloride ions are normal
          constituents of the body. However, the importance of
          hydrogen chloride as a strong poison should not be
          underestimated; the anhydrous gas can be fatal by the
          inhalation or dermal routes. Significant oral exposure
          is not likely because of its physical form.
     B)  Chronic or prolonged exposure may be associated with
         changes in pulmonary function, chronic bronchitis,
         dermatitis, erosion of dental enamel, conjunctivitis,
         and overt upper respiratory tract abnormalities. No
         significant effects have been seen from chronic
         exposure to low levels of gaseous hydrogen chloride.
         Symptoms may be delayed 1 or 2 days.
  0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
   0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Shock, rapid breathing and pulse, circulatory collapse
         and other changes to pulse, blood pressure, and
         respiration may occur.
  0.2.4 HEENT
   0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Dental discoloration or erosion, bleeding gums, corneal
         necrosis, conjunctivitis, eye and nasal irritation,
         nasal ulceration, nose bleeds, throat irritation and
         ulceration have been observed.
  0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
   0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Circulatory collapse and ischemic lesions may occur.
  0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
   0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Changes in breathing pattern, irritation, changes in
         pulmonary function, corrosion and edema of the
         respiratory tract, chronic bronchitis and
         noncardiogenic pulmonary edema have been observed.
  0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
   0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Gastritis, burns, gastric hemorrhage, dilation, edema,
         necrosis, and strictures may occur.
  0.2.9 HEPATIC
   0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Ischemia and hepatotoxicity may be observed.
  0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
   0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Nephritis and renal failure may occur.
  0.2.11 ACID-BASE
   0.2.11.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis may occur.
  0.2.12 FLUID-ELECTROLYTE
   0.2.12.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     A)  Chlorosis may occur with prolonged or chronic exposure.
  0.2.13 HEMATOLOGIC
   0.2.13.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Coagulopathy has been reported following an acute
         ingestion of hydrochloric acid.
   0.2.13.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     A)  A diminished hemoglobin content developed in exposed
         animals.
  0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
   0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Burns, ulceration, scarring, blanching, and irritation
         may occur.
   0.2.14.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     A)  Dermatitis may occur with prolonged or chronic
         exposure.
  0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
    A)  Fetotoxicity, developmental abnormalities, and possible
        resistance to hydrogen chloride by inhalation during
        pregnancy have been noted.
    B)  At the time of this review, no data were available on
        the possible effects of hydrogen chloride exposure
        during lactation.
    C)  No information about possible male reproductive effects
        was found in available references at the time of this
        review.
  0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
   0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
     A)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7647-01-0 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  IARC Classification
       a)  Listed as: Hydrochloric acid
       b)  Carcinogen Rating: 3
        1)  The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not
            classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
            This category is used most commonly for agents,
            mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the
            evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans
            and inadequate or limited in experimental animals.
            Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the
            evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans
            but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed
            in this category when there is strong evidence that
            the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental
            animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures
            and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any
            other group are also placed in this category.
   0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
     A)  There has been a lack of conclusive data regarding the
         carcinogenicity of this agent; however, carcinogenic
         effects may occur when this agent is in combination
         with other substances.
  0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
    A)  DNA repair, genotoxicity, sex chromosome loss and
        chromosome aberrations have been observed.
Laboratory:
   A)  If respiratory tract irritation or respiratory depression
       is evident, monitor arterial blood gases, chest x-ray,
       and pulmonary function tests.
Treatment Overview:
  0.4.2 ORAL EXPOSURE
    A)  Significant esophageal or gastrointestinal tract
        irritation or burns may occur following ingestion. The
        possible benefit of early removal of some ingested
        material by cautious gastric lavage must be weighed
        against potential complications of bleeding or
        perforation.
    B)  GASTRIC LAVAGE: Consider after ingestion of a
        potentially life-threatening amount of poison if it can
        be performed soon after ingestion (generally within 1
        hour). Protect airway by placement in Trendelenburg and
        left lateral decubitus position or by endotracheal
        intubation. Control any seizures first.
     1)  CONTRAINDICATIONS: Loss of airway protective reflexes
         or decreased level of consciousness in unintubated
         patients; following ingestion of corrosives;
         hydrocarbons (high aspiration potential); patients at
         risk of hemorrhage or gastrointestinal perforation; and
         trivial or non-toxic ingestion.
    C)  DILUTION: Immediately dilute with 4 to 8 ounces (120 to
        240 mL) of water or milk (not to exceed 4 ounces/120 mL
        in a child).
    D)  Observe patients with ingestion carefully for the
        possible development of esophageal or gastrointestinal
        tract irritation or burns. If signs or symptoms of
        esophageal irritation or burns are present, consider
        endoscopy to determine the extent of injury.
    E)  HYPOTENSION: Infuse 10 to 20 mL/kg isotonic fluid. If
        hypotension persists, administer dopamine (5 to 20
        mcg/kg/min) or norepinephrine (ADULT: begin infusion at
        0.5 to 1 mcg/min; CHILD: begin infusion at 0.1
        mcg/kg/min); titrate to desired response.
    F)  Steroid use is controversial. Surgical consultation
        should be obtained if gastrointestinal necrosis or
        perforation is suspected. Patients should be observed
        for symptoms of pyloric stenosis; a follow-up
        esophagogram or upper GI series should be performed
        about 2 to 4 weeks after ingestion to evaluate the
        presence or absence of scarring and/or stricture.
  0.4.3 INHALATION EXPOSURE
    A)  INHALATION: Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for
        respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing
        develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation,
        bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist
        ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled
        beta2 agonist and oral or parenteral corticosteroids.
    B)  ACUTE LUNG INJURY: Maintain ventilation and oxygenation
        and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gas or pulse
        oximetry monitoring. Early use of PEEP and mechanical
        ventilation may be needed.
    C)  HYPOTENSION: Infuse 10 to 20 mL/kg isotonic fluid. If
        hypotension persists, administer dopamine (5 to 20
        mcg/kg/min) or norepinephrine (ADULT: begin infusion at
        0.5 to 1 mcg/min; CHILD: begin infusion at 0.1
        mcg/kg/min); titrate to desired response.
    D)  If bronchospasm and wheezing occur, consider treatment
        with inhaled sympathomimetic agents.
    E)  Respiratory tract irritation, if severe, can progress to
        pulmonary edema which may be delayed in onset up to 24
        to 72 hours after exposure in some cases.
    F)  ISOPROTERENOL/AMINOPHYLLINE
     1)  In rabbits, treatment with isoproterenol and
         aminophylline significantly reduced the increased
         pulmonary artery pressure, vascular permeability, and
         fluid-flux associated with hydrochloric acid injury.
  0.4.4 EYE EXPOSURE
    A)  DECONTAMINATION: Irrigate exposed eyes with copious
        amounts of room temperature water for at least 15
        minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or
        photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a
        health care facility.
  0.4.5 DERMAL EXPOSURE
    A)  OVERVIEW
     1)  DECONTAMINATION: Remove contaminated clothing and wash
         exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A
         physician may need to examine the area if irritation or
         pain persists.
     2)  Treat dermal irritation or burns with standard topical
         therapy. Patients developing dermal hypersensitivity
         reactions may require treatment with systemic or
         topical corticosteroids or antihistamines.
     3)  HYPOTENSION: Infuse 10 to 20 mL/kg isotonic fluid. If
         hypotension persists, administer dopamine (5 to 20
         mcg/kg/min) or norepinephrine (ADULT: begin infusion at
         0.5 to 1 mcg/min; CHILD: begin infusion at 0.1
         mcg/kg/min); titrate to desired response.
     4)  Treatment should include recommendations listed in the
         INHALATION EXPOSURE section when appropriate.
Range of Toxicity:
   A)  Minimum lethal exposures in humans ranged from 3000 ppm
       for 5 minutes to 1300 ppm for 30 minutes and 81 minutes.
       Inhalation at 50 to 100 ppm for one hour was barely
       tolerable in humans.

[Rumack BH POISINDEX(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2004; CCIS Volume 122, edition expires Nov, 2004. Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds): TOMES(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2004; CCIS Volume 122, edition expires Nov, 2004.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Antidote and Emergency Treatment:

Call for medical aid. ... Move to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. ... Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Flush affected areas with plenty of water. If swallowed and victim is conscious, have victim drink water or milk. Do not induce vomiting.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995. 742]**PEER REVIEWED**

Inhalation: remove person to fresh air; keep him warm and quiet and get medical attention immediately; start artificial respiration if breathing stops. Ingestion: have person drink water or milk; do NOT induce vomiting. Eyes: immediately flush with plenty of water for at least 15 min and get medical attention; continue flushing for another 15 min if physician does not arrive promptly. Skin: immediately flush skin while removing contaminated clothing; get medical attention promptly; use soap and wash area for at least 15 min.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995. 742]**PEER REVIEWED**

For immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If victim is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep victim quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Inorganic acids and related compounds/
[Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994. 148]**PEER REVIEWED**

For basic treatment: Establish a patent airway. Suction if necessary. Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilations if necessary. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 10 to 15 L/min. Monitor for pulmonary edema and treat if necessary ... Monitor for shock and treat if necessary ... For eye contamination, flush eyes immediately with water. Irrigate each eye continuously with normal saline during transport ... Do not use emetics. Activated charcoal is not effective. For ingestion, rinse mouth and administer 5 mL/kg up to 200 mL of water for dilution if the patient can swallow, has a strong gag reflex, and does not drool. ... Do not attempt to neutralize because of exothermic reaction. Cover skin burns with dry, sterile dressings after decontamination ... . /Inorganic acids and related compounds/
[Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994. 149]**PEER REVIEWED**

Animal Toxicity Studies:

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity in humans of hydrochloric acid. There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity in experimental animals of hydrochloric acid. Overall evaluation: Hydrochloric acid is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. 54 206 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:

THE INHALATION OF AIR CONTAINING 6,400 MG/CU M FOR 30 MIN BY RABBITS AND GUINEA PIGS RESULTED IN DEATH, IN MANY INSTANCES FROM LARYNGEAL SPASM, LARYNGEAL EDEMA OR RAPIDLY DEVELOPING PULMONARY EDEMA. ... WHEN THE DURATION OF EXPOSURE WAS 2 TO 6 HR THE CONCN OF 1,000 MG/CU M CAUSED SOME FATALITIES.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2961]**PEER REVIEWED**

... EXPOSURES OF 6 HOURS DAILY @ 100 PPM REPEATED FOR 50 DAYS CAUSED ONLY SLIGHT UNREST AND IRRITATION OF THE EYES AND NOSE OF RABBITS, GUINEA PIGS AND PIGEONS. HEMOGLOBIN CONTENT OF BLOOD ... SLIGHTLY DIMINISHED.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2961]**PEER REVIEWED**

WHEN INHALED IN HIGH CONCN, THE GAS CAUSES NECROSIS OF THE TRACHEAL AND BRONCHIAL EPITHELIUM AS WELL AS PULMONARY EDEMA, ATELECTASIS, AND EMPHYSEMA, AND DAMAGE TO THE PULMONARY BLOOD VESSELS. /GAS/
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 4489]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DILUTE HYDROCHLORIC ACID TO DOGS INDUCES ACUTE AND CHRONIC GASTRITIS AND DUODENITIS AND LEADS TO THE APPEARANCE OF ULCERS OF THE PYLORUS, WHILE TOXIC DOSES LOWER THE ALKALINE RESERVE OF THE BLOOD.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2961]**PEER REVIEWED**

A later study showed that severe hypoxia developed rapidly in baboons exposed to hydrogen chloride at concentrations of 3500 to 4000 ppm, a finding that confirms the earlier view that exposure to hydrogen chloride at concentrations of 1000 to 2000 ppm is dangerous even for a short time.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 4489]**PEER REVIEWED**

Baboons were exposed for 5 min to concentrations ranging from 190 to 17,290 ppm, and rats for 5 min to concentrations ranging from 11,800 to 87,660 ppm. Irritant effects were evident in all animals except baboons exposed to the lowest concentrations. ... At the highest exposure levels, animals experienced persistent respiratory effects and died after exposure.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 4489]**PEER REVIEWED**

0.1 N HYDROCHLORIC ACID (0.3 ML/KG) WAS INSTILLED INTO LEFT LOWER LOBE BRONCHUS OF ANESTHETIZED DOGS. REDUCTION IN PERFUSION TO EDEMATOUS AREA CORRELATED WITH AMT OF EXCESS LUNG LIQ, & THIS REDUCTION IN PERFUSION REDUCED TOTAL PULMONARY SHUNT.
[FISHER CJ, WOOD LDH; J APPL PHYSIOL RESPIR ENVIRON EXERCISE PHYSIOL 49 (1): 150-6 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

DOSE OF 5% HYDROCHLORIC ACID CAUSED NEGLIGIBLE IRRITATION TO THE ALBINO RABBIT EYE. NEGLIGIBLE= CLEARING WITHIN 24 HR.
[GRIFFITH JF ET AL; TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL 55 (3): 501-13 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrochloric acid has a powerful corrosive action on the living tissues of livestock. ...
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.87 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Gaseous hydrogen chloride in the presence of a minute amount of vapor, rapidly inactivates bacterial spores of Bacillus subtilis; causing the spores to collapse. /Gas/
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.88 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

At ambient temperature, and pressure of 4 kPa, naked spores of Bacillus subtilis were reduced in viability by a factor of 100,000 within 10 sec.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.89 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) in air can also be a phytotoxicant. Tomatoes, sugar beets, and /certain/ fruit trees are sensitive to HCl in air.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. 12(80) 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

Water that contains hydrogen chloride/hydrochloric acid in a dilution of 1:175,000 or about 6 mg/l inhibits growth of the radical (stem) in plants.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric Acid (Draft) p.88 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The carcinogenic response to the combined and separate exposures to formaldehyde (HCHO) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) was investigated in male inbred Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were exposed to gaseous formaldehyde 14 ppm, and HCl, 10 ppm. No carcinogenic response was observed with HCl alone.
[Albert RE et al; JNCI 68 (4): 597-604 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The concn of hydrochloric acid that was found to be injurious to crops (irrigable) is 350 mg/l.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.88 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A group of 100 male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 10 ppm hydrochloric acid for 6 hr/day, 5 days/wk, for life (maximum 128 wk). No significant increase in mortality or tumor response among exposed animals compared with either colony control or air exposed control groups. Exposed group of animals did exhibit an increased incidence of hyperplasia of the larynx and trachea (22/99 and 26/99, respectively).
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 4490]**PEER REVIEWED**

No immediate deaths occurred among rabbit and guinea pigs exposed for 5 min to a concn of 5500 mg/cu m (3685 ppm), but 100% mortality was noted in the same animal species exposed to a concn of 1000 mg/cu m (670 ppm) for 6 hr.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.15 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Exposures insufficient to cause immediate death were associated with delayed mortality, secondary to nasal and pulmonary infections. Presumably, disruption of normal protective mechanisms allowed bacteria to invade the damaged tissues. In support of this, focal superficial ulceration of the respiratory epithelium at its junction with the squamous epithelium of the external nares was reported in mice, 24 hr after a single 10-min exposure to 25-30 mg/cu m (17 ppm).
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.15 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Respiratory irritation in mice exposed to hydrogen chloride gas was studied ... Mice were exposed for 10 min to concentrations ranging from 59.6 to 1405 mg/cu m (40 to 943 ppm), and dose-response curves were plotted, using the percentage decrease in respiratory rate for each exposure as the reaction reflecting sensory irritation of the upper respiratory tract. The results showed chlorine gas to be 33 times more irritating than hydrogen chloride gas, based on RD50 values of 27 mg/cu m (9.3 ppm) for chlorine and 460 mg/cu m (309 ppm) for hydrogen chloride. The authors applied a 10-100 fold safety margin on the results of this study and projected that an appropriate threshold limit value range for human exposure to hydrogen chloride gas would be from 4.5 to 46.2 mg/cu m (3 to 31 ppm). However, the authors pointed out that other factors, besides sensory irritation, must also be considered when selecting exposure limits for man. /Gas/
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.50 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... A study /was conducted/ to assess the role of hydrogen chloride gas in explaining the overall toxicity of the thermal decomposition products of polyvinyl chloride. Mice were exposed to hydrogen chloride concentrations ranging from approximately 29.8 to 29,800 mg/cu m (20 to 20,000 ppm) with deaths occurring above 12,367 mg/cu m (8,300 ppm). Histopathological changes noted in mice, killed 24 h after the exposure, revealed that the target organs included the upper respiratory tract and the eyes, with secondary changes and passive congestion in the lungs, intestine, liver, and kidneys. /Gas/
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.50 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The histopathological effects in the upper respiratory tracts of mice that had been given a single 10-min exposure to hydrogen chloride, 24 h previously, were described ... Single exposure to the lowest concentration of hydrogen chloride gas tested, 25.3 mg/cu m (17 ppm), caused minimal superficial ulcerations only in the respiratory epithelium at its junction with the squamous epithelium of the external nares. As the exposure was increased to 195.2-417 mg/cu m (131-280 ppm) the adjacent respiratory epithelium underwent mucosal ulceration in a contiguous fashion; and, at 737.6 mg/cu m (493 ppm), the squamous epithelium of the external nares was also affected. At concentrations of hydrogen chloride gas of 2940 mg/cu m (1973 ppm) or more, portions of the squamous, respiratory, and olfactory epithelium of the upper respiratory tract were all affected, with mucosal damage, followed by damage to the underlying supportive tissues. /Gas/
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.50 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Studies /were made/ of the effects of irritating chemicals on the mucociliary activity of excised rabbit trachea, and reported that there was a cessation of mucociliary activity after exposure to hydrogen chloride gas at a concentration of 89.4 mg/cu m (60 ppm) for 5 min or at 44.7 mg/cu m (30 ppm) for 10 min. /Gas/
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.50 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... A dermal toxicity study ... reported a corrosive skin response in rabbits after a 4 hr application of 0.5 ml of a solution of hydrogen chloride in water at 170 g/L. A similar application using a solution of hydrogen chloride in water of 150 g/L was not corrosive to the skin, under the test conditons.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.51 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Application of 10 ul hydrochloric acid to the cornea of rabbits caused desquamation of the surface epithelial cells at concentrations of > or = 0.001 N.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V54 201 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Three weeks after intratracheal instillation of 0.5 ml of 0.08 N hydrochloric acid into hamsters, a significant increase in secretory-cell metaplasia was observed in the bronchi, evaluated by estimating the amount of secretory product in the airway epithelium on histological slides.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V54 202 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Studies in experimental animals in vivo and in vitro have been performed to elucidate the role of hydrochloric acid in the mammalian stomach in inducing peptic ulcers and esophagitis. Severe damage and increased permeability to H+ ions were observed in the oesophagus of rabbits after perfusion in vivo with solutions of hydrochloric acid (40-80 mM/l). Esophagitis was also observed in cats treated with hydrochloric acid (pH 1-1.3) for 1 hour. Isolated rat stomach and duodenum treated with 20-50 mM hydrochloric acid for 10 min showed extensive damage of the basal lamina. Oral administration of 0.35 N hydrochloric acid protected the gastric mucosa of rats against 0.6 N HCl-induced gastric lesions for 2 hours. The pretreatment significantly increased prostaglandin concentrations in the gastric fundic mucosa.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V54 202 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrochloric acid did not induce reverse mutations in Escherichia coli but caused mutations in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells at the tk locus.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V54 203 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Non-Human Toxicity Values:

LC50 Rat ihl 3124 ppm/1 hr
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1835]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Mouse ihl 1108 ppm/1 hr
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1835]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Mouse ip 1449 mg/kg
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1835]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rabbit oral 900 mg/kg
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1835]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rat ihl 4701 ppm/30 mos /Hydrogen chloride gas/
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1840]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Mouse ihl 2644 ppm/30 mos /Hydrogen chloride gas/
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1841]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ecotoxicity Values:

LC100 Trout 10 mg/l/24 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric Acid (Draft) p.85 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Shrimp 100 to 330 ppm/48 hr (salt water) /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Starfish 100 to 330 mg/l/48 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.87 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Cockle 330 to 1,000 mg/l/48 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydorchloric acid (Draft) p.87 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

TLm Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish) 282 ppm/96 hr (fresh water) /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Carassius auratus (goldfish) 178 mg/l (1 to 2 hr survival time) /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.87 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Shore crab 240 mg/l/48 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.87 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Lethal Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill sunfish) 3.6 mg/l/48 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.87 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill sunfish) 96 hr at pH between 3.5 and 3.0 /hydrogen ion concn/ /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Gilmore JY; J Fish Biol 25 (2): 133-8 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

Absorption, Distribution & Excretion:

Following intravenous infusion of 0.15 M hydrochloric acid into rats (50 ml/kg body weight/hour) and dogs (20 ml/kg body weight/hour), urinary excretion of the chloride ion was increased in both species.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V54 201 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Acute metabolic acidosis ... decreased proximal fluid reabsorption and increased the fractional delivery of sodium and calcium to the distal tubules, but not to the final urine. In comparison with normal dogs, dogs with chronic metabolic acidosis showed an increase in proximal fluid reabsorption and a dissociation of calcium from sodium reabsorption more distally, leading to an increase delivery of calcium relative to the sodium at the distal tubule and in the final urine.
[Sutton RA et al; Kidney Int 15 (5): 520-33 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Acids that are more lipid-soluble have greater penetration capability and produce more tissue damage. Sulfurous acid is more lipid-soluble than hydrochloric acid, followed by phosphoric acid and sulfuric acids. /Acids/
[Sullivan, J.B. Jr., G.R. Krieger (eds.). Hazardous Materials Toxicology-Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1992. 435]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mechanism of Action:

The biological activity of hydrogen chloride is associated with its high solubility in water i.e., 23 moles/L at 0 deg C. ... The hydrogen chloride in water dissociates almost completely, with the hydrogen ion captured by the water molecules to form the hydronium ion. The hydronium ion becomes a donor of a proton that possesses catalytic properties and thus is capable of reacting with organic molecules. This may explain the ability of hydrogen chloride to induce cellular injury and necrosis.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.53 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interactions:

Hydrochloric acid, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated carbon cmpd interactions account for the extreme toxicity of gases from polyvinyl chloride and other chloride containing polymers.
[Einbrodt HJ, Prajsnar D; Wiss Umwelt ISS (2): 97-105 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pharmacology:

Therapeutic Uses:

... IN TREATMENT OF GASTRIC ACHLORHYDRIA. ... FREE ACID IS ADMIN AS DILUTED HYDROCHLORIDE ACID (10%) IN DOSE OF 5 TO 10 ML IN 125 TO 250 ML OF WATER, OFTEN IN SEVERAL DIVIDED DOSES @ 15-MIN INTERVAL. IT MUST BE SIPPED THROUGH A TUBE.
[Gilman, A. G., L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980. 998]**PEER REVIEWED**

VET: INTERNALLY ... IN ACHLORHYDRIA & HYPOCHLORHYDRIA ESP IN PUPS & IN SOME DOGS ... UP TO 2 YR OF AGE. ... ORALLY, IN RUMEN ATONY OF CATTLE ESP IN THOSE CASES ASSOC WITH ACETONEMIA. ... EFFECTIVE TOPICALLY ON MOLD SPORES (1-2%) & ANTIBACTERIAL AGAINST MANY ORGANISMS. ...
[Rossoff, I.S. Handbook of Veterinary Drugs. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1974. 264]**PEER REVIEWED**

PHARMACEUTIC AID (ACIDIFYING AGENT); VET: HAS BEEN USED AS GASTRIC ACIDIFIER.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEDICATION (VET): ANTISEPTIC
[Rossoff, I.S. Handbook of Veterinary Drugs. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1974. 264]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEDICATION (VET): INTERNALLY.
[Rossoff, I.S. Handbook of Veterinary Drugs. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1974. 264]**PEER REVIEWED**

Drug Warnings:

Warning: ... Correcting metabolic alkalosis ... soln of hydrochloric acid ... proved toxic and caused side effects (in cats).
[PATOL FIZIOL EKSP TER 1: 52-7 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interactions:

Hydrochloric acid, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated carbon cmpd interactions account for the extreme toxicity of gases from polyvinyl chloride and other chloride containing polymers.
[Einbrodt HJ, Prajsnar D; Wiss Umwelt ISS (2): 97-105 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate & Exposure:

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Process sampling, maintenance, and breakdowns /during hydrocarbon chlorination and dehydrochlorination/ may result in limited short term exposure.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.32 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Natural Pollution Sources:

OCCURS IN THE GASES EVOLVED FROM MANY VOLCANOES. /GAS/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 895]**PEER REVIEWED**

Artificial Pollution Sources:

Combustion of fuels (organic chlorides and gasoline) produces hydrogen chloride. /Gas/
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Chlorine and Hydrogen chloride p.28 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrochloric acid is produced from refuse incineration and the secondary metals industry (smelting of scrap, not of ore). /Gas/
[Waldbott GL, Health Effects of Environmental Pollutants p.18 (1973)]**PEER REVIEWED**

From thermodecomposition of gases: From pyrolysis of some wire insulation materials such as polyvinyl chloride, also chlorinated acrylics and retardant treated materials. /Gas/
[Landrock, A.H. Handbook of Plastics Flammability and Combustion Toxicology. Park Ridge, New Jersey: Noyes Publications, 1983. 96]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen chloride is formed as a by-product in the numerous dehydrohalogenation processes used to make unsaturated compounds from the parent chlorinated hydrocarbon.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Chlorine Hydrogen chloride p.27 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Coal fired power plant/s/ ... .
[Ten Brink HM; Atmos Environ 22 (1): 177-88 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate:

Terrestrial Fate: When anhydrous hydrogen chloride is spilled onto the soil, extensive evaporation will occur. Therefore, with regard to infiltration into the soil, only hydrochloric acid is considered. However, when hydrochloric acid is spilled onto soil, it will begin to infiltrate. The presence of water in the soil will influence the rate of chemical movement in the soil. During transport through the soil, hydrochloric acid will dissolve some of the soil material, in particular those of a carbonate base. The acid will be neutralized to some degree. However, significant amounts of acid are expected to remain for transport ... .
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.76 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen chloride in water dissociates almost completely, with the hydrogen ion captured by the water molecules to form the hydronium ion.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.53 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Abiotic Degradation:

Hydrogen chloride in water dissociates almost completely, with the hydrogen ion captured by the water molecules to form the hydronium ion.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride p.53 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Atmospheric Concentrations:

IT IS A COMMON AIR CONTAMINANT. /GAS/
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1835]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Standards & Regulations:

FIFRA Requirements:

Residues of hydrochloric acid are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a solvent, neutralizer in accordance with good agricultural practices as inert (or occasionally active) ingredients in pesticide formulations applied to growing crops or to raw agricultural commodities after harvest.
[40 CFR 180.1001(c) (7/1/97)]**PEER REVIEWED**

As the federal pesticide law FIFRA directs, EPA is conducting a comprehensive review of older pesticides to consider their health and environmental effects and make decisions about their future use. Under this pesticide reregistration program, EPA examines health and safety data for pesticide active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and determines whether they are eligible for reregistration. In addition, all pesticides must meet the new safety standard of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Pesticides for which EPA had not issued Registration Standards prior to the effective date of FIFRA, as amended in 1988, were divided into three lists based upon their potential for human exposure and other factors, with List B containing pesticides of greater concern and List D pesticides of less concern. Hydrogen chloride is found on List D. Case No: 4064; Pesticide type: fungicide, herbicide, antimicrobial; Case Status: RED Approved 02/94; OPP has made a decision that some/all uses of the pesticide are eligible for reregistration, as reflected in a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) document .; Active ingredient (AI): hydrogen chloride; AI Status: OPP has completed a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) document for the case/AI.
[USEPA/OPP; Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration and Special Review p.324 (Spring, 1998) EPA 738-R-98-002]**QC REVIEWED**

CERCLA Reportable Quantities:

Releases of CERCLA hazardous substances are subject to the release reporting requirement of CERCLA section 103, codified at 40 CFR part 302, in addition to the requirements of 40 CFR part 355. Hydrogen chloride is an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) subject to reporting requirements when stored in amounts in excess of its threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 500 lbs. /Gas form only/
[40 CFR 355 (7/1/97)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately, when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 10 lb or 4.54 kg. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (section IV. D.3.b).
[40 CFR 302.4 (7/1/97)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Atmospheric Standards:

Listed as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) generally known or suspected to cause serious health problems. The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, directs EPA to set standards requiring major sources to sharply reduce routine emissions of toxic pollutants. EPA is required to establish and phase in specific performance based standards for all air emission sources that emit one or more of the listed pollutants. Hydrochloric acid is included on this list.
[Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, Sect. 112 (b) (1) Public Law 101-549 Nov. 15, 1990]**PEER REVIEWED**

Clean Water Act Requirements:

Designated as a hazardous substance under section 311(b)(2)(A) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and further regulated by the Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977 and 1978. These regulations apply to discharges of this substance.
[40 CFR 116.4 (7/1/88)]**QC REVIEWED**

FDA Requirements:

Hydrochloric acid used as a buffer and neutralizing agent in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
[21 CFR 582.1057 (4/1/97)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrochloric acid used as a buffer and neutralizing agent in food for human consumption is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice.
[21 CFR 182.1057 (4/1/97)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Allowable Tolerances:

Residues of hydrochloric acid are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a solvent, neutralizer in accordance with good agricultural practices as inert (or occasionally active) ingredients in pesticide formulations applied to growing crops or to raw agricultural commodities after harvest.
[40 CFR 180.1001(c) (7/1/97)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical/Physical Properties:

Molecular Formula:

Cl-H
**PEER REVIEWED**

Molecular Weight:

36.46
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 4-61]**PEER REVIEWED**

Color/Form:

Colorless or slightly yellow fuming liquid
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 613]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pale yellow liquid
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 476]**PEER REVIEWED**

Odor:

Pungent, irritating odor
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-116. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1994. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Taste:

Taste threshold: 1.60X10-4 moles/l (recognition in water, chemically pure); 1.30X10-4 M/l (recognition in water, chemically pure); 1.10X10-4 M/l (recognition in water, chemically pure)
[Fazzalari, F.A. (ed.). Compilation of Odor and Taste Threshold Values Data. ASTM Data Series DS 48A (Committee E-18). Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1978. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Boiling Point:

108.58 deg C containing 20.22% HCl in water
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Corrosivity:

Aq soln of hydrochloric acid attack nearly all metals (mercury, silver, gold, platinum, tantalum, and certain alloys are exceptions).
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1084]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is one of the most corrosive of the nonoxidizing acids in contact with copper alloys, and is successfully handled in dilute solutions. The corrosion rate of cupro-nickel in 2N HCl at 24 deg C is 2.3-7.6 mm/yr, depending upon the degree of aeration and other factors.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. 7(79) 62]**PEER REVIEWED**

Anhydrous hydrogen chloride is not corrosive. /Hydrochloric acid gas/
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1084]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrochloric acid is a strong, highly corrosive acid
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 613]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density/Specific Gravity:

1.05 @ 15 deg C/4 deg C (10.17% w/w soln); 1.10 @ 20 deg C/4 deg C (20% w/w soln); 1.15 (29.57%); 1.20 (39.11%)
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Vaporization:

178 Btu/lb= 98.6 cal/g= 4.13X10+5 J/kg
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

pH:

pH: 0.10 (1.0 N); 1.10 (0.1 N); 2.02 (0.01 N); 3.02 (0.001 N); 4.01 (0.0001 N)
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solubilities:

56.1 G/100 CC HOT WATER @ 60 DEG C
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. B-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

82.3 G/100 CC COLD WATER @ 0 DEG C
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. B-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

327 G/100 CC ALCOHOL
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. B-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

SOL IN BENZENE
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. B-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

SOL IN ETHER; INSOL IN HYDROCARBONS
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1084]**PEER REVIEWED**

Soluble in water, alcohol, and benzene
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 613]**PEER REVIEWED**

Spectral Properties:

Index of refraction: 1.34168 @ 18 deg C/D (1.0 N soln)
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

Ratio of Specific Heat of Vapor: 1.398 /Hydrochloric acid gas/
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Decomposition temperature: 1782 deg C.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric Acid (Draft) p.3 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Critical density: 424 g/l /Hydrochloric acid gas/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 896]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Soln: -860 Btu/lb= -480 cal/g= -20X10+5 J/kg
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of fusion= 0.476 kcal/mole
[Dean JA; Langre's Handbook of Chemistry 13 ed p. 9-117 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

MAY BE COLORED YELLOW BY TRACES OF IRON, CHLORINE, AND ORGANIC MATTER.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

BP: -84.9 DEG C /GAS/
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 4-61]**PEER REVIEWED**

MP: -114.8 DEG C /GAS/
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 4-61]**PEER REVIEWED**

Freezing pt (deg C): -17.4 (10.81% soln); -62.25 (20.69% soln); -46.2 (31.24% soln); -25.4 (39.17% soln), Gemlin's, chlorine (8th ed) 6,136-137 (1927).
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Boiling weaker or stronger aqueous solution results in loss of either component until constant boiling acid is obtained.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Attacks most metal with the evolution of hydrogen.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 476]**PEER REVIEWED**

Refractive index: gas at 273.16 deg K= 1.00 /gas/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 896]**PEER REVIEWED**

... mixing of formaldehyde and hydrogen chloride could result in generation of bis(chloromethyl)ether, a potent human carcinogen.
[National Research Council. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. 30]**PEER REVIEWED**

Colorless gas /Hydrochloric acid, gas/
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 4-61]**PEER REVIEWED**

Colorless to slightly yellow gas (Note: Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-116. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1994. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Critical temperature: 51.54 deg C; Critical pressure: 8.316 MPa (82.34 atm) /Hydrochloric acid gas/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 896]**PEER REVIEWED**

Refractive index: liquid at 283.16 deg K= 1.254 /Hydrochloric acid gas/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 897]**PEER REVIEWED**

Surface tension at 118.16 deg K is 23 mN/cm /Hydrochloric acid gas/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 896]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor pressure= 3.54X10+4 mm Hg @ 25 deg C /Hydrochloric acid gas/
[Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Viscosity: Liquid at 118.16 K, 0.405 mPa.s; Vapor at 273.06 K, 0.0131 mPa.s /Hydrochloric acid gas/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 896]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical Safety & Handling:

DOT Emergency Guidelines:

Health: Highly toxic, may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Hydrochloric acid; Hydrochloric acid, mixture; Hydrochloric acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire or explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. /Hydrochloric acid; Hydrochloric acid, mixture; Hydrochloric acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

Public safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. ... Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 25 to 50 meters (80 to 160 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. /Hydrochloric acid; Hydrochloric acid, mixture; Hydrochloric acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations. /Hydrochloric acid; Hydrochloric acid, mixture; Hydrochloric acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Hydrochloric acid; Hydrochloric acid, mixture; Hydrochloric acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Hydrochloric acid; Hydrochloric acid, mixture; Hydrochloric acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

Spill or leak: Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Cover with plastic sheet to prevent spreading. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Hydrochloric acid; Hydrochloric acid, mixture; Hydrochloric acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. /Hydrochloric acid; Hydrochloric acid, mixture; Hydrochloric acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-151]**QC REVIEWED**

Odor Threshold:

Air: 0.77 ul/l; Odor safety class C; C= less than 50% of distracted persons perceive warning of TLV.
[Amoore JE, Hautala E; J Appl Toxicol 3 (6): 272-90 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Odor low: 7.0 mg/cu m; Odor high: 49.0 mg/cu m; strong irritating odor; Irritating concn= 49.00 mg/cu m.
[Ruth JH; Am Ind Hyg J 47: A142-51 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Low threshold= 0.26 ppm. High threshold= 0.3 ppm.
[Cohen M; Short Term Intermittent Exposure to HCL p.19 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

... HYDROGEN CHLORIDE WAS IMMEDIATELY IRRITATING WHEN INHALED AT CONCN OF 5 PPM OR MORE.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.773]**PEER REVIEWED**

A corrosive irritant to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. ... A concn of 35 ppm causes irritation of the throat after short exposure.
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1835]**PEER REVIEWED**

Caution: Corrosive burns may result from the inhalation of acid fumes and from skin contact with or the ingestion of strong acid. Symptoms after ingestion or skin contact include immediate pain and ulceration of all membranes and tissues which come in contact with the acid. Ingestion may be assoc with nausea, vomiting and intense thirst; corrosion of the stomach may lead within a few hours or a few days to gastric perforation and peritonitis. Late esophageal, gastric and pyloric strictures and stenoses should be anticipated. Contact of conc acid with the eye can cause extensive necrosis of the conjunctiva and corneal epithelium, resulting in perforation or opaque scarring. Chemical pneumonitis can be expected after respiratory exposure to acid vapors or after tracheobronchial aspiration of ingested acid. Death may occur due to complications such as circulatory shock, asphyxia due to glottic or laryngeal edema, perforation of the stomach with peritonitis, gastric hemorrhage, infection or anition due to stricture formation.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fire Fighting Procedures:

Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Extinguish fire using agent suitable for surrounding fire. /Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous; hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-77]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty). Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 577]**PEER REVIEWED**

Not flammable. Flammable gas may be produced on contact with metals. Wear chemical protective suit with self-contained breathing apparatus.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995. 742]**PEER REVIEWED**

Firefighting Hazards:

Confined fires with high fuel loads of polyvinyl chloride, such as a fire in a vault with a high load of polyvinyl chloride coated electrical wiring, may generate sufficient hydrogen chloride to cause irritation in fire fighters. Rapid combustion of relatively large amt of polymer may yield ... hydrogen chloride ... .
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 4303]**PEER REVIEWED**

Explosive Limits & Potential:

Behavior in fire: Pressurized container may explode and release toxic, irritating vapors.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

Inadvertent mixing of formaldehyde and hydrogen chloride could result in generation of bis(chloromethyl)ether, a potent human carcinogen.
[National Research Council. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. 30]**PEER REVIEWED**

Anhydrous hydrogen chloride is rapidly absorbed in water to form corrosive hydrochloric acid. Aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions are quite reactive. Reacts vigorously with alkalies and with many organic materials. Strong oxidizing materials cause release of chlorine. /Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous; hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-77]**PEER REVIEWED**

CESIUM ACETYLENE CARBIDE BURNS IN HYDROGEN CHLORIDE GAS. CESIUM CARBIDE IGNITES IN CONTACT WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID UNLESS ACID IS DILUTE. /GAS/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-47]**PEER REVIEWED**

LITHIUM SILICIDE IN CONTACT WITH HYDROGEN CHLORIDE BECOMES INCANDESCENT. WHEN DILUTE HYDROCHLORIC ACID IS USED, GAS SPONTANEOUSLY FLAMMABLE IN AIR IS EVOLVED. MAGNESIUM BORIDE ... TREATED WITH CONCN HYDROCHLORIC ACID PRODUCES SPONTANEOUSLY FLAMMABLE GAS.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-111]**PEER REVIEWED**

RUBIDIUM ACETYLENE CARBIDE BURNS WITH SLIGHTLY WARM HYDROCHLORIC ACID OR WITH MOLTEN SULFUR. RUBIDIUM CARBIDE IGNITES IN CONTACT WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID UNLESS ACID IS DILUTE.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-166]**PEER REVIEWED**

URANIUM PHOSPHIDE REACTS WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID TO RELEASE SPONTANEOUSLY FLAMMABLE PHOSPHINE.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-202]**PEER REVIEWED**

CALCIUM CARBIDE REACTS WITH HYDROGEN CHLORIDE GAS WITH INCANDESCENCE.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-40]**PEER REVIEWED**

CALCIUM PHOSPHIDE & HYDROCHLORIC ACID UNDERGO VERY ENERGETIC REACTION.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-43]**PEER REVIEWED**

ABSORPTION OF GASEOUS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE ON MERCURIC SULFATE BECOMES VIOLENT @ 125 DEG C. SODIUM REACTS VERY VIGOROUSLY WITH GASEOUS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE. /GAS/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-177]**PEER REVIEWED**

REACTION OF SILVER PERCHLORATE WITH CARBON TETRACHLORIDE IN PRESENCE OF SMALL AMT OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID PRODUCES TRICHLOROMETHYL PERCHLORATE, WHICH DETONATES @ 40 DEG C.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-172]**PEER REVIEWED**

Aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions react with most metals, forming flammable hydrogen gas. /Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous; hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-77]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydroxides, amines, alkalis, copper, brass, zinc [Note: Hydrochloric acid is highly corrosive to most metals].
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

With sulfuric acid: Accidental addition of 6,500 liters of concn hydrochloric acid to a bulk sulfuric acid storage tank released sufficient hydrogen chloride by dehydration to cause the tank to explode violently. Complete dehydration of hydrochloric acid solution releases some 250 volumes of gas.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 949]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Decomposition:

When heated to decomp it emits toxic fumes of ... /hydrogen chloride/.
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1835]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Polymerization:

Aldehydes and epoxides in the presence of hydrochloric acid cause violent polymerization. Alcohol and glycols in the presence of hydrochloric acid lead to dehydration reactions.
[USEPA; A Method For Determining The Compatibility Of Hazardous Waste (1980) EPA-600/2-80-076 as cited in Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric Acid (Draft) p.105 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Prior History of Accidents:

A storage tank, containing about 750,000 l of 32% hydrochloric acid solution, started to leak its contents when the natural rubber protective lining of the tank deteriorated and the acid dissolved the flange at its base. Approximately 380,000 l of the hydrochloric solution spilled on the ground and flowed towards a nearby river before remedial actions were undertaken. A vapor cloud occurred above the spill and dissipated within 300 m of the spill site. Firefighters initially used water to wash the acid out of the spill area. This spill action was halted to reduce the amount of acid reaching the river. Response crews arrived at the spill site, wearing protective clothing and filter masks. Fourteen truckloads of oyster shells were applied onto the spill area. The shells served a dual purpose; Temporary containment of the acid by building dams with the shells and neutralization. The neutralized residue was then raked and shoveled into containers for disposal. The remaining hydrochloric acid in the leaking tank was transferred to another tank. The acid, that reached the river, killed more than 20 fish and a few blue crabs. Water samples revealed no abnormal environmental effects since the river had been highly polluted for quite some time. Several response personnel developed facial rashes two or three days after the incident. This may have resulted when the winds suddenly shifted direction and increased the exposure of acid fumes to their faces.
[World Information Systems, Hazardous Material Intelligence Report (1980) as cited in Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.113 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

50 ppm
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Protective Equipment & Clothing:

WORKERS SHOULD WEAR ACID RESISTANT PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, INCL HOODS, EYE & FACE PROTECTION, ACID RESISTANT HAND & ARM PROTECTION, & FOOT & LEG PROTECTION ... WORKERS SHOULD WEAR RESP PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT OF SELF CONTAINED OR CANISTER TYPE DEPENDING ON CONCN.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1085]**PEER REVIEWED**

For entry into a situation where the spilled material and its characteristics are unknown ... a totally encapsulated chemical suit should be worn.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.110 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight inch minimum), splash proof goggles, and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent any possiblity of skin contact with mists or solutions of hydrogen chloride which have a pH equal to or less than 3.0.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.3]**PEER REVIEWED**

Non-impervious clothing that becomes wet with solutions of hydrogen chloride or contaminated with hydrogen chloride should be removed immediately and not reworn until the hydrogen chloride is removed from the clothing.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.3]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vendor recommendations concerning the protective qualities of materials are as follow: neoprene, nitrile, chlorinated polyethylene, and polyvinyl alcohol received A (highest) or B (good) ratings from three or more venders, Natural rubber and nitrile/polyvinyl chloride received A (highest) or B (good) ratings from less than three vendors, B (good) and C (fair) ratings, with B's predominating, from several vendors, Neoprene/styrene-butadiene rubber and polyurethane received B (good) and C (fair) ratings, with C's predominating, from several vendors, C (fair) or D (poor) ratings from less than three vendors.
[ACGIH; Guidelines Select of Chem Protect Clothing Volume #1 Field Guide p.65 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Only NIOSH-approved or OSHA-approved equipment should be used. Use of supplied- air suits may be necessary to prevent skin contact while providing respiratory protection from airborne concentrations of hydrogen chloride; however, this equipment should be selected, used, and maintained under the immediate supervision of trained personnel. Where supplied-air suits are used above a concentration of 100 ppm, an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in positive pressure mode should also be worn.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.5]**PEER REVIEWED**

Breakthrough times of chlorinated polyethylene are greater than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers. There are some data suggesting breakthrough times of polycarbonate to be approximately an hour or more.
[ACGIH; Guidelines Select of Chem Protect Clothing Volume #1 Field Guide p.65 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Breakthrough times of natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile, and polyvinyl chloride are greater than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers. Breakthrough times of natural rubber and neoprene are greater than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers. There are some data suggesting the breakthrough times of nitrile, polyvinyl chloride, Viton, and Saranex to be approximately an hour or more. /Hydrochloric acid, 30-70%/
[ACGIH; Guidelines Select of Chem Protect Clothing Volume #1 Field Guide p.65 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

WORKSHOPS IN WHICH HYDROCHLORIC ACID IS FREQUENTLY HANDLED SHOULD BE EQUIPPED WITH EMERGENCY SHOWERS AND EYEWASH EQUIPMENT, ETC.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1085]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent the skin from becoming frozen from contact with the liquid or from contact with vessels containing the liquid.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact with the liquid that could result in burns or tissue damage from frostbite.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities should provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Quick drench facilities and/or eyewash fountains should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is any possibility of exposure to liquids that are extremely cold or rapidly evaporating.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 50 ppm. Respirator Class(es): Any chemical cartridge respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. May require eye protection. Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. May require eye protection. Any supplied-air respirator. May require eye protection. Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concn or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted acid gas canister. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Avoid contact by leakage or otherwise with all common metal. PVA not recommended for gloves; eye protectors and rubberized clothing should be worn in spill area. Respiratory equipment may be necessary and should not be constructed of materials susceptible to rapid corrosion by acid.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995. 740]**PEER REVIEWED**

Preventive Measures:

SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROCHLORIC ACID SHOULD BE MANUFACTURED IN CLOSED SYSTEMS; PARTICULAR ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO THE DETECTION OF LEAKS ... WHEN HANDLING ... (LOADING, UNLOADING, AND DECANTING), MEASURES SHOULD BE TAKEN TO AVOID SPLASHES OR THE INHALATION OF VAPORS ... DIFFICULT OPERATIONS SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT IN FUME CUPBOARDS OR UNDER EXHAUST VENTILATION AND AN ABUNDANT SUPPLY OF WATER SHOULD ALWAYS BE AVAILABLE ... WORKERS SHOULD NEVER ENTER TANKS OR OTHER VESSELS THAT HAVE CONTAINED HYDROCHLORIC ACID UNTIL ... THEY HAVE BEEN CLEANED.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1085]**PEER REVIEWED**

Aqueous scrubbers are used to control hydrogen chloride emissions from vent stacks and other sources.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria 21: Chlorine and Hydrogen chloride p.27 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources, and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Use water spray to knock down vapors. Neutralize spilled material with crushed limestone, soda ash, or lime.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 577]**PEER REVIEWED**

Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
**PEER REVIEWED**

The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed or replaced.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Stability/Shelf Life:

Hydrochloric acid has high thermal stability.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. 12(80) 984]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipment Methods and Regulations:

No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
[49 CFR 171.2 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
[IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 38th ed. Montreal, Canada and Geneva, Switzerland: International Air Transport Association, Dangerous Goods Board, January, 1997. 161]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
[IMDG; International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; International Maritime Organization p.8174 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Storage Conditions:

Store in cool, dry, well-ventilated location. Separate from oxidizing materials, organic materials, and alkalies. /Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous; hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-77]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE ACID SHOULD NOT BE STORED IN THE VICINITY OF FLAMMABLE OR OXIDIZING SUBSTANCES, EG NITRIC ACID OR CHLORATES, OR NEAR METALS AND METAL HYDRIDES THAT MAY BE ATTACKED BY THE ACID ... ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE FLAMEPROOF AND PROTECTED AGAINST CORROSIVE ACTION. ...
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1085]**PEER REVIEWED**

No part of a cylinder should be subjected to a temp above 52 deg C.
[Air Products and Chemicals, Inc Material Safety Data Sheet, Anhydrous Hydrogen Chloride (1978) as cited in Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.112 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

STORAGE AREAS SHOULD BE WELL VENTILATED AND HAVE A CEMENT FLOOR AND SHELTER FROM DIRECT SUNLIGHT AND HEAT SHOULD BE PROVIDED.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1085]**PEER REVIEWED**

Storage temp: Ambient or lower; Venting: Safety relief.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Cleanup Methods:

If hydrogen chloride gas is leaked ... 1. Ventilate area of leak to disperse gas. 2. Stop flow of gas. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place in the open air, and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty. If soln of hydrogen chloride is spilled ... 1. Collect or confine spilled material in the most convenient and safe manner. 2. If possible, reclaim the spilled material. If this is not possible; 3. Dilute and/or neutralize and dispose of in a secured sanitary landfill. /Gas/
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.5]**PEER REVIEWED**

Spills in Water: Sodium bicarbonate is recommended as an in situ neutralizing agent.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.109 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

During scrubbing (an air pollution control method), water is used for removing hydrochloric acid.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. 1(78) 655]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental considerations -- land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethan or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash or cement powder. Neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone (CaCO3) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Water spill: Neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone (CaCO3) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Vapor knockdown water is corrosive or toxic and should be diked for containment.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 577]**PEER REVIEWED**

The following absorbent materials have been tested and recommended for vapor suppression and/or containment of 26% and 35% hydrochloric acid solutions: a mixture of (75%) anionic polyacrylamide (R1779) and (25%) nonionic polyacrylamide (Versicol W25), individually use the anionic polyacrylamide or nonionic polyacrylamide, and Cellosize WP3H (hydroxyethyl cellulose).
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrochloric acid (Draft) p.108 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental considerations -- water spill: Neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone (CaCO3), or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 577]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental considerations -- air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Vapor knockdown water is corrosive or toxic and should be diked for containment.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 577]**PEER REVIEWED**

Approach release from upwind. Stop or control the leak, if this can be done without undue risk. Use water fog or spray to knock down and absorb vapors. Releases may require isolation or evacuation. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal. /Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous; hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-77]**PEER REVIEWED**

Disposal Methods:

SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
**PEER REVIEWED**

Neutralization: Neutralize with limestone (CaCO3), soda ash (Na2CO3) or slaked lime (Ca(OH)2). Flushing to sewer with high dilution depends on allowable neutral salt concn in effluent water. Consider use of waste acid to neutralize alkaline wastes.
[United Nations. Treatment and Disposal Methods for Waste Chemicals (IRPTC File). Data Profile Series No. 5. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Environmental Programme, Dec. 1985. 190]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dilute through addition to ice water, quench, and neutralize with lime, or caustic solution. ... Contact local sewage authority.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995. 741]**PEER REVIEWED**

Occupational Exposure Standards:

OSHA Standards:

Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-1 Ceiling value: 5 ppm (7 mg/cu m).
[29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/98)]**QC REVIEWED**

Threshold Limit Values:

Ceiling Limit: 5 ppm.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs & BEIs: Threshold limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices for 2002. Cincinnati, OH. 2002.36]**QC REVIEWED**

Notice of Intended Change for 2002: These substances, with their corresponding values and notations, comprise those for which a limit has been proposed for the first time or for which a change in the Adopted value is proposed. In each case, the proposed values should be considered trial values for the year following ratification by the ACGIH Board of Directors. If, during the year, no evidence comes to light that questions the appropriateness of these proposals, the values will be reconsidered for adoption as TLVs. Ceiling Limit: 2 ppm. A4; Not classifiable as a human carcinogen.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs & BEIs: Threshold limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices for 2002. Cincinnati, OH. 2002.63]**QC REVIEWED**

NIOSH Recommendations:

Recommended Exposure Limit: Ceiling value: 5 ppm (7 mg/cu m).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

50 ppm
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Occupational Permissible Levels:

Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPG): ERPG(1) 3 ppm (no more than mild, transient effects) for up to 1 hr exposure; ERPG(2) 20 ppm (without serious, adverse effects) for up to 1 hr exposure; ERPG(3) 150 ppm (not life threatening) up to 1 hr exposure.
[American Industrial Hygiene Association. The AIHA 1999 Emergency Response Planning Guidelines and Workplace Environmental Exposure Level Guides Handbook. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Fairfax, VA 1999.26]**PEER REVIEWED**

Australia: peak limitation 5 ppm (1990); Federal Republic of Germany: 5 ppm, short-term level 10 ppm, 5 min, 8 times per shift, Pregnancy group C, no reason to fear a risk of damage to the developing embryo or fetus when MAK or BAT values are adhered to (1991); Sweden: ceiling value 5 ppm (1989); United Kingdom: 10-min STEL 5 ppm (1991).
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.774]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturing/Use Information:

Major Uses:

In the production of chlorides; refining ore in the production of tin and tantalum; for the neutralization of basic systems; as laboratory reagent; hydrolyzing of starch and proteins in the preparation of various food products; pickling and cleaning of metal products; as catalyst and solvent in organic synthesis; for oil- and gas-well treatment; in removing scale from boilers and heat-exchange equipment; pharmaceutic aid (acidifier).
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

USED IN MANUFACTURE OF PHOSPHORIC ACID AND IN THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM CHLORIDE.
[Farm Chemicals Handbook 1997. Willoughby, OH: Meister Publishing Co., 1997.,p. B-14]**PEER REVIEWED**

METAL TREATING AGENT (STEEL PICKLING); USED TO INCREASE OIL WELL OUTPUT; IN NEUTRALIZATION OF WASTE STREAMS; IN FOOD PROCESSING AS A STARCH MODIFIER; IN MANUFACTURE OF SODIUM GLUTAMATE; IN MANUFACTURE OF GELATIN; IN CONVERSION OF CORNSTARCH TO SYRUP; IN THE BREWING INDUSTRY; IN SUGAR REFINING; AS CHEM INTERMED; IN ORE TREATMENT
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

Acidizing (activation) of petroleum wells; boiler scale removal; chemical intermediate; ore reduction; food processing (corn syrup, sodium glutamate); pickling and metal cleaning; general cleaning, e.g. of membrane in desalination plants; alcohol denaturant; laboratory reagent
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 613]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRODUCTION OF VINYL CHLORIDE FROM ACETYLENE & ALKYL CHLORIDES FROM OLEFINS; HYDROCHLORINATION, POLYMERIZATION, ISOMERIZATION, ALKYLATION, & NITRATION REACTIONS. /GAS/
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 613]**PEER REVIEWED**

In manufacture of fertilizers, dyes and dyestuffs, artificial silk and pigments for paints; In electroplating, leather tanning, photographic industry, soap refining, textile industry, rubber industry.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1084]**PEER REVIEWED**

Converts ethanol to ethyl chloride.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V6 (93) 4]**PEER REVIEWED**

Used to make chlorine dioxide.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V5 (93) 973]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacture of isocyanate.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 914]**PEER REVIEWED**

Used in metal cleaning operations, chemical manufacturing, petroleum activation, and in the production of food and synthetic rubber.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 914]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEDICATION (VET)
**PEER REVIEWED**

CLEAN & PREPARE OTHER METALS FOR COATINGS; RECOVERY OF ZINC FROM GALVANIZED IRON SCRAP; PRODUCTION OF CHLORIDE CHEMICALS
[CONSIDINE. CHEMICAL AND PROCESS TECHNOL ENCYC p.589 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Used in toilet bowls and urinals against animal pathogenic bacteria. /4-D Bowl Sanitizer, Varley's Ocean Blue Scented Toilet Bowl Cleaner, Varley Poly-Pak Bowl Creme, Bowl Cleaner, Emulsion Bowl Cleaner, Quest Bowl Cleaner Super Concentrated, New South Safti-Sol Brand Concentrated Bowl Cleanse with Magic Actio, Perdeen Bowl and Urinal Cleaner, White Emulsion Bowl Cleaner, Hygia Creme Magic Bowl Cleaner/
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEDICATION
**PEER REVIEWED**

Leather deliming/tanning agent; industrial cleaning agent; ion-exchange resin regeneration (water treatment, chemical purification); pH control (water treatment); alcohol chlorination reagent; animal glue production; sugar/oils/fats/wax refining agent; textile scouring agent
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 476]**PEER REVIEWED**

In the production of alkylketene dimers.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V14 (95) 967]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturers:

Akzo Nobel Chemicals Inc., 1 Livingstone Ave., Dobbs Ferry, NY 10522-3401 (914) 674-5000; Production: Gallipolis Ferry, WV 25515-1721
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

Allied-Signal Inc., 101 Columbia Road, PO Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962-1057, (201) 455-2000; Allied-Signal Engineered Materials; Production sites: Baton Rouge, LA 70805; El Segundo, CA 90245; Geismar, LA 70734
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

ARCO Chemical Co., 3801 West Chester Pike, Newtown Square, PA 19073-2387 (610) 359-200; Production site: Lake Charles, LA 70602
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ausimont USA, Inc., Crown Point Road and Leonards Lane, PO Box 26, Thorofare, NJ 08086 (609) 853-8119
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

BASF Corp., 3000 Continental Drive - North, Mount Olive, NJ 07828-1234 (201) 426-2600; Polymers Division, Urethanes; Production site: Geismar, LA 70734
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

Bayer USA, Inc., One Mellon Center, 500 Grant St, Pittsburgh, PA 15219-2502 (412) 394-5500; Polymers Division: Pittsburgh, PA 15205-9741 (412) 777-2000. Polyurethane production: Baytown, TX 77521; New Martinsville, WV 26155
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

Borden Chemicals and Plastics Operating Limited Partnership, Highway 73, Geismar, LA 70734 (504) 673-6121
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

Cabot Corp, 75 State Street, Boston, MA 02109-1806 (617) 345-0100; Cab-O-Sil Division; Production site: Tuscola, IL 61953-9643
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

Callaway Chemical Co., Mayo Division, PO Box 2335, Columbus, GA 31902-2335 (706) 576-2090; Production site: Smyrna, GA 30082
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp., 560 White Plains Rd., Tarrytown, NY 10591-9005, (914) 785-2000; Consumer Care Chemicals Div.; Production sites: McIntosh, AL 36553; St. Gabriel, LA 70776
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

CONDEA Vista Company, Hq: 900 Threadneedle, Houston, TX 77079-2990 (713) 588-3000; Surfactants and Specialties Division; Production site: Lake Charles, LA 70669
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

Degussa Corporation, 65 Challenger Road Ridgefield, NJ 07660 (201) 641-6100; Production sites: Pigment Group, Theodore, AL 36590; Waterford, NY 12188
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

Detrex Corporation, 24901 Northwestern Highway, Suite 500, Southfield, MI 48075 (810) 358-5800; Production site: Ashtabula, OH 44004
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

DLD Resources, Inc., 3 Miles West of Monu, Monument, NM 88265 (505) 397-1927 Production site: Monument, NM 88265
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dover Chemical Corporation, 3676 Davis Road NW, PO Box 40, Dover, OH 44622 (303) 343-7711; Production site: Dover, OH 44622
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 667]**PEER REVIEWED**

DOW Chemical USA, Hq: 2020 Dow Center Midland, MI 48674, (517) 636-1000; Production sites: Freeport, TX; Midland, MI 48667; Oyster Creek, TX 77541; Pittsburgh, CA 94565; Plaquemine, LA 70765; Polymer Chemical Division, Production site: La Porte, TX 77571
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

DOW Corning Corporation, PO Box 0994, Midland, MI 48686-0994 (517) 496-6000; Production sites: Carrollton, KY 41008; Midland, MI 48686-0994
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

DuPont, 1007 Market Street, Wilmington, DE 19898 (302) 774-1000; Production sites: DuPont Fluoroproducts: Corpus Christi, TX 78400; Louisville, KY 40201; Ponca City, OK 74601; Deepwater, NJ 08023; DuPont Engineering Polymers: Parkersburg, WV 26101
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC, Bellevue Park Corp. Center, 300 Bellevue Parkway, Wilmington, DE 19809 (302) 792-4200; Production site: La Place, LA 70068
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

Elf Atochem North America Inc., 2000 Market Street, 21st Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103-3222 (215) 419-7000; Production sites: Basic Chemicals Division: Portland, OR 97208 (503) 228-7655; Fluorine Chemicals Division: Calvert City, KY 42029 (502) 395-7121; Wichita, KS 67215; Organic Chemicals Division: Riverview, MI 48192
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ferro Corp, 1000 Lakeside Ave, PO Box 147000, Cleveland, OH 44114-7000 (216) 641-8580; Chemicals Group: Keil Chemical Division, Hammond, IN 46320
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

FMC Corp., 200 E Randolph Dr, Chicago, IL 60601 (312) 861-6000; Agricultural Chemical Group: 1735 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19103, (215) 299-6000, Production site: Baltimore, MD 21226 (410) 355-6400; Specilaty Chemicals Group, Process Additives Division: Nitro, WV 25143
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

Formosa Plastics Corp USA, 9 Peach Tree Road, Livingston, NJ 07039 (201) 992-2090; Production sites: Baton Rouge, LA 70821; Point Comfort, TX 77978
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

GB Biosciences Corp., 2239 Haden Rd., Houston, TX 77015 (713) 450-6339; Production site: Greens Bayou, TX 77213
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

General Electric Company, 3135 Easton Turnpike, Fairfield, CT 06431 (203) 373-2211; GE Plastics, Production site: Mount Vernon, IN 47620; GE Silicones. Production site: Waterford, NY 12188
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

The Geon Company, Hq: One Geon Center, Avon Lake, OH 44012 (216) 930-1000; Production site: La Porte, TX 77571
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

Georgia Gulf Corp, Hq: 400 Perimeter Center Terrace, Suite 595, PO Box 105197, Atlanta, GA 30348 (404) 395-4500; Production site: Plaquemine, LA 70765-0629
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

HoltraChem Manufacturing Company, 5 Strathmore Road, Natick, MA 01760-3197 (508) 655-2510; Production sites: Acme, NC 28456; Orrington, ME 04474
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

ICI Americas Inc, Concord Plaza, 3411 Silverside Rd., PO Box 15391, Wilmington, DE 19850 (302) 887-3000; ICI Klea Division; Production site: St. Gabriel, LA 70776; ICI Polyurethanes Group, Production site: Geismar, LA 70734
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 668]**PEER REVIEWED**

Jones-Hamilton Co, Hq: 8400 Enterprise Dr., PO Box, 464 Newark, CA 94560-0464 (510) 797-2471; Production site: Walbridge, OH 43465
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Magnesium Corporation of America, 238 North 2200th West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116 (801) 532-2043; Production site: Rowely, UT 84116
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

MDA Manufacturing, Inc., State Docks Road, Decatur, AL 35609 (205) 306-5000; Production site: Decatur, AL 35609
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Millenium Inorganic Chemicals, Inc., 300 International Circle, Suite 5000, Hunt Valley, MD 21030 (410) 229-4400; Production sites: Ashtabula, OH 44004; Blatimore, MD 21226
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Niacet Corp., 400 47th St., Niagara Falls, NY 14304, (716) 285-2474; Production site: Niagara Falls, NY 14304
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Niachlor Inc., 2400 Buffalo Ave., PO Box 787, Niagara Falls, NY 14302 (716) 278-5768; Production site: Niagara Falls, NY 14302
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Novartis Crop Protection, Inc., 410 Swing Rd., Greensboro, NC 27409, (910) 632-6000; Production site: St. Gabriel, LA 70776
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Occidental Chemical Corp, Hq: 5005 LBJ Freeway Dallas, TX 75244 (214) 404-3800; Basic Chemicals Division (214) 404-3300; Production sites: Deer Park, TX 77536; Niagara Falls, NY 14303
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Olin Corporation Hq: 501 Merritt 7, PO Box 4500, Norwalk, CT 06856-4500 (203) 750-3000; Production sites: Augusta, GA 30913; Charleston, TN 37310
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Oxymar, PO Box CC, Ingleside, TX 78362-0710 (512) 776-6321; Production site: Ingleside, TX 78359
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pioneer Chlor Alkali Company, Inc., 700 Louisiana Street, Suite 4200, Houston, TX 77002 (713) 225-3831; Production sites: Henderson, NV 89015; Tacoma, WA 98401
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

PPG Industries, Inc., One PPG Place, 36 East, Pittsburgh, PA 15272 (412) 434-3131; Chemicals Group; Production sites: Barberton, OH 44203; Lake Charles, LA 70602; Natrium, WV 26155; Fine Chemicals: One PPG Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15272 (412) 434-3131, Production site: La Porte, TX 77571
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Rhone-Poulenc Ag Company, 2 T W Alexander Drive, PO Box 12014, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (919) 549-2000; Production site: Institute, WV 25112
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shell Chemical Co, Hq: One Shell Plaza, PO Box 2463, Houston, TX 77252-2463 (713) 241-6161; Production site: Norco, LA 70079
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solutia, Inc., 10300 Olive Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63141-7893, (314) 674-1000; Production sites: Bridgeport, NJ 08014; Sauget, IL 62206-1198
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc., Governor Lea Rd., Delaware City, DE 19706-0319 (302) 834-4536; Production site: Delaware City, DE 19706-0319
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Velsicol Chemical Corp, 10400 W Higgins Road, Suite 600, Rosemont, IL 60018-5119 (847) 298-9000; Production site: Memphis, TN 38103
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vulcan Materials Company, PO Box 530390, Birmingham, AL 35253-0390 (205) 877-3000; Vulcan Chemicals, Group, PO Box 530390, Birmingham, AL 35253-0390 (205) 877-3484; Production sites: Geismar, LA 70734; Port Edwards, WI 54469; Wichita, KS 67277
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Westlake Monomers Corporation, Westlake Center, 2801 Post Oak Blvd, Houston, TX 77056 (713) 960-9111; Production site: Calvert City, KY 42029
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 669]**PEER REVIEWED**

Weyerhaeuser Company, Chemicals Business, Tacoma, WA 98477 (206) 924-2345; Production site: Longview, WA 98632
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 670]**PEER REVIEWED**

Witco Corp, Hq: 1 American Lane, Greenwich, CT 06831 (203) 552-2000; Polymer Additives Group, 1 American Lane Greenwich, CT 06831-2559 (800) 494-8737 Production site: Phillipsburg, NJ 08865
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 670]**PEER REVIEWED**

Zeneca Inc., 1800 Concord Pike, Wilmington, DE 19897 (302) 886-3000; Zeneca Ag Products River Road, PO Box 586, St. Gabriel, LA 70776 (504) 642-0094; Production site: Cold Creek, AL 36412. Zeneca Specialties, New Murphy Road and Concord Pike, Wilmington, DE 19897 (302) 886-3000, Production site: Mount Pleasant, TN 38474
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 670]**PEER REVIEWED**

Methods of Manufacturing:

PRODUCED AS A BY-PRODUCT FROM THE OXYCHLORINATION AND/OR OXYHYDROCHLORINATION OF ORG MATERIALS
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

BY REACTION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE OR ... POTASSIUM CHLORIDE WITH SULFURIC ACID IN MUFFLE OR MECHANICAL FURNACE AT TEMP UP TO 600 DEG C; BY MEYER PROCESS IN WHICH SODIUM BISULFITE IS REACTED WITH SODIUM CHLORIDE AT 400-800 DEG C; BY THE HARGREAVES PROCESS USING SULFUR DIOXIDE, SALT, AND STEAM IN AN EXOTHERMIC REACTION; BY SYNTHESIS, IN WHICH HYDROGEN IS BURNT IN CHLORINE ... THESE PROCESSES ARE FOLLOWED BY ELIMINATION OF SUSPENDED SOLIDS ... PURIFICATION.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1084]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen chloride is produced by the direct reaction of hydrogen and chlorine, by reaction of metal chlorides and acids, and as a by-product from many chemical manufacturing processes such as chlorinated hydrocarbons.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 908]**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROCHLORIC ACID (HCL) IS OBTAINED FROM FOUR MAJOR SOURCES: AS A BYPRODUCT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS; BY THE DIRECT REACTION OF SALT AND SULFURIC ACID (MANHEIM PROCESS); BY REACTING SALT, SULFUR DIOXIDE, OXYGEN, AND WATER (HARGREAVES PROCESS); AND BY BURNING OF CHLORINE WITH HYDROGEN GAS. BYPRODUCT SOURCES HAVE ACCOUNTED FOR 87-92% OF REPORTED HCL PRODUCTION IN RECENT YEARS, WITH SALT ACCOUNTING FOR 3-4%, AND CHLORINE BURNING 5-10%
[CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SYNOPSIS: HYDROCHLORIC ACID, 1985]**PEER REVIEWED**

Produced industrially by the interaction of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid; from sodium chloride, sulfur dioxide, air and water vapor; or as a by-product of the synthesis of chlorinated hydrocarbons. /Anhydrous hydrochloric acid/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

About 90% of hydrochloric acid is a byproduct from the production of chlorinated solvents, fluorocarbons, isocyanates, organics, magnesium, and vinyl chloride monomer.
[Chemical Marketing Reporter; Chemical Profile Hydrochloric Acid. September 25, 1995. NY,NY: Schnell Pub Co (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

General Manufacturing Information:

Over 90% of the hydrochloric acid produced in the U.S. originates as a co-product from various chlorination processes; direct generation of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine accounts for only about 8% of the total production.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 914]**PEER REVIEWED**

27th highest volume chemical produced in USA (1991).
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 613]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mainly produced as a by-product of dehydrochlorination reactions
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 476]**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

GRADES: UNITED STATES PHARMACOPEIA (USP) (35-38%); NATIONAL FORMULARY (NF) DILUTED (10%); TECHNICAL (USUALLY 18, 20, 22, 23 DEG BAUME, CORRESPONDING TO APPROX 28, 31, 35, 37% HYDROGEN CHLORIDE)
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 613]**PEER REVIEWED**

Grades or Purity: Technical; 97.5-99%
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

DILUTE HYDROCHLORIC ACID
**PEER REVIEWED**

4-D Bowl Sanitizer; solution-ready to use, 27.64% hydrogen chloride, 0.1500% benzyl-4-chlorophenol, 0.200% diisobutyl phenoxyethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Varley's Ocean Blue Scented Toilet Bowl Cleaner; solution-ready to to use, 25.82% hydrogen chloride, 1.0% benzyl-4-chlorophenol, 0.2% diisobutyl phenoxyethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Varley Poly-Pak Bowl Creme; soluble concentrate, 27.64% hydrogen chloride, 0.15% benzyl-4-chlorophenol, 0.2% diisobutyl phenoxyethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Bowl Cleaner; soluble concentrate, 26.0% hydrogen chloride, 2.5% orthodichlorobenzene.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emulsion Bowl Cleaner; emulsifiable concentrate, 26.1500% hydrogen chloride, 2.94% orthodichlorobenzene.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Quest Bowl Cleaner Super Concentrated; solution-ready to use, 0.46% oxalic acid, 32.2% hydrogen chloride, 0.12% alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, 0.06% alkyl dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

New South Safti-Sol Brand Concentrated Bowl Cleanse with Magic Actio; soluble concentrate, 29.45% hydrogen chloride, 0.35% aeptadeeyl hydroxyethyl imidazoline, 0.25% alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, 0.25% alkyl dimethyl rthylbenzyl ammonium chloride.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Perclean Bowl and Urinal Cleaner; solution-ready to use, 25.18% hydrogen chloride, 1.2% alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

White Emulsion Bowl Cleaner; solution-ready to use, 27.64% hydrogen chloride, 0.15% benzyl-4-chlorophenol, 0.2000% diisobutyl phenoxyethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Aygeia Creme Magic Bowl Cleaner; emulsifiable concentrate, 59.15% hydrogen chloride, 10.2% ortho-dichlorobenzene.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The commercial "concentrated" or fuming acid contains 38% hydrochloric acid.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 613]**PEER REVIEWED**

Available commercially as a 31% w/w (22 deg Baume, d: 1.16 kg/l) or 35% w/w (22 deg Baume, d: 1.18 kg/l) solution in water.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 476]**PEER REVIEWED**

A solution of hydrogen chloride gas in water.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Impurities:

MAX LIMITS AS 0.003% AMMONIA; 0.000001% AS 0.0001% FREE CHLORINE; 0.0001% HEAVY METALS; 0.00002% IRON; 0.0001% SULFATE; AND 0.0001% SULFITE.
[CONSIDINE. CHEMICAL AND PROCESS TECHNOL ENCYC 1974 p.588]**PEER REVIEWED**

Consumption Patterns:

12% USED IN STEEL PICKLING; 88% IN OTHER MISC APPLICATIONS (1974).
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

Brine treatment for chloralkali 12%, steel pickling 11%, food, including corn syrup, 11%, calcium chloride 9%, oil well acidulation 8%, chlorine 4%, swimming pools 2%, miscellaneous including metal recovery from used catalysts, pH control, sludge removal, sand and clay purification, and production of inorganics like sodium chlorate, metal chlorides, activated carbon and iron oxide pigments, and organics like polycarbonate resins, bisphenol-A, polyvinyl chloride resins and synthetic glycerine 43%.
[Chemical Marketing Reporter; Chemical Profile Hydrochloric Acid. September 25, 1995. NY,NY: Schnell Pub Co (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Consumption in 1993 was about 1.57 million metric tons (100% basis)
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 921]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Production:

(1972) 2.12X10+12 G
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1975) 1.83X10+12 G
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

Production capacity in 1993 was about 2.92 million metric tons.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 914]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1984) 2.48X10+12 g
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. CURRENT INDUSTRIAL REPORTS: INORGANIC CHEMICALS p.15 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1990) 6.03 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 70 (15): 17 (4/13/92)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1991) 6.60 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 71 (15): 11 (4/12/93)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1992) 7.13 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1993) 6.45 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1994) 7.47 billion lbs
[Chem & Engineering News 74 (15): 17 (4/8/97)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1995) 7.33 billion lbs
[Chem & Engineering News 74 (15): 17 (4/8/97)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Imports:

(1972) 6.8X10+10 G
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1975) 3.90X10+10 G
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1984) 8.78X10+10 g
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. CURRENT INDUSTRIAL REPORTS: INORGANIC CHEMICALS p.30 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Exports:

(1984) 1.54X10+10 g
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. CURRENT INDUSTRIAL REPORTS: INORGANIC CHEMICALS p.30 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Laboratory Methods:

Analytic Laboratory Methods:

For quantitative analysis of solutions of hydrogen chloride in methanol and acetic acid medium, conductometric titration using standard solutions of lithium, sodium, or potassium acetate can be used.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 914]**PEER REVIEWED**

Very precise determination of chloride ions in solutions containing mixtures of halides can be accomplished using differential potentiometry to determine the end point, using silver nitrate as the reagent. /Chloride ions/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. 12-1005]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH Method 7903. An ion chromatographic method for the analysis of hydrochloric acid, consists of a fast run anion separater and precolumn, connected to an anion supressor column, with conductivity detection set at 10 uS full scale, is a NIOSH approved method. A sample injection loop volume of 100 ul is necessary, and a bicarbonate/carbonate solution as the eluent at a flow rate of 3 ml/min. This method has a detection limit of 2 ug/sample and a relative standard deviation of 0.025, over a working range of 0.5 to 200 ug/sample.
[U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 4th ed. Methods A-Z & Supplements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Aug 1994.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sampling Procedures:

PASSIVE MEMBRANE DOSIMETERS REQUIRING NO INDIVIDUAL CALIBRATION AND HAVING NO MOVING PARTS ARE USED IN CONNECTION WITH ION ELECTRODES FOR DETECTING HYDROGEN CHLORIDE GASES IN AIR @ CONCN LESS THAN 24 PPM.
[AMASS CE; US ENVIRON PROT AGENCY, OFF RES DEV, EPA; PROC SYMP DEV USAGE PERS MONIT EXPOSURE HEALTH EFF STUD, 437-60 (1979) EPA-600/9-79-032]**PEER REVIEWED**

ANALYTE: HYDROGEN CHLORIDE; MATRIX: AIR; RANGE: 3.5-14 MG/CU M; PROCEDURE: BUBBLER COLLECTION IN 0.5 MOLAR SODIUM ACETATE, ION SPECIFIC ELECTRODE.
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present.p. V3 S246-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

ANALYTE: HYDROGEN CHLORIDE; MATRIX: AIR; RANGE: 0.14-14 MG/CU M (15-L AIR SAMPLE); PROCEDURE: SILICA GEL TUBE COLLECTION, ELUENT DESORPTION, ION CHROMATOGRAPHY.
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present.p. V5 310-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

Air samples containing hydrochloric acid are taken with a glass tube, 11 cm x 7 mm OD, containing a 400 mg front section and a 200 mg backup section of washed silica gel (20/40 mesh, Grade 01). The front section is retained with a glass fiber filter plug (6 mm in dia and 1 mm thick), and urethane plugs separate and retain the backup section. A sampling pump is connected to this tube and accurately calibrated at 0.2 and 0.5 l/minute to a total of 3 to 100 liters. Elution is performed with 10 ul of a buffer solution consisting of 3 uM sodium bicarbonate/2.4 mM sodium carbonate. This technique has an overall precision of 0.059, over a studied range of 0.14 to 14 mg/cu m.
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present.p. 7903-1-3]**PEER REVIEWED**

Special References:

Special Reports:

Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrochloric Acid (Draft) (1981)

WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Chlorine and Hydrogen chloride (1982)

Toxicology Review: Annals of Occupational Hygiene 17: 159 (1974)

Synonyms and Identifiers:

Synonyms:

ACIDE CHLORHYDRIQUE (FRENCH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Acido clorhidrico (Spanish)
**PEER REVIEWED**

ACIDO CLORIDRICO (ITALIAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

AQUEOUS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE
**PEER REVIEWED**

Bowl Cleaner
**PEER REVIEWED**

Percleen Bowl and Urinal Cleaner
**PEER REVIEWED**

Emulsion Bowl Cleaner
**PEER REVIEWED**

Wuest Bowl Cleaner Super Concentrated
**PEER REVIEWED**

Caswell No 486
**PEER REVIEWED**

CHLOORWATERSTOF (DUTCH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

CHLOROHYDRIC ACID
**PEER REVIEWED**

CHLOROWODOR (POLISH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Chlorure d'hydrogene anhydre (French)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Chlorure d'hydrogene (French)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Chloruro de hidrogeno (Spanish)
**PEER REVIEWED**

CHLORWASSERSTOFF (GERMAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Cloruro de hidrogeno anhidro (Spanish)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Hygeia Creme Magic Bowl Cleaner
**PEER REVIEWED**

White Emulsion Bowl Cleaner
**PEER REVIEWED**

EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 045901
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROCHLORIDE
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROGEN CHLORIDE (HCL)
**PEER REVIEWED**

MURIATIC ACID
**PEER REVIEWED**

Varley's Ocean Blue Scented Toilet Bowl Cleaner
**PEER REVIEWED**

Varley Poly-Pak Bowl Creme
**PEER REVIEWED**

Now South Safti-Sol Brand Concentrated Bowl Cleanse with Magic Actio
**PEER REVIEWED**

4-D Bowl Sanitizer
**PEER REVIEWED**

SPIRITS OF SALT
**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

GRADES: UNITED STATES PHARMACOPEIA (USP) (35-38%); NATIONAL FORMULARY (NF) DILUTED (10%); TECHNICAL (USUALLY 18, 20, 22, 23 DEG BAUME, CORRESPONDING TO APPROX 28, 31, 35, 37% HYDROGEN CHLORIDE)
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 613]**PEER REVIEWED**

Grades or Purity: Technical; 97.5-99%
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

DILUTE HYDROCHLORIC ACID
**PEER REVIEWED**

4-D Bowl Sanitizer; solution-ready to use, 27.64% hydrogen chloride, 0.1500% benzyl-4-chlorophenol, 0.200% diisobutyl phenoxyethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Varley's Ocean Blue Scented Toilet Bowl Cleaner; solution-ready to to use, 25.82% hydrogen chloride, 1.0% benzyl-4-chlorophenol, 0.2% diisobutyl phenoxyethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Varley Poly-Pak Bowl Creme; soluble concentrate, 27.64% hydrogen chloride, 0.15% benzyl-4-chlorophenol, 0.2% diisobutyl phenoxyethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Bowl Cleaner; soluble concentrate, 26.0% hydrogen chloride, 2.5% orthodichlorobenzene.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emulsion Bowl Cleaner; emulsifiable concentrate, 26.1500% hydrogen chloride, 2.94% orthodichlorobenzene.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Quest Bowl Cleaner Super Concentrated; solution-ready to use, 0.46% oxalic acid, 32.2% hydrogen chloride, 0.12% alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, 0.06% alkyl dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

New South Safti-Sol Brand Concentrated Bowl Cleanse with Magic Actio; soluble concentrate, 29.45% hydrogen chloride, 0.35% aeptadeeyl hydroxyethyl imidazoline, 0.25% alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, 0.25% alkyl dimethyl rthylbenzyl ammonium chloride.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Perclean Bowl and Urinal Cleaner; solution-ready to use, 25.18% hydrogen chloride, 1.2% alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

White Emulsion Bowl Cleaner; solution-ready to use, 27.64% hydrogen chloride, 0.15% benzyl-4-chlorophenol, 0.2000% diisobutyl phenoxyethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Aygeia Creme Magic Bowl Cleaner; emulsifiable concentrate, 59.15% hydrogen chloride, 10.2% ortho-dichlorobenzene.
[Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The commercial "concentrated" or fuming acid contains 38% hydrochloric acid.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 613]**PEER REVIEWED**

Available commercially as a 31% w/w (22 deg Baume, d: 1.16 kg/l) or 35% w/w (22 deg Baume, d: 1.18 kg/l) solution in water.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 476]**PEER REVIEWED**

A solution of hydrogen chloride gas in water.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

UN 1789; HYDROCHLORIC ACID, SOLUTION

UN 1050; Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous

IMO 8.0; Hydrochloric acid, solution

IMO 2.3; Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous; Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid

UN 2186; Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid

Standard Transportation Number:

49 042 70; Hydrochloric acid, anhydrous

49 302 28; Hydrochloric (muriatic) acid

49 302 31; Hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid, spent)

49 302 29; Hydrochloric acid mixture

49 302 30; Hydrochloric acid solution, inhibited

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