Print Friendly and PDFPrintPrint Friendly and PDFPDFHYDRAZINE
CASRN: 302-01-2

See Occupational Exposure Standards

Human Health Effects:

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of hydrazine. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of hydrazine. Overall evaluation: Hydrazine is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. 71 1006 (1999)]**QC REVIEWED**

CLASSIFICATION: B2; probable human carcinogen. BASIS FOR CLASSIFICATION: Tumors have been induced in mice, rats and hamsters following oral, inhalation or intraperitoneal administration of hydrazine and hydrazine sulfate. Hydrazine is mutagenic in numerous assays. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate. ANIMAL CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Sufficient.
[U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate (302-01-2) Available from: http://www.epa.gov/ngispgm3/iris on the Substance File List as of March 15, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

A3. Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknon relevance to humans.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 42]**QC REVIEWED**

Human Toxicity Excerpts:

SKIN CONTACT WITH ANHYDROUS HYDRAZINE LEADS TO CAUSTIC-LIKE BURNS & DISSOLVES HAIR ...
[Seiler, H.G., H. Sigel and A. Sigel (eds.). Handbook on the Toxicity of Inorganic Compounds. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1988. 481]**PEER REVIEWED**

ONE PERSON ACCIDENTALLY DRANK "BETWEEN A MOUTHFUL & A CUPFUL." HE IMMEDIATELY VOMITED & LOST CONSCIOUSNESS. HOSPITALIZED, HE WAS FLUSHED, BUT AFEBRILE, UNCONSCIOUS, & VOMITING; PUPILS WERE DILATED BUT CENTRAL & LIGHT REACTIVE. WITHIN 12 HR VOMITING CEASED ... & HE WAS SPORADICALLY VIOLENT. LATER, HIS MEMORY & VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS WERE NORMAL BUT HE WAS ATAXIC & UNABLE TO WRITE. THERE WAS LATERAL NYSTAGMUS TO THE RIGHT & HIS ABILITY TO SENSE VIBRATION WAS LOST.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2800]**PEER REVIEWED**

... WORKER HANDLED HYDRAZINE HYDRATE ONCE A WK FOR 6 MO. EARLY SIGNS WERE LETHARGY, CONJUNCTIVITIS, & TREMORS. ON LAST DAY OF EXPOSURE HE DEVELOPED FEVER, VOMITING, & DIARRHEA. LATER HE DEVELOPED ABDOMINAL PAINS ... & BECAME INCOHERENT. HIS ABDOMEN WAS ENLARGED & LIVER WAS PALPABLE & TENDER. THERE WAS FLUID IN CHEST CAVITY & LUNG SHADOWING. BILIRUBIN & CREATININE LEVELS WERE INCREASED. ... HE ... DIED 20 DAYS AFTER THE LAST EXPOSURE TO HYDRAZINE. AUTOPSY REVEALED SEVERE TRACHEITIS, BRONCHITIS, LUNGS FILLED WITH EXUDATE, ENLARGED KIDNEYS WITH ... NECROSIS & GRANULAR CYTOPLASMIC DEGENERATION, & ENLARGED HEART WITH MUSCLE FIBER DEGENERATION & HYPEREMIA. /HYDRAZINE HYDRATE/
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2800]**PEER REVIEWED**

TWO REPORTS OF CANCER MORTALITY IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO HYDRAZINE HAVE APPEARED IN RECENT YEARS. CHOROIDAL MELANOMA WAS OBSERVED IN ONE MAN WHO HAD BEEN EXPOSED TO HYDRAZINE FOR 6 YEARS. A PRELIMINARY REPORT OF AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEN ENGAGED IN HYDRAZINE MANUFACTURE REVEALED NO UNUSUAL EXCESS OF CANCER. THIS STUDY COMPRISED 423 MEN, WITH A 64% VITAL STATUS ASCERTAINMENT. NONE OF THE 5 CANCERS REPORTED (3 OF STOMACH, 1 PROSTATIC & 1 NEUROGENIC) OCCURRED IN THE GROUP WITH HIGHEST EXPOSURE. MORTALITY FROM ALL CAUSES WAS NOT ELEVATED (49 OBSERVED, 61.5 EXPECTED), & THE ONLY EXCESS ENTAILED 2 LUNG CANCER CASES WITHIN THE HIGHEST EXPOSURE CATEGORY, WITH A RELATIVE RISK 1.2 (95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL, 0.2-4.5).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. S7 223 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The liquid is corrosive, producing penetrating burns & severe dermatitis.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985. 502]**PEER REVIEWED**

In cases of acute human poisoning, vomiting, severe irritation of the respiratory tract with the development of pulmonary edema, central nervous system depression, and hepatic and renal damage have been reported.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Hydrazine p.62 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

After a laboratory technician had drunk 20-30 ml of a 6% aqueous solution of hydrazine (free base), he immediately vomited. Four hours later, weakness, somnolence, and arrhythmia were observed. Laboratory findings showed a slight but persistent leukocytosis. The serum-albumin fraction was decreased with an increase in the urine noted, while the patient showed irregular breathing. Five days after exposure, the patient had recovered.
[WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Hydrazine p.57 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The case of a 24-yr-old man who accidentally ingested a mouthful of hydrazine successfully treated with megadoses of intravenous pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) injection, 10 g over a few hr, who subsequently developed sensory polyneuropathy, is reported. The neuropathy spontaneously resolved over the next 6 months. It was concluded that although part of the peripheral neuropathy could have been due to hydrazine toxicity, the predominantly sensory neuropathy with axonal degeneration and spontaneous recovery is due to pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) induced peripheral neuropathy.
[Harati Y Niakane; Ann Intern Med 104: 728-29 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Contact dermatitis caused by hydrazine was reported in two patients who worked in a gold plating factory. The workers wore gloves when carrying baskets between the different plating baths, but they had frequent spills over their hands and arms and were exposed to the vapor. The first case was a 54 year old man who worked for 20 years in the plating industry. After three weeks in the gold plating department the worker developed a recurrent hand eczema. It was located on the dorsal side of the hands and spread to the forearms. The patient recovered completely after changing his work responsibilities. The second case was a 23 year old worker in the same gold plating department who developed periorbital eczema four months after starting work in the gold plating department. The worker recovered completely after changing the working environment. The standard ICORG test procedures was used in performing the patch testing. In both workers, 1% hydrazine sulfate, and 1 and 10% gold plating stabilizer gave positive epicutaneous test reactions and potassium dicyanoaurate gave a negative reaction. /Observations indicated that/ there was evidence that hydrazine in the gold plating baths caused the dermatitis.
[Wrangsjo K, Martensson A; Contact Dermatitis 15 (4) 244-5 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Toxic effects of hydrazine /routes not specified/ include conjunctivitis, pulmonary edema, anemia (hemolytic), ataxia, convulsions, kidney toxicity, and liver toxicity. /from table/
[Kimbrough, R.D., P. Grandjean, D.D. Rutstein. Clinical Effects of Environmental Chemicals. New York, NY: Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1989. 22]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin and eye irritation has occurred in humans, and allergic contact dermatitis has been reported. No systemic responses were described in any of these reported exposures. Several incidents of systemic poisoning have been reported, mainly showing effects on the CNS, respiratory system, and stomach. Vomiting, weakness, and irregular breathing, with recovery in 5 days, occurred following ingestion of 20-30 ml of a 6% aq solution. A second ingestion incident reported vomiting, unconsciousness, and sporadic, violent behavior with paraesthesia; the outcome was not described.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 762]**PEER REVIEWED**

An accidental swallowing of a mouthful of hydrazine led to confusion, lethargy, and restlessness in a 24-yr old man. Clinical liver damage was detected, but other signs of systemic toxicity appear to have been masked by the aggressive management of the patient.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 762]**PEER REVIEWED**

A male worker sustained severe chemical burns (involving 22% of the body surface) following a hydrazine explosion. After a comatose period and with biochemical indicators of liver malfunction, recovery was seen in 5 weeks.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 762]**PEER REVIEWED**

Inhalation of vapors has produced pulmonary edema which has been successfully treated with pyridoxine.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 763]**PEER REVIEWED**

An occupational exposure (conc unknown) over a 6-mo period produced conjunctivitis, tremor, and lethargy. Lung and liver damage occurred, and the individual died 21 days after the last exposure. Skin contact and inhalation exposure occurred.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 763]**PEER REVIEWED**

A significant incr in cases of myocardial infarction was reported in a plant manufacturing hydrazine. The author cautions that the conclusion is based on very small numbers, and no follow-up info is available.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 763]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exposure to the eyes can produce temporary blindness. Liquid splashes to the eyes can produce corneal injury and burns. Liquid splashes to the skin can also produce severe burns. Hydrazine can also produce dermatitis and skin sensitization.
[Sullivan, J.B. Jr., G.R. Krieger (eds.). Hazardous Materials Toxicology-Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1992. 1198]**PEER REVIEWED**

Nineteen workers (18 males, 1 female) of a garbage dump (mean age 39.9 years, range 19-58 years) were admitted to our hospital because of inhalation of a hydrazine-like gas of unknown origin. They complained of an ammoniacal odor with sweet taste followed by burning of the eyes, rawness in the throat and dyspnea, dizziness and nausea. Ten patients (group A) arrived about 2 hr after they had experienced their first symptoms. The nine other patients (group B) were admitted about 70 hr later. On the second day the white cell counts were significantly elevated compared to those of the days before and after (P < 0.02-0.005). The lung function showed in two patients a moderate obstruction. The PO2 was significantly reduced within 1 to 12 hr after admission (P < 0.02-0.005) compared to the measurement before (P < 0.005) and after 25 (P < 0.02) and 50 (P < 0.01) hr. A significantly reduced PC02 was found after 25 hr compared to the time of admission (P < 0.03). These investigations show that workers of a garbage dump had an alarming decrease of oxygen after inhalation of nitrogenous gases released by the trash.
[Schweisfurth H, Schoettes C; Acute Zentralblatt Fuer Hygiene Und Umweltmedizin 195 (1): 46-54 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine was produced at a factory in the East Midlands of the United Kingdom between 1945 and 1971. The cohort of all 427 men who were employed there for at least six months with varying degrees of occupational exposure to hydrazine was followed up until the end of January 1992. By the end of July 1982 49 deaths had occurred and the observed mortality was close to that expected at each level of exposure. By the end of January 1992 a further 37 deaths had occurred. Again the observed mortality was close to that expected for all causes and also for lung cancer, cancers of the digestive system, other cancers, and all other causes, respective of the level of exposure. The results weigh against there having been any material hazard of occupational exposure to hydrazine. The small number of men studied means, however, that a relative risk as high as 3.5 for lung cancer cannot confidently be excluded.
[Morris J et al; Occupational and Environmental Medicine 52 (l): 43-5 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A case of residual neurobehavioral impairment possibly related to occupational exposure to hydrazine was described. A 38 year old Israeli male was treated for repeated complaints of sore throat and colds. His wife noticed that he had difficulties remembering things that she had asked him to do. He became impotent. He had similar difficulties at work in performing tasks that he had previously done effortlessly. He had been employed as a water technician at a hospital for 7 years. His job activities involved monitoring water quality, adding hydrazine mixtures when necessary, and overseeing the workings of the hospital pumping system. He had intense intermittent inhalation and skin exposure to hydrazine while mixing and pouring hydrazine preparations, and almost constant inhalation exposure to hydrazine vapors in his workplace. He developed thrombocytopenia which was treated with steroids. He returned briefly to work, but had to be discharged because of recurring episodes of colds and malaise. His memory and concentration problems persisted and he became unable to work or understand and remember material he had read. Neuropsychological testing revealed deficits in specific task performance, memory, concentration, learning, judgment, and abstraction and mood problems. A computed tomographic examination showed no signs of brain damage. Over the next 4 years the patient showed a gradual improvement in his general well being, mood status, and ability to carry out some tasks. He was unable to hold down jobs or perform tasks commensurate with his previous level of technical and organizational skills. He eventually found work as a part time gardener. /It was/ concluded that exposure to hydrazine during his work as a water technician is the most likely explanation for the neurobehavioral impairment. The case illustrates the need to be aware that exposure to hydrazine can cause neurobehavioral problems as sequelae.
[Richter ED et al; Israel J of Med Sci 28 (8/9) 598-602 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

Vapors are very irritating to the mucous membranes, nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract.
[Sullivan, J.B. Jr., G.R. Krieger (eds.). Hazardous Materials Toxicology-Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1992. 1198]**PEER REVIEWED**

Medical Surveillance:

Based partly on exptl data, placement should incl a history of exposure to other carcinogens, smoking, alcohol, medications, & family history. The skin, eye, liver, kidney, blood & CNS should be evaluated. Sputum or urine cytology may give useful information. Hydrazine may be detected in blood.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985. 503]**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

... Route of human exposure to hydrazine is ingestion of trace residues in processed foods. ...
[DHHS/NTP; Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens p.115-6 (1985) NTP 85-002]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE SMOKE FROM A BLENDED US CIGARETTE CONTAINED 31.5 NG HYDRAZINE.
[HOFFMAN D ET AL; IARC SCI PUBL; VOL 9, ISS N-NITROSO CMPD ENVIRON, PROC WORK CONF 159 (1973, 1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

An industrial hygiene assessment of the extent of exposure to hydrazine compounds was carried out due to the growing number of such compounds shown to be animal carcinogens in laboratory studies. The report summarizes production and uses of hydrazine compounds, the toxic effects of such compounds, relevant exposure standards, sampling and analytical methods relevant to exposure assessment, and observations made during surveys conducted at eight facilities in the United States where these compounds were either prepared or used. The sites visited for the survey were of four basic types: those which used hydrazine compounds as propellants, those which manufactured the compounds, those which used hydrazine as an aircraft emergency power unit fuel, or sites where hydrazine was used in boiler water treatment. Personal exposures measured were generally within the range from below the limit of detection to 1.0 ppm as an 8 hour time weighted average. The OSHA permissible exposure limits for the hydrazine compounds of interest ranged from 0.5 to 5 ppm. The number of workers exposed was found to be low. Large scale propellant and emergency jet power unit usage was relatively new, and the manufacturing methods had not been used until recently. /Data indicated/ that the accumulated person years of exposure are relatively low; it is unlikely that suitable cohorts exist for retrospective expsoure studies.
[Fagen JM and McCammon CM; Proceedings of the Fourth NCI/EPA/NIOSH Collaborative Workshop: Progress on Joint Environment and Occupational Cancer Studies April 22-23 NIH Pub# 88-296 p261-96 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 59,147 workers (2,840 of these are female) are potentially exposed to hydrazine in the US(1). About 2000 Finnish employees were exposed to hydrazine between the years 1980-1989(2). Occupational exposure may be through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where hydrazine is produced or used(SRC). The general population will be exposed to hydrazine via inhalation of ambient air and cigarette smoke, ingestion of food, and dermal contact with vapors and other products containing hydrazine(SRC).
[(1) NIOSH; National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) (1983) (2) Tossavainene A, Jaakkola J; Appl Occup Environ Hyg 9: 28-31 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emergency Medical Treatment:

Emergency Medical Treatment:

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The following Overview, *** HYDRAZINE ***, is relevant for this HSDB record chemical.

Life Support:
  o   This overview assumes that basic life support measures
      have been instituted.                           
Clinical Effects:
  SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
   0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Hydrazine can be corrosive or irritating to the eyes,
         skin, nose, mucous membranes, throat, and respiratory
         system.  Contact with the liquid can cause burns or
         permanent damage to the eyes.  It is a hemolytic agent
         and can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, hypoglycemia,
         CNS stimulation, seizures, and coma.  Inhalation of
         vapors has caused pulmonary edema.
     o   Liver and kidney damage can also occur.  Hydrazine is
         an animal carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen,
         but limited epidemiological studies have not indicated
         that occupational exposure to hydrazine is a risk for
         cancer.
  VITAL SIGNS
   0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Anoxia, cyanosis, irregular respiration, or fever may
         occur.
  HEENT
   0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Hydrazine is irritating or corrosive to the eyes, nose,
         mucous membranes, throat and respiratory tract.  Vapors
         may cause delayed eye irritation.  Liquids may cause
         severe eye damage.  Facial edema, conjunctivitis,
         salivation and headache have been reported from
         exposure to hydrazines.
  RESPIRATORY
   0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Acute exposure to low concentrations of hydrazines may
         cause delayed death (days) and produce bronchial mucous
         destruction and pulmonary edema.
  NEUROLOGIC
   0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   CNS stimulation, excitability, tremors, convulsions,
         and coma have occurred.
  GASTROINTESTINAL
   0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and anorexia are common
         symptoms.  The nausea may be refractory to medication.
  HEPATIC
   0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Fatty degeneration and occasional hepatic necrosis may
         occur in human poisonings.  Elevations in alkaline
         phosphatase and bilirubin, hepatic cholestasis, and
         hepatic hemosiderosis occurred in dogs.
  GENITOURINARY
   0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Severe renal damage, possibly secondary to hemolysis,
         may occur.  Kidney damage is usually less severe than
         hepatic effects.
  FLUID-ELECTROLYTE
   0.2.12.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     o   Electrolyte imbalance, possibly secondary to kidney
         failure, was seen in one fatal case of chronic exposure
         to hydrazine hydrate.
  HEMATOLOGIC
   0.2.13.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Hydrazine is a moderate hemolytic agent.
  DERMATOLOGIC
   0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Hydrazine may cause corrosion or strong skin
         irritation.
   0.2.14.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     o   Hydrazine is a sensitizer and may cross react with
         other hydrazines.
  MUSCULOSKELETAL
   0.2.15.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Hydrazine has produced arthralgias.
  ENDOCRINE
   0.2.16.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia may occur, depending on
         the glycogen reserves in the liver.
  PSYCHIATRIC
   0.2.18.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Violent behavior, restlessness, lethargy and confusion
         have been seen in human poisonings.
   0.2.18.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     o   Lethargy and incoherence were seen in one human case.
  IMMUNOLOGIC
   0.2.19.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     o   Some hydrazines are skin sensitizers.  One case of a
         lupus-like syndrome has been reported from occupational
         exposure to hydrazine sulfate.
  REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
    o   Hydrazine has been embryotoxic and fetotoxic in rats and
        mice, but at doses which were also toxic to the mothers.
        There is no evidence that hydrazine is a human
        reproductive hazard, but data are lacking.
  CARCINOGENICITY
   0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
     o   IARC (Hydrazine) (RTECS, 1991)
      1.  Animal:  Sufficient evidence
      2.  Group 2B
   0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
     o   Hydrazine has been carcinogenic in rats, mice, and
         hamsters and is a suspected human carcinogen.  Limited
         epidemiological evidence suggests that occupational
         exposure does not increase the risk of cancer, however.
  GENOTOXICITY
    o   Hydrazine is genotoxic at the level of inducing DNA
        repair, mutations, chromosome aberrations, and oncogenic
        transformation in vitro.
  OTHER
   0.2.23.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Hydrazine can be hazardous by any route of exposure.
         Its toxicity appears to be due to generation of
         pyridoxine deficiency.
Laboratory:
  o   If respiratory tract irritation or respiratory depression
      is evident, monitor arterial blood gases, chest x-ray, and
      pulmonary function tests.
  o   A number of chemicals produce abnormalities of the
      hematopoietic system, liver, and kidneys.  Monitoring
      complete blood count, urinalysis, and liver and kidney
      function tests is suggested for patients with significant
      exposure.
  o   Monitor methemoglobin and blood sugar.
Treatment Overview:
  SUMMARY EXPOSURE
    o   FIRST AID (NIOSH, 1995) -
     1.  EYE EXPOSURE - Immediately wash the eyes with large
         amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and
         upper lids.  Get medical attention immediately.
         Contact lenses should not be worn when working with
         this chemical.
     2.  DERMAL EXPOSURE - Immediately flush the contaminated
         skin with water.  If this chemical penetrates the
         clothing, immediately remove the clothing and flush the
         skin with water.  Get medical attention promptly.
     3.  INHALATION EXPOSURE - Move the exposed person to fresh
         air at once.  If breathing has stopped, perform
         mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.  Keep the affected person
         warm and at rest.  Get medical attention as soon as
         possible.
     4.  INGESTION EXPOSURE - If this chemical has been
         swallowed, get medical attention immediately.
     5.  TARGET ORGANS - Eyes, skin, respiratory system, central
         nervous system, liver, and kidneys.  Cancer site:  (in
         animals:  tumors of the lungs, liver, blood vessels &
         intestine).
    o   GENERAL -
     1.  Move victims of inhalation exposure from the toxic
         environment and administer 100% humidified supplemental
         oxygen with assisted ventilation as required.  Exposed
         skin and eyes should be copiously flushed with water.
         Because of the potential for rapid onset of CNS
         depression or seizures with possible aspiration of
         gastric contents, EMESIS SHOULD NOT BE INDUCED.
         Cautious gastric lavage followed by administration of
         activated charcoal may be of benefit if the patient is
         seen soon after the exposure.
    o   INHALATION EXPOSURE -
     1.  INHALATION:  Move patient to fresh air.  Monitor for
         respiratory distress.  If cough or difficulty breathing
         develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation,
         bronchitis, or pneumonitis.  Administer oxygen and
         assist ventilation as required.  Treat bronchospasm
         with beta2  agonist and corticosteroid aerosols.
     2.  If bronchospasm and wheezing occur, consider treatment
         with inhaled sympathomimetic agents.
     3.  ACUTE LUNG INJURY:  Maintain ventilation and
         oxygenation and evaluate with frequent arterial blood
         gas or pulse oximetry monitoring.  Early use of PEEP
         and mechanical ventilation may be needed.
    o   DERMAL EXPOSURE -
     1.  DECONTAMINATION:  Remove contaminated clothing and wash
         exposed  area thoroughly with soap and water.  A
         physician may need to  examine the area if irritation
         or pain persists.
     2.  Treat dermal irritation or burns with standard topical
         therapy.  Patients developing dermal hypersensitivity
         reactions may require treatment with systemic or
         topical corticosteroids or antihistamines.
    o   EYE EXPOSURE -
     1.  DECONTAMINATION:  Irrigate exposed eyes with copious
         amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes.  If
         irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia
         persist, the patient should be seen in a health care
         facility.
    o   INGESTION EXPOSURE -
     1.  Because of the potential for gastrointestinal tract
         irritation, do not induce emesis.
     2.  Significant esophageal or gastrointestinal tract
         irritation or burns may occur following ingestion.  The
         possible benefit of early removal of some ingested
         material by cautious gastric lavage must be weighed
         against potential complications of bleeding or
         perforation.
     3.  GASTRIC LAVAGE:  Consider after ingestion of a
         potentially life-threatening amount of poison if it can
         be performed soon after ingestion (generally within 1
         hour).  Protect airway by placement in Trendelenburg
         and left lateral decubitus position or by endotracheal
         intubation.  Control any seizures first.
      a.  CONTRAINDICATIONS:  Loss of airway protective reflexes
          or decreased level of consciousness in unintubated
          patients; following ingestion of corrosives;
          hydrocarbons (high aspiration potential); patients at
          risk of hemorrhage or gastrointestinal perforation;
          and trivial or non-toxic ingestion.
     4.  ACTIVATED CHARCOAL:  Administer charcoal as a slurry
         (240 mL water/30 g charcoal).  Usual dose:  25 to 100 g
         in adults/adolescents, 25 to 50 g in children (1 to 12
         years), and 1 g/kg in infants less than 1 year old.
     5.  Observe patients with ingestion carefully for the
         possible development of esophageal or gastrointestinal
         tract irritation or burns.  If signs or symptoms of
         esophageal irritation or burns are present, consider
         endoscopy to determine the extent of injury.
     6.  SEIZURES:  Administer a benzodiazepine IV; DIAZEPAM
         (ADULT:  5 to 10 mg,  repeat every 10 to 15 min as
         needed.  CHILD:  0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg, repeat every  5 min
         as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT:  2 to 4 mg; CHILD:
         0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg).
      a.  Consider phenobarbital if seizures recur after
          diazepam 30 mg (adults)  or 10 mg (children > 5
          years).
      b.  Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory
          depression, and need  for endotracheal intubation.
          Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances,
          hypoxia.
  ORAL EXPOSURE
    o   Do NOT induce emesis.
    o   DILUTION:  Immediately dilute with 4 to 8 ounces (120 to
        240 mL) of milk or water (not to exceed 4 ounces/120 mL
        in a child).
    o   GASTRIC LAVAGE:  Consider after ingestion of a
        potentially life-threatening amount of poison if it can
        be performed soon after ingestion (generally within 1
        hour).  Protect airway by placement in Trendelenburg and
        left lateral decubitus position or by endotracheal
        intubation.  Control any seizures first.
     1.  CONTRAINDICATIONS:  Loss of airway protective reflexes
         or decreased level of consciousness in unintubated
         patients; following ingestion of corrosives;
         hydrocarbons (high aspiration potential); patients at
         risk of hemorrhage or gastrointestinal perforation; and
         trivial or non-toxic ingestion.
    o   ACTIVATED CHARCOAL:  Administer charcoal as a slurry
        (240 mL water/30 g charcoal).  Usual dose:  25 to 100 g
        in adults/adolescents, 25 to 50 g in children (1 to 12
        years), and 1 g/kg in infants less than 1 year old.
    o   SEIZURES:  Administer a benzodiazepine IV; DIAZEPAM
        (ADULT:  5 to 10 mg,  repeat every 10 to 15 min as
        needed.  CHILD:  0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg, repeat every  5 min
        as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT:  2 to 4 mg; CHILD:  0.05
        to 0.1 mg/kg).
     1.  Consider phenobarbital if seizures recur after diazepam
         30 mg (adults)  or 10 mg (children > 5 years).
     2.  Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory
         depression, and need  for endotracheal intubation.
         Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances,
         hypoxia.
    o   ACUTE LUNG INJURY:  Maintain ventilation and oxygenation
        and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gas or pulse
        oximetry monitoring.  Early use of PEEP and mechanical
        ventilation may be needed.
    o   METHEMOGLOBINEMIA:  Administer 1 to 2 mg/kg of 1%
        methylene blue slowly IV in symptomatic patients.
        Additional doses may be required.
    o   Pyridoxine may be antidotal.  Dose of pyridoxine is 25
        mg/kg, 1/3 given IM and 2/3 given IV over 3 hours.
        Increase the dose by 25 mg/kg every 5 to 10 minutes to a
        maximum of 300 mg/kg/dose for continuing symptoms.
  INHALATION EXPOSURE
    o   Rescuers must not enter areas with potential high
        airborne concentrations of this agent without
        SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS (SCBA) to avoid
        becoming secondary victims.
    o   INHALATION:  Move patient to fresh air.  Monitor for
        respiratory distress.  If cough or difficulty breathing
        develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation,
        bronchitis, or pneumonitis.  Administer oxygen and
        assist ventilation as required.  Treat bronchospasm with
        beta2  agonist and corticosteroid aerosols.
    o   SEIZURES:  Administer a benzodiazepine IV; DIAZEPAM
        (ADULT:  5 to 10 mg,  repeat every 10 to 15 min as
        needed.  CHILD:  0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg, repeat every  5 min
        as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT:  2 to 4 mg; CHILD:  0.05
        to 0.1 mg/kg).
     1.  Consider phenobarbital if seizures recur after diazepam
         30 mg (adults)  or 10 mg (children > 5 years).
     2.  Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory
         depression, and need  for endotracheal intubation.
         Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances,
         hypoxia.
    o   ACUTE LUNG INJURY:  Maintain ventilation and oxygenation
        and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gas or pulse
        oximetry monitoring.  Early use of PEEP and mechanical
        ventilation may be needed.
    o   METHEMOGLOBINEMIA:  Administer 1 to 2 mg/kg of 1%
        methylene blue slowly IV in symptomatic patients.
        Additional doses may be required.
    o   Pyridoxine may be antidotal.  Dose of pyridoxine is 25
        mg/kg, 1/3 given IM and 2/3 given IV over 3 hours.
        Increase the dose by 25 mg/kg every 5 to 10 minutes to a
        maximum of 300 mg/kg/dose for continuing symptoms.
  EYE EXPOSURE
    o   DECONTAMINATION:  Irrigate exposed eyes with copious
        amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes.  If
        irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia
        persist, the patient should be seen in a health care
        facility.
    o   Patients symptomatic following exposure should be
        observed in a controlled setting until all signs and
        symptoms have fully resolved.
    o   SEIZURES:  Administer a benzodiazepine IV; DIAZEPAM
        (ADULT:  5 to 10 mg,  repeat every 10 to 15 min as
        needed.  CHILD:  0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg, repeat every  5 min
        as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT:  2 to 4 mg; CHILD:  0.05
        to 0.1 mg/kg).
     1.  Consider phenobarbital if seizures recur after diazepam
         30 mg (adults)  or 10 mg (children > 5 years).
     2.  Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory
         depression, and need  for endotracheal intubation.
         Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances,
         hypoxia.
    o   ACUTE LUNG INJURY:  Maintain ventilation and oxygenation
        and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gas or pulse
        oximetry monitoring.  Early use of PEEP and mechanical
        ventilation may be needed.
    o   METHEMOGLOBINEMIA:  Administer 1 to 2 mg/kg of 1%
        methylene blue slowly IV in symptomatic patients.
        Additional doses may be required.
    o   Pyridoxine may be antidotal.  Dose of pyridoxine is 25
        mg/kg, 1/3 given IM and 2/3 given IV over 3 hours.
        Increase the dose by 25 mg/kg every 5 to 10 minutes to a
        maximum of 300 mg/kg/dose for continuing symptoms.
  DERMAL EXPOSURE
    o   Hydrazine can SPONTANEOUSLY IGNITE upon contact with
        cloth; clothing should be removed immediately.
    o   DECONTAMINATION:  Remove contaminated clothing and wash
        exposed  area thoroughly with soap and water.  A
        physician may need to  examine the area if irritation or
        pain persists.
    o   Treat dermal irritation or burns with standard topical
        therapy.  Patients developing dermal hypersensitivity
        reactions may require treatment with systemic or topical
        corticosteroids or antihistamines.
    o   SEIZURES:  Administer a benzodiazepine IV; DIAZEPAM
        (ADULT:  5 to 10 mg,  repeat every 10 to 15 min as
        needed.  CHILD:  0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg, repeat every  5 min
        as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT:  2 to 4 mg; CHILD:  0.05
        to 0.1 mg/kg).
     1.  Consider phenobarbital if seizures recur after diazepam
         30 mg (adults)  or 10 mg (children > 5 years).
     2.  Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory
         depression, and need  for endotracheal intubation.
         Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances,
         hypoxia.
    o   ACUTE LUNG INJURY:  Maintain ventilation and oxygenation
        and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gas or pulse
        oximetry monitoring.  Early use of PEEP and mechanical
        ventilation may be needed.
    o   METHEMOGLOBINEMIA:  Administer 1 to 2 mg/kg of 1%
        methylene blue slowly IV in symptomatic patients.
        Additional doses may be required.
    o   Pyridoxine may be antidotal.  Dose of pyridoxine is 25
        mg/kg, 1/3 given IM and 2/3 given IV over 3 hours.
        Increase the dose by 25 mg/kg every 5 to 10 minutes to a
        maximum of 300 mg/kg/dose for continuing symptoms.    
Range of Toxicity:
  o   Minimum lethal human exposure is unknown.    

[Rumack BH: POISINDEX(R) Information System. Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2003; CCIS Volume 115, edition exp February, 2003. Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds):TOMES(R) Information System. Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2003; CCIS Volume 115, edition exp February, 2003.] **PEER REVIEWED**

Antidote and Emergency Treatment:

Inhalation of vapors has produced pulmonary edema which has been successfully treated with pyridoxine.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 763]**PEER REVIEWED**

Specific treatment for exposure consists of thorough washing of all exposed skin areas with soap and water, copious irrigation of the eyes, and prompt removal of the patient from the source of exposure. /Hydrazines/
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1287]**PEER REVIEWED**

After inhalation, observation for progressive respiratory distress is necessary. Chest X-ray and arterial blood gases should be monitored. Administration of oxygen, intubation, and assisted ventilation may become necessary. Pneumonia and bronchitis need to be excluded. /Hydrazines/
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1287]**PEER REVIEWED**

If ingestion has occurred, gastric lavage or emesis should be followed by administration of activated charcoal and catharsis. Emesis is most effective if it is initiated within 30 minutes of ingestion. /Hydrazines/
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1287]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pyridoxine may be antidotal. The suggested dose is with half of this dose given intramuscularly and two-thirds given IV over 3 hours. Seizures should be controlled with diazepam, phenytoin, or phenobarbital. Blood sugar levels should be monitored for severe hypoglycemia, which may appear with or without preceding significant hyperglycemia. The patient should be observed for evidence of intravascular hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, and consequent deterioration of renal function. Patients who are symptomatic or who demonstrate a methemoglobin level greater than 30 per cent should be treated with methylene blue slowly IV every 4 hours as needed. Improvement is dramatic if diagnosis is correct. Liver function should be monitored because hydrazines are known hepatotoxins. /Hydrazines/
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1287]**PEER REVIEWED**

Elimination is enhanced by forced diuresis and acidification of the urine. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis should be effective, but insufficient human data exist on the use of these modalities. Treatment is otherwise symptomatic and supportive. /Hydrazines/
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1287]**PEER REVIEWED**

Animal Toxicity Studies:

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of hydrazine. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of hydrazine. Overall evaluation: Hydrazine is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. 71 1006 (1999)]**QC REVIEWED**

CLASSIFICATION: B2; probable human carcinogen. BASIS FOR CLASSIFICATION: Tumors have been induced in mice, rats and hamsters following oral, inhalation or intraperitoneal administration of hydrazine and hydrazine sulfate. Hydrazine is mutagenic in numerous assays. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate. ANIMAL CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Sufficient.
[U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate (302-01-2) Available from: http://www.epa.gov/ngispgm3/iris on the Substance File List as of March 15, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

A3. Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknon relevance to humans.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 42]**QC REVIEWED**

Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:

... 30 MALE & 30 FEMALE WHITE MICE /WERE INJECTED IP/ WITH 0.5 MG HYDRAZINE IN PHYSIOLOGICAL SALINE. A TOTAL DOSE OF 400 MG/KG BODY WT WAS GIVEN IN 16 SEPARATE DOSES OVER 46 DAYS. OF 13/34 SURVIVORS, 4 MICE DEVELOPED RETICULUM CELL SARCOMAS OF MEDIASTINUM & 9 DEVELOPED MYELOID LEUKEMIAS WITHIN 100-313 DAYS. THYMIC LYMPHOMA WAS OBSERVED IN 1/60 CONTROL MICE. AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF LUNG TUMORS WAS ALSO OBSERVED IN OTHER STRAINS OF MICE NAMELY (BALB/C X DBA/2)F1 HYBRID, C57BL, SWR & BALB/C/CB/SE (NEWBORN).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 132 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

TWO DOGS EXPOSED TO 5 PPM FOR 6 MO DEVELOPED DECR APPETITE, WT LOSS, EASY FATIGABILITY, & MUSCULAR TREMORS ... TWO OF FOUR DOGS SURVIVED 194 6-HR EXPOSURES TO CONCN AVERAGING 14 PPM. ALL 4 ANIMALS DEVELOPED SIGNS OF SEVERE INTOXICATION.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2799]**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDRAZINE HEMOLYZES RED BLOOD CELLS WHEN INJECTED IV OR ... GIVEN BY STOMACH TUBE, BUT BLOOD CELL DESTRUCTION & ANEMIA ARE LESS CONSISTENT FINDINGS AFTER SC INJECTION OR INHALATION, USUALLY OCCURRING ONLY AFTER CHRONIC EXPOSURE & SEVERE INTOXICATION.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2793]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE EXTENT OF AFFECT ON BLOOD SYSTEM OF RATS BECAME MORE SEVERE WITH INCR AGE.
[SAVCHENKOV MF ET AL; GIG SANIT 3: 29-33 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

USING MOUSE LIVER MICROSOMAL MUTAGENICITY ASSAY, HYDRAZINE WAS MUTAGENIC TO 5 STRAINS OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM.
[ERBOLD B ET AL; MUTAT RES 40 (2): 73 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

OF THE 10 CHEMICALS TESTED FOR THEIR ABILITIES TO PRODUCE NOVOBIOCIN-RESISTANT MUTANTS IN HEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE, HYDRAZINE WAS UNIQUE BECAUSE IT INDUCED A HIGH INCIDENCE OF MUTATION WITHOUT KILLING SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS OF CELLS AT CONCENTRATIONS TESTED. HYDRAZINE MAY BE ACTING AS BOTH MUTAGEN & ANTIMUTAGEN IN THIS SYSTEM.
[KIMBALL RF ET AL; MUTAT RES 30 (1): 9 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

PREGNANT FISCHER 344 RATS WERE TREATED WITH 0 TO 10.0 MG/KG IP ON GESTATION DAYS 6-15. DOSE-RELATED EMBRYOLETHALITY (PRINCIPLE TOXIC EFFECT) & MATERNAL TOXICITY WERE OBSERVED @ 2 HIGHER DOSES.
[KELLER WC ET AL; AIR FORCE AEROSP MED RES LAB (TECH REP) AFAMRL-TR, US(AFAMRL-TR-82-29) 16 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CONCENTRATIONS GREATER THAN 10 MG/L ADMIN DURING NEURULATION WERE TERATOGENIC TO XENOPUS LAEVIS, THE SOUTH AFRICAN CLAWED TOAD. LOWER CONCN PERMITTED SURVIVAL & DEVELOPMENT INTO NORMAL LARVAE.
[GREENHOUSE G; TERATOLOGY 13 (2): 167 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDRAZINE HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE MUTAGENIC IN ... HIGHER PLANTS & DROSOPHILA. ...
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2797]**PEER REVIEWED**

TWELVE DAY OLD EGGS OF RAINBOW TROUT SALMO GAIRDNERI WERE EXPOSED TO 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 & 5.0 MG/L. EGGS WERE EXPOSED FOR 48 HR & SUBSEQUENTLY MAINTAINED IN RECIRCULATING-FLOW SYSTEM. EXPOSURE DID NOT RESULT IN MORTALITY OR REDUCTION IN HATCHING. ABERRATIONS IN MORPHOGENESIS OF LARVAE INCL LOSS OF MUSCULAR CONTROL, REDUCED GROWTH RATES & LOSS OF TACTILE SENSITIVITY AT 1.0 & 5.0 MG/L.
[HENDERSON V ET AL; TRANS AM FISH SOC 112 (1): 100 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEGAMITOCHONDRIA WERE INDUCED (REVERSIBLE PROCESS) IN MOUSE & RAT HEPATOCYTES BY FEEDING DIET CONTAINING HYDRAZINE.
[WAKABAYASHI T ET AL; EXP MOL PATHOL 39 (2): 139 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE TOXICITY OF MONOMETHYLHYDRAZINE, HYDRAZINE & UNSYMMETRICAL DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE WAS DETERMINED FOR MIXED & UNICULTURE CULTURES OF NITRIFYING, DENITRIFYING, & ANAEROBIC METHANOGENIC BACTERIA. MONOMETHYLHYDRAZINE WAS MORE TOXIC THAN HYDRAZINE, WHICH WAS MORE TOXIC THAN DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE. THE TOXICITY LEVELS WERE LOW ENOUGH TO PRECLUDE BIOLOGICAL WASTE TREATMENT OF THESE COMPOUNDS.
[KANE DA, WILLIAMSON KJ; ARCH ENVIRON CONTAM TOXICOL 12 (4): 447-53 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is carcinogenic to the mouse and rat, but three ealier studies have reported no carcinogenicity of hydrazine in the hamster. Administration of hydrazine to mice, rats and hamsters results in rapid methylation of liver DNA guanine for which endogenous formaldehyde appears to be the source of the methyl moiety. Hamsters were given hydrazine sulfate at 170, 340 and 510 mg/l in the drinking water for 2 years (average dose of 4.6, 8.3 and 10.3 mg hydrazine (free base)/kg body wt over the 2-year period), during which levels of methylation of DNA guanine in liver, kidney and lung, and histopathologic examinations of these tissues were carried out; dimethylnitrosamine, as a positive control, was administered at 10 mg/l in the drinking water (average dose of 1.1 mg/kg body wt over the 4-month measurement period). Both 7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine were readily detectable at 6 months exposure in hamsters given hydrazine or dimethylnitrosamine; in hydrazine-treated animals only trace amounts of these bases could be detected after 12 months exposure; these bases were again detected in liver DNA at exposure times of 18 and 24 months. Hepatocellular carcinomas were observed in hamsters treated at the highest dose of hydrazine sulfate after 78 weeks of exposure; the incidence of liver cancer was dose-related over the course of the experiment: 32% for hamsters exposed to 510 mg hydrazine sulfate/l, 12% for 340 mg/l and none at 170 mg/l. Hamsters given dimethylnitrosamine developed high levels of 7-methylguanine and even higher levels of O6-methylguanine and both liver cholangiocellular carcinomas (73% incidence), as reported before, and hepatocellular carcinomas (27% incidence), a new finding. These results demonstrate for the first time that hydrazine is a liver carcinogen in the hamster and provide new information regarding the accumulation of DNA damage during the entire induction period for the carcinomas.
[Bosan WS et al; Carcinogenesis 8 (3): 439-44 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Rabbit skin that was treated with 3 ml of anhydrous hydrazine for 1 min, followed by washing the treated area, resulted in mortality between 60 and 90 min after application. Acute toxicity is characterized by liver damage consisting of fatty degeneration, red blood cell destruction and anemia, anorexia, weight loss, weakness, vomiting, excitability, hypoglycemia, and convulsions. /Anhydrous hydrazine/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 761]**PEER REVIEWED**

In a 6-mo inhalation study, rats, mice, dogs, and monkeys were exposed continuously to hydrazine at 0.2 ppm or 1 ppm, or the animals were exposed 6 hr/day, 5 days/wk at 1 or 5 ppm. At 0.2 ppm, body weights of rats were lower than the controls, hepatic degeneration was sen in mice, anemia was seen in dogs, and a minimal incr in fat deposition in the liver was seen in monkeys. In addition to these changes, at 1 ppm, there was incr mortality with central nervous system (CNS) depression (primarily lethargy) in mice, body weight reductions in dogs, and ocular irritation in monkeys. At 5 ppm (along with the above changes), tonic convulsions were seen in one dog.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 761]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exposure of rats 6 hours/day, 5 days/wk for from 5-40 days at 20, 53, or 224 ppm, or for 6 mo at 4.5 ppm or 14 ppm resulted in incr mortality and decr body weights in a dose-dependent fashion through all test groups. Lethargy was seen during exposures, and lung and liver damage were detected in rats from all test groups.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 761]**PEER REVIEWED**

In a variety of studies, hydrazine has been shown to cause benign and malignant tumors. Chronic, oral admin of hydrazine to mice resulted in a wide variety of neoplastic changes incl pulmonary adenomas and carcinomas, hepatocarcinomas, myeloid leukemia, reticulum cell sarcoma of the mediastinum, and lymphomas. In contrast, two studies in which hydrazine was given orally to mice failed to produce an incr in the number of tumors. Chronic oral admin of hydrazine to rats also resulted in lung adenomas, carcinomas, and liver tumors. By contrast, hamsters failed to show an incr in tumors following oral admin of hydrazine.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 761]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine produced tumors in the mouse following ip injection but did not incr the tumor yield in rats following either sc injection or intratracheal application.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 762]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mice were exposed to hydrazine vapors for 6 mo at 0.2, 1, or 5 ppm conc. In all groups, there was an incr incidence of pulmonary tumors. Another inhalation study was conducted in which rats, mice, dogs, or hamsters were exposed at vapor conc of 0.05 (rats and mice), 0.25, 1.0, and 5.0 ppm (rats, mice (except 5 ppm), hamsters, and dogs) for 1 yr and subsequently followed for their lifespan or 38 mo. Exposures were conducted 6 hr/day, 5 days/wk. An incr incidence of benign and malignant nasal tumors were observed at 1 and 5 ppm in rats. At 0.05 ppm, the incidence of nasal tumors in rats was slightly incr, but not significantly, above controls. An incr incidence of benign nasal polyps was observed at 5 ppm in hamsters. In addition, hamsters exposed at 0.25 ppm and higher conc showed pathological changes characteristic of degenerative disease, incl amyloidosis. Thyroid tumors and colon tumors were only slightly incr in hamsters exposed at 5 ppm. An incr incidence of pulmonary adenomas was observed at 1 ppm in mice. No incr in tumors was observed in mice exposed below 1 ppm. No compound-related neoplastic effects or non-neoplastic effects were observed in dogs at any conc.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 762]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine has proven to be carcinogenic following lifetime admin in the majority of the rodent studies. The main target tissues are the liver, the lungs, and following inhalation, the epithelium of the nasal cavity...these effects occur generally under conditions in which frank signs of toxicity (irritation, tissue damage) are occurring.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 762]**PEER REVIEWED**

Groups of rats were exposed orally during gestation of 8 mg hydrazine (as monohydrochloride)/kg bw. Maternal toxicity, incl mortality and bw loss, was seen, along with fetal toxicity that incl reduced fetal weight and viability. Although some fetuses were pale and edematous, no major congenital malformations occurred. /hydrazine monohydrochloride/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 762]**PEER REVIEWED**

A ... developmental toxicity study was carried out in rats given oral doses of 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg hydrazine (free base)/kg from days 6-15 of gestation. The study also incl a group treated with 10 mg/kg on days 7-9. Maternal toxicity and fetal toxicity occurred at the 5- and 10-mg dose levels with 2.5 mg/kg being an apparent NOEL. Developmental delays, but no terata, were seen in the fetuses. Mice treated ip with 0, 4, 12, 20, 30, or 40 mg hydrazine (free base)/kg bw from days 6-9 of gestation resulted in maternal mortality at 40 mg/kg, an incr in fetal deaths at 30 and 40 mg/kg, and reduced fetal weights and incr numbers of litters with malformed young (exencephaly, hydronephrosis, supernumerary ribs) at 12 and 20 mg/kg.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 762]**PEER REVIEWED**

In a gavage study, no evidence of developmental toxicity was seen in rats treated with 13 mg/kg daily for 30 days prior to mating. In a study where rats were exposed to hydrazine in drinking water (0.00016-0.16 mg/kg doses), no effects were seen in either maternal or fetal animals.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 762]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is positive in most standard assays for genotoxicity. It is positive in producing forward mutation in Bacillus subtilis, in plants, and in mammalian cells. Hydrazine produced reverse mutation in B. subtilis, fungi, and in the host-mediated assay in mice. It produced sex-linked recessive lethals in Drosophila and chromosomal breaks or aberrations in plant and animal cells. Although positive in one micronucleus test, hydrazine was inactive in two other assays for clastogenesis, in the production of nuclear aberrations following oral exposure to mice, or in incr the yield of dominant lethals following ip injection in mice.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 762]**PEER REVIEWED**

IN RATS, DOSE OF 20 MG/KG CAUSED ACCUM OF LIPID, SWELLING OF MITOCHONDRIA & APPEARANCE OF MICROBODIES IN PERIPORTAL & MIDZONAL HEPATOCYTES & IN PROXIMAL TUBULAR CELLS OF KIDNEY. PRETREATMENT WITH PHENOBARBITAL OR PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE, RESPECTIVELY, REDUCED & INCREASED SEVERITY OF FATTY LIVER.
[SCALES MD C, TIMBRELL JA; J TOXICOL ENVIRON HEALTH 10 (6): 941 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The toxicities of hydrazine and phenylhydrazine to embryos and larvae of zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio, were studied under standardized conditions. Exposures to the chemicals started at the blastula stage and the effect on hatching and survival were monitored for 15 days. The results showed that toxicities of phenylhydrazine to both embryos and larvae were more than those of hydrazine. The Lowest Observed Effect Concentration for hatching was 0.049 mg/l for hydrazine and 0.0078 mg/l for phenylhydrazine, the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration for survival of larvae was 0.0035 mg/l for hydrazine and 0.00098 mg/l for phenylhydrazine, respectively. The No Observed Effect Concentration for hatching was 0.0245 mg/l for hydrazine and 0.0039 mg/l for phenylhydrazine and the No Observed Effect Concentration for survival of larvae was 0.00175 mg/l for hydrazine and 0.00049 mg/l for phenylhydrazine, respectively. The safe concentration was 0.00175 mg/l for hydrazine and 0.00049 mg/l for phenylhydrazine.
[Xiu R et al; Chin J Environ Sci (Beijing); 13 (6): 67-9 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine hepatotoxicity in vivo, as manifested by triglyceride accumulation, depletion of ATP and reduced glutathione (GSH) was shown to be dose related. The effect of pretreatment of rats with various inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome p450 on these dose-response relationships was investigated. Pretreatment with the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide increased triglyceride accumulation whereas pretreatment with the inducers phenobarbital and beta-naphthoflavone resulted in reduced triglyceride accumulation. Pretreatment with the inducers acetone and isoniazid also enhanced triglyceride accumulation. Only phenobarbital pretreatment also significantly reduced glutathione and ATP depletion. A linear correlation was found between hepatic glutathione and ATP levels in non-pretreated animals given various doses of hydrazine. However, exponential relationships were found between hepatic triglycerides and both hepatic ATP and glutathione. The results suggest that i) the hepatotoxicity of hydrazine can be modulated by inducing or inhibiting particular isoenzymes of cytochrome p450, ii) ATP and glutathione depletion may not be directly involved in the development of fatty liver.
[Jenner AM, Timbrell JA; Arch Toxicol 68 (6): 349-57 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The metabolism and disposition of hydrazine and its effects on endogenous metabolites has been studied in rats by the use of high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy of urine. Several metabolites of hydrazine were detected, notably acetyl- and diacetylhydrazine and a cyclised metabolite which results from a hydrazone formed from 2-oxoglutarate and hydrazine. Effects of hydrazine on endogenous metabolites in urine and plasma were also observed; notably a dose-related increase in urinary taurine, a dose-related increase in urinary and plasma lactate, increases in urinary alpha-alanine, beta-alanine, methylamine and a decrease in urinary 2-oxoglutarate. This study has indicated the utility of using high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy to analyze urine for both metabolites and endogenous compounds after exposure of animal to toxic substances.
[Sanins SM et al; Arch Toxicol 66 (7): 489-95 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The neonatal rat, because of its relatively rapid rate of liver DNA replication without chemical or surgical induction, was used to assess the genotoxicity of the carcinogen hydrazine. Hydrazine is a more potent acute toxicant in the neonate than in the adult rat. Administration of hydrazine sc (1.5-50 mg/kg body wt) to newborn rats during the period of rapid liver DNA synthesis, 72-96 hr after birth, resulted in the formation of 7-methylguanine and 06-methylguanine in hepatic DNA; 06-methylguanine was seen only in animals given near-lethal doses of the carcinogen. Methylguanines were detectable in liver DNA only when the dose of hydrazine was necrogenic, but lethal doses of hydrazine to neonates produced more methylguanines in liver DNA than in adult rats given equal doses. Southern analyses were performed on liver DNA from neonates treated with 25 or 50 mg hydrazine/kg, doses which were necrogenic to the liver. The results indicated that one or more MspI restriction sites (5'-C decreases CGG-3') were lost or blocked in liver DNA from hydrazine-treated animals and that these sites were located at or near the genes for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and cytochrome p450 IIBl. Restriction sites near albumin, H-ras, and cytochrome p450 IIEl genes cut by MspI, HpaII, or HhaI did not appear to be affected by hydrazine treatment. The results suggest that hydrazine-induced damage is not random in the DNA molecule. The neonate shows less DNA adduct formation at low doses of hydrazine, but higher levels at high doses.
[Leakakos T, Shank RC; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 126 (2): 295-300 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Cultured rat hepatocytes were exposed to hydrazine for 4 hr, 17 hr or 4 hr followed by a 13-hr post-exposure period. Hydrazine was cytotoxic as measured by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, caused depletion of ATP and inhibited protein synthesis. The cytotoxicity and depletion of ATP in cultures exposed to hydrazine for 4 hr was less than that previously reported in hepatocyte suspensions exposed for 4 hr. The threshold cytotoxic concentration (20 mM) was also higher in cells in culture than in cells in suspension (16 mM). Inhibition of protein synthesis was detected at a much lower concentration of hydrazine (0.5 mM) than was required to deplete ATP (16 mM) or cause cytotoxicity (20 mM). ATP depletion and inhibition of protein synthesis were similar after a 4-hr exposure with or without a 13-hr post-exposure period, but leakage of lactate dehydrogenase still occurred during this period. After the 17-hr exposure, the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, ATP depletion and inhibition of protein synthesis were greater and the threshold concentration of hydrazine required for a significant effect on all three parameters was lower. This was so whether compared with a 4-hr exposure, or a 4-hr exposure plus a 13-hr post-exposure period. The results of this study indicate the following: (a) the sensitivity of cultured hepatocytes to hydrazine is no greater than that of hepatocytes in suspension; (b) the duration of exposure to hydrazine is important but the effect depends on the parameter measured; (c) hydrazine causes a dose-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis at much lower concentrations than those causing lactate dehydrogenase leakage; (d) maintenance of cytochrome p450 in cultured hepatocytes by exposure to metyrapone did not alter the cytotoxicity of hydrazine.
[Ghatineh S, Timbrell JA; Toxicology in Vitro 8 (3): 393-9 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A single dose of hydrazine (3 mg/kg ip) caused hepatic accumulation of triglycerides and depletion of ATP in rats after 9 hr. Repeated exposure of rats to hydrazine (approximately equal to 2.5 mg/kg/day) for 10 days resulted in depletion of hepatic reduced glutathione and triglycerides. Repeated exposure to hydrazine also caused a significant (time dependent) induction of p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity together with changes in other hepatic microsomal enzymes. These included 7-pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, total cytochrome p450, cytochrome b5 and cytochrome p450 reductase activity. Repeated exposure to lower levels of hydrazine (approximately equal to 0.250 mg/kg/day) caused no significant hepatic biochemical or microsomal changes after 5 or 10 days except for an increase in p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity (17%) and liver ATP (15%) after 5 days.
[Jenner AM, Timbrell JA; Arch Toxicol 68 (4): 240-5 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A two phase study was conducted to assess the oncogenic potential of hydrazine in rats and hamsters exposed to hydrazine for repeated short or lifetime exposures and to investigate the acute and subchronic effects of hydrazine in relation to nasal tumorigenesis. Groups of male and female Fischer-344-rats and male Syrian-Golden-hamsters were exposed by inhalation to 750 ppm hydrazine for one (acute) or ten (subchronic) 1 hour weekly sessions, or to 75 ppm hydrazine in a lifetime exposure. The animals were killed at the end of the designated exposure period for a complete necropsy, histopathological evaluation, and morphological diagnosis of apoptosis. The regions of the nasal passages most severely affected by acute and subchronic hydrazine exposures included the lateral aspects of the naso and maxilloturbinates and the lateral wall in the anterior part of the nasal cavity. Degeneration and necrosis of the transitional, respiratory, and olfactory epithelia in the anterior nose were revealed by histopathologic examination after acute and subchronic exposures. Morphological diagnosis showed apoptosis in the olfactory and squamous metaplastic transitional epithelium. The squamous metaplastic transitional epithelium reverted back to normal seeming transitional epithelium by the end of 24 months. Low incidences of hyperplasia (2.6%) and neoplasia (5.7%) were detected after 24 months in rats exposed to 750 ppm hydrazine, and a similar trend was seen in hamsters. Because the distribution and severity of the lesion observed in the nasal mucosa of rats and hamsters in this study correlated well with reported inspiratory air flow patterns in the rat nasal passages, the authors suggest that hydrazine uptake as well as mucosal injury in these regions of the anterior nose was most likely enhanced by airflow patterns. The hyperplasias and polypoid adenomas seen in the hydrazine exposed groups appeared to be derived from the transitional epithelium of both rats and hamsters. Site specificity of these proliferative lesions correlated precisely with regions most severely affected by hydrazine in both acute and subchronic exposures.
[Latendresse JR et al; Fundam and Appl Toxicol 27 (1): 33-48 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The ability of hydrazine, acetylphenylhydrazine, methylhydrazine, and phenylhydrazine to stimulate proteolysis in red cells has been characterized. All four hydrazines effectively stimulated proteolysis in red cells and in hemolysate as evidenced by a two to threefold increase in the rate of tyrosine release. The rate of tyrosine release varied linearly with time, increased with increasing concentration of hydrazine, and also increased as a function of hematocrit. The rank order for stimulation of proteolysis in red cells was phenylhydrazine greater than methylhydrazine greater than hydrazine approximately equal to acetylphenylhydrazine. Inhibitors of glycolysis in red cells only minimally (13-27%) decreased the rate of tyrosine release stimulated by the different hydrazines. Agents which diminished electron transport decreased the rate of tyrosine release. NADP inhibited the rate of tyrosine release stimulated by hydrazine, methylhydrazine, and acetylphenylhydrazine by approximately 36 to 41%; 2'-AMP was less effective. The rate of tyrosine release resulting from insult by the hydrazines was increased slightly by methylene blue, moderately inhibited (approximately 10 to 27%) by the chelator o-phenanthroline and inhibited approximately 30 to 40% by N-ethylmaleimide. Use of an oxygen-depleted atmosphere (nitrogen) increased slightly the rate of tyrosine release stimulated by hydrazines, in contrast, carbon monoxide decreased proteolysis stimulated by hydrazine, methylhydrazine, and acetylphenylhydrazine by approximately 50%. Although the antioxidants dimethylfuran, dimethylthiourea, and methylsulfoxide failed to diminish proteolysis stimulated by the hydrazines, N-acetylcysteine exerted a protective effect, decreasing hydrazine-stimulated tyrosine release in red cells approximately 30 to 50%. Inclusion of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole in the incubation failed to increase further the rate of hydrazine-stimulated proteolysis. These data suggest that more reactive free radicals generated from the hydrazine are responsible for protein damage, that damaged protein (hemoglobin) is degraded via proteolysis, and that an ATP-independent process primarily participates in the degradation of abnormal proteins in the red cell. Thus, proteolytic enzymes present in the erythrocyte appear to exert a protective effect against cellular damage through the removal of abnormal proteins generated as a consequence of xenobiotic insult. The ability of proteolytic enzymes to recognize and degrade abnormal proteins may be of importance in using protein (hemoglobin)-xenobiotic adducts to assess exposure to toxic agents (risk assessment).
[Runge-Morris MA et al; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 94 (3): 414-26 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Non-Human Toxicity Values:

LD50 Rat oral 60 mg/kg
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 761]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rabbit and guinea pig dermal 93-283 mg/kg
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 761]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rat inhalation 4 hr 570 ppm
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 761]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ecotoxicity Values:

STATIC 96-HR MEDIAN LETHAL CONCN FOR BLUEGILL WAS 1.08 MG/L & 96-HR CONTINUOUS FLOW NO LETHAL EFFECT CONCN WAS 0.43 MG/L.
[FISHER JW ET AL; TRANS AM FISH SOC 109 (3): 304 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

TSCA Test Submissions:

Hydrazine (CAS# 302-01-2) was evaluated for acute inhalation toxicity. The test substance was administered as saturated vapors to rats (strain, sex, and number not reported) for 30 minutes resulting in 17% mortality. Clinical signs included restlessness, nasal bleeding, salivation, and convulsions. Pathological findings included lesions of the bronchiolar mucosa.
[E I DUPONT DE NEMOURS & CO; Initial Submission: Preliminary Data on the Acute Toxicity of Hydrazine and Hydrazine Hydrate with Cover Letter Dated 10/15/92; 12/10/49; EPA Doc. No. 88-920010542; Fiche No. OTS0555811] **UNREVIEWED**

Hydrazine (CAS# 302-01-2) was evaluated for acute intravenous toxicity. The test substance was administered as an intravenous injection in rabbits (strain, sex, and number not reported). The LD50 was reported to be 26 mg/kg. No further information was submitted.
[E I DUPONT DE NEMOURS & CO; Initial Submission: Preliminary Data on the Acute Toxicity of Hydrazine and Hydrazine Hydrate with Cover Letter Dated 10/15/92; 12/10/49; EPA Doc. No. 88-920010542; Fiche No. OTS0555811] **UNREVIEWED**

Hydrazine (CAS# 302-01-2) was evaluated for acute dermal toxicity. The test substance was applied undiluted to the clipped skin of rabbits (strain, sex, and number not reported). The test substance produced a prompt local effect consisting of a purplish discoloration appearing in 2-5 minutes and disappearing over the next 48-hours. The discoloration was suspected to be a subcutaneous hemorrhage which in some subjects would slough off the overlying skin and produce a scar. A delayed systemic effect consisted of extensor rigidity of the forelegs and hind legs followed by intermittent clonic convulsions. The LD50 was reported to be 91 mg/kg (mortality data not reported).
[E I DUPONT DE NEMOURS & CO; Initial Submission: Preliminary Data on the Acute Toxicity of Hydrazine and Hydrazine Hydrate with Cover Letter Dated 10/15/92; 12/10/49; EPA Doc. # 88-920010542; Fiche No. OTS0555811] **UNREVIEWED**

Hydrazine (CAS# 302-01-2) was evaluated for eye irritation. The test substance was applied undiluted to the corneas of rabbits (strain, sex, and number not reported). Doses as low as 0.3 mm3 produced moderately severe irritation, and doses at 5 mm3 produced an area of hemorrhage in the nictitating membrane within minutes and persisted for 24-48 hours.
[E I DUPONT DE NEMOURS & CO; Initial Submission: Preliminary Data on the Acute Toxicity of Hydrazine and Hydrazine Hydrate with Cover Letter Dated 10/15/92; 12/10/49; EPA Doc. # 88-920010542; Fiche No. OTS0555811] **UNREVIEWED**

Hydrazine (CAS# 302-01-2) was evaluated for carcinogenicity. The test substance was administered to rats (sex, strain, and number not reported) at a concentration of 750 ppm for 1-hour/week for 10 weeks. Non-malignant lesions in the nasal tissue was detected in the treated animals indicating regenerative compensation. Also, a treatment-related incidence of hyperplasia or adenomatous polyps in 15 or 16 animals out of 600 animals was observed.
[CHEM MFGS ASSN; Initial Submission: Preliminary Information Indicating Adenomatous Polyps in an Inhalation Study of Hydrazine; 10/09/92; EPA Doc. No. 88-930000020; Fiche No. OTS0538284] **UNREVIEWED**

Hydrazine (CAS# 302-01-2) was evaluated for carcinogenicity. The test substance was administered to 100 male hamsters at a concentration of 750 ppm or 75 ppm for 1 hour/week for 10 weeks. Histopathological results included polypoid adenomas on the nasal turbinates in 3/94 hamsters in the 750 ppm group, and 1/93 hamsters in the 75 ppm group.
[CHEM MFGS ASSN; Initial Submission: Letter Regarding Low Incidence of Adenomatous Polyps in an Inhalation Study of Anhydrous Hydrazine in Male Hamsters Dated 05/27/93; 05/27/93; EPA Doc. No. 88-930000304; Fiche No. OTS0538548] **UNREVIEWED**

Hydrazine (CAS# 302-01-2) was evaluated for mutagenicity in the mammalian spot test. The test substance was administered to C57B1/6J Han female inbred mice at a dose level of 40 mg/kg b.w. as an intraperitoneal infection on the 9th day post-conception. The test substance was highly toxic to the mother animals and embryos resulting in less animals with litters and smaller litter size. Mortality at 40 mg/kg resulted in 8/173 mothers dying at delivery. Although the test substance produced a statistically nonsignificant increase in the frequency of color spots of genetic relevance (SGR), it was concluded that the test substance is a weak mutagen.
[MILES INC; Initial Submission: Effects of Hydrazine Hydrate in the Mammalian Spot Test with Cover Letter Dated 12/15/92; 09/01/89; EPA Doc. No. 88-930000101; Fiche No. OTS0537866] **UNREVIEWED**

Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

Metabolism/Metabolites:

HYDRAZINE HAS BEEN FOUND TO BE A PRIMARY PRODUCT OF NITROGEN FIXATION BY AZOTOBACTER AGILE.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 130 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDRAZINE ... IS ... ACETYLATED VERY RAPIDLY IN MOST SPECIES. THE REACTION IS SO FAST THAT THE MONOACETYL METABOLITE IS NOT DETECTED, & THE EXCRETED DIACETYL METABOLITE ACCOUNTS ALMOST ENTIRELY FOR THE ADMIN DOSE.
[Testa, B. and P. Jenner. Drug Metabolism: Chemical & Biochemical Aspects. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1976. 184]**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDRAZINE IS POSSIBLY DEGRADED TO AMMONIA, AS EVIDENCED BY ELEVATION OF BLOOD AMMONIA IN DOGS GIVEN HYDRAZINE; HOWEVER, DIACETYLHYDRAZINE IS NOT. ...
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 133 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(15)N-LABELED HYDRAZINE & CONVENTIONAL METHODS WERE USED TO ACCOUNT FOR APPROX 75% OF SINGLE DOSES OF HYDRAZINE (1 MMOL/KG). IN 48 HR, ABOUT 30% APPEARED IN URINE AS HYDRAZINE & ABOUT 20% EMERGED AS DERIV THAT IS ACID-HYDROLYZABLE TO HYDRAZINE. ABOUT 25% CONVERTED TO NITROGEN.
[SPRINGER DL ET AL; J TOXICOL AND ENVIRON HEALTH 8: 21 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

TOTAL & FREE HYDRAZINE WAS DETECTED IN PLASMA & WHOLE BLOOD 1 HR AFTER 1ST DOSE OF ISONIAZID (300 MG, ORALLY) & RIFAMPICIN (600 MG, ORALLY) IN SLOW & FAST ACETYLATORS. TOTAL HYDRAZINE WAS DETECTED IN BOTH ACETYLATORS 24 HR AFTER THE DRUGS ON DAYS 8 & 15. THIS DATA MAY HAVE IMPORTANT TOXICOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH TUBERCULOSIS TREATED WITH ISONIAZID.
[BEEVER IW ET AL; BR J CLIN PHARMACOL 13 (4): 599 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

STUDY OF RAT LIVER HOMOGENATE REVEALED THAT HYDRAZINE WAS FORMED PREFERENTIALLY FROM ISONIAZID WHICH WAS CATALYZED BY HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES.
[HIRATA M ET AL; J PHARMACOBIO-DYN 4 (2): 145 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Administration of the hepatotoxin and carcinogen, inorganic hydrazine, to rodents results in the formation of 7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine in liver DNA; co-administration of (methyl-(14)C)methionine or (14)C formate with the hydrazine labels the methylquanines, suggesting involvement of the 1-carbon pool in the methylation process. Formaldehyde levels were refractory to the pretreatments; hepatic acetaldehyde levels were increased, but hydrazine administration under such conditions did not result in the formation of ethylated quanines in DNA. Hydrazine incubated with liver S9 fracton and calf thymus DNA induced the formation of 7-methylquanine and O6-methylquanine when formaldehyde was present in the incubation system.
[Bosan WS et al; Carcinogenesis 7 (3): 413-8 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The disposition and metabolism of hydrazine was studied in Sprague-Dawley-rats. Rats were treated with 3, 9, 27, or 81 mg/kg hydrazine-hydrate in water. Livers were removed for determination of toxicity and hydrazine levels after 4 days. Blood was sampled 10, 30, 90, and 270 minutes after treatment and analyzed for hydrazine using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Urine samples were collected daily for determination of metabolites. Another group of rats were dosed with 1.88 mmol/kg or 2.5 mmol/kg labeled hydrazine-hydrate; plasma and urine hydrazine levels measured 4 and 24 hours later. Hydrazine concentrations were initially higher in the liver than in the plasma with hydrazine doses of 3 and 9 mg/kg, but this was reversed with doses of 27 and 81 mg/kg. No relationship between hydrazine dose and liver or plasma concentrations were seen. Twenty four hours after treatment with labeled hydrazine, the liver contained five times the amount of hydrazine seen in the plasma. Hydrazine and acetylhydrazine were identified in the urine of rats O to 24 hours after treatment, and their concentration increased with increasing doses. After 4 days, animals treated with 81 mg/kg hydrazine lost more weight and drank less water overall, than controls. Histological examination of livers from animals treated with 27 and 811 mg/kg hydrazine demonstrated vacuolation, and intracellular fat droplets were identified in animals treated with the higher dose.
[Preece NE et al; Human and Experimental Toxicology 11 (2): 121-7 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

It has been demonstrated that hydrazine is metabolized by rat liver enzymes located in the microsomal fraction. This metabolism was reduced in the absence of oxygen or NADPH and was increased by NADH in the presence of NADPH. 2. Microsomal enzyme inhibitors, piperonyl butoxide and metyrapone, significantly inhibited hydrazine metabolism but glutathione had no affect and was not depleted. 3. In addition to p450, flavin monooxygenase may also be involved in catalysing the microsomal metabolism of hydrazine. 4. Liver microsomes prepared from either beta-naphthoflavone, acetone or the isoniazid-pretreated rat did not show a significant increase in hydrazine metabolism compared with microsomes from the control rat. However, although phenobarbitone pretreatment increased overall microsomal hydrazine metabolism this was not increased relative to p450 content. 5. Hydrazine metabolism was 20-70% lower in human microsomes prepared from three individuals compared with the control rat. 6. Hydrazine is also metabolized by rat liver mitochondria but the monoamine oxidase inhibitors clorgyline and pargyline do not significantly decrease this.
[Jenner AM, Timbrell JA; Xenobiotica 25 (6): 599-609 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Previous work has demonstrated that hydrazine after formylation to its corresponding hydrazone may be activated both in vivo and in vitro to a methylating intermediate resulting in the formation of 06-methyl- and N7-methylguanines in DNA. Incubation of calf thymus DNA with the hydrazine derivative, hydralazine, and formaldehyde resulted in the production of N7-methylguanine and two aberrant bases in DNA. These bases were separated by strong cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatographic fractionation of neutral thermal hydrolysates. Administration of hydralazine to rats resulted in the formation of N7-methylguanine in liver DNA, but the two unknown bases observed in the in vitro experiment could not be demonstrated in vivo. In contrast to hydrazine, administration of hydralazine resulted in the methylation of DNA only at doses approaching the LD50, suggesting that formylation does not represent a significant mechanism for hydralazine toxicity in the system described. Hydralazine in combination with formaldehyde resulted in the formation of triazolophthalazine, a metabolite which has been characterized in man. The ability of 17 other hydrazine derivatives to alkylate liver DNA was determined after single administration to young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats or C57BL6 mice. Quantifiable amounts of N7-methylguanine were measured in liver DNA from animals treated with 10 of the 17 compounds. In 3 of the 10 cases quantifiable amounts of 06-methylguanine were also measured. Methylation of liver DNA guanine was obtained with hydrazine, hydralazine, procarbazine, isoniazid, phenylhydrazine, nialamide, nitrofurazone, maleic hydrazide, sulfomethoxypyridazine, and sulfamethiazole and two hydrazine-formaldehyde polymerization products, formalazine and tetraformyltrisazine.
[Mathison BH et al; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 127 (1): 91-8 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Absorption, Distribution & Excretion:

... ABSORBED FROM LUNGS, GI TRACT, PARENTERAL INJECTION SITES, & THROUGH INTACT SKIN.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2791]**PEER REVIEWED**

ABSORPTION OF HYDRAZINE THROUGH SKIN IN DOGS IS RAPID, AND THE HYDRAZINE CAN BE DETECTED IN FEMORAL /ARTERY/ BLOOD WITHIN 30 SECONDS.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 132 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDRAZINONITROGEN (ASSUMED TO BE LARGELY UNCHANGED HYDRAZINE) IS EXCRETED IN URINE AFTER IV OR SC ADMIN OF HYDRAZINE IN DOGS. 5-11% OF LARGE DOSES (50 MG/KG--TWICE THE LD50) EXCRETED WITHIN FIRST 4 HR & APPROX 50% OF 15 MG/KG DOSES IS EXCRETED WITHIN FIRST 2 DAYS AFTER INJECTION.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2798]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is rapidly and well absorbed by the skin, GI tract, and lungs, although its vapors are not absorbed significantly through the skin.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 761]**PEER REVIEWED**

Biological Half-Life:

(DISAPPEARANCE OF HYDRAZINE FROM BLOOD WAS BIPHASIC WITH HALF-LIVES OF 0.74 & 26.9 HR.
[SPRINGER DL ET AL; J TOXICOL AND ENVIRON HEALTH 8: 21 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mechanism of Action:

Injection of hydrazine (0.7 mmole/kg) in male fasting rats caused an increase in phosphatidate phosphohydrolase acitiviy in the soluble fraction of the liver. The increased phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity was parallel with a rise in hepatic triacylglycerol (3.5-fold) and in the catecholamine concentration (3.4-fold) in adrenal glands. Hydrazine also increased serum glucose. The hydrazine-induced increased in phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity and triacylglycerol accumulation was completely prevented by adrenalectomy. The data suggest that increased phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity is at least partly responsible for hydrazine-induced fatty liver and that adrenal hormones may take part in the mechanism by which hydrazine exerts its effects on the liver.
[Haghighi B, Honarjou S; Biochem Pharmacol 36 (7): 1163-6 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is acutely neurotoxic, hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic; it is also carcinogenic to liver and lung in rodents. Administration of hydrazine results in formation of 7-methylquanine and O6-methylguanine in target organ DNA of rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs. It has been suggested that hydrazine reacts with endogenous formaldehyde to form a condensation product which could be metabolized to a methylating agent. Solutions of 0.50 mM hydrazine and formaldehyde have, upon mixing, NMR spectra (300 mHz) consistent with the formation of formaldehyde hydrazone but not other possible condensation products such as tetraformyltriazine or formaldehyde azine. These same solutions evidencing hydrazone formation, when incubated in an in vitro system containing post-mitochondrial (S9), microsomal, cytosolic or mitochondrial cell fractions, resulted in the methylation of DNA guanine; S9 was the most active fraction. Neither the p450 monooxygenase nor flavin monooxygenase systems appeared to be important in hydrazine/formaldehyde-induced methylation of DNA. However, sodium azide, cyanamide and carbon monoxide all inhibited S9-supported DNA methylation. Bovine liver catalase, a heme-containing cytochrome, readily transformed hydrazine/formaldehyde to a methylating agent. The data support formation of formaldehyde hydrazine as the condensation product of hydrazine and formaldehyde which is rapidly transformed in various liver cell fractions, perhaps by catalase and/or catalase-like enzyme, to a methylating agent.
[Lambelt CE, Shank RC; Carcinogenesis 9 (1): 65-70 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The genotoxicity of a variety of hydrazine derivatives was examined in the DNA repair test on rat or mouse hepatocytes. Out of 32 hydrazine derivatives, 6 chemicals, ie, N'-acetyl-4-(hydroxymethyl)phenylhydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, 1-hydrazinophthalazine hydrochloride, methylhydrazine.sulfate, p,p-oxybisbenzene disulfonylhydrazide and phenylhydrazine hydrochloride, elicited positive DNA repair responses in the test on rat hepatocytes. In the test on mouse hepatocytes, 4 more hydrazine derivatives, ie, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine sulfate and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid hydrazide hydrochloride also generated positive responses, in addition to the 6 positive compounds in the rat assay. These results suggest that mouse hepatocytes are more susceptible to the genotoxicity of hydrazine derivatives, and that the species differences in genotoxicity appear to be in agreement with the in vivo carcinogenicity of these agents.
[Mon H et al; Jpn J Cancer Res 79 (2): 204-11 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The induction of liver DNA adducts by hydrazine was investigated in two mouse strains. Male Swiss Webster mice and B6C3F1 mice were administered single intraperitoneal injections of 0, 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg hydrazine and were sacfificed 24 hours later. Isolated liver DNA was analyzed for chemical adducts involving purine bases, using high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Dose dependent formation of 7-methylguanine (7MG) and O6-methylguanine (06MG) was observed in liver DNA of both strains of mice. The persistence of the methylguanines in mouse liver DNA was determined in Swiss Webster mice and B6C3F1 mice administered 20 mg/kg hydrazine and sacrificed at 24 hour intervals for up to 96 hours. The rates of formation of 7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine and the rate of removal of 7-methylguanine were similar in the two strains of mice. However, the rate of disappearance of O6-methylguanine was considerably slower in B6C3F1 mice than in Swiss Webster mice, with estimated half lifes of 200 hours and 17 hours in the two strains, respectively. The results of this study were compared with those of a similar study in which levels of O6-methylguanine and 7-methylguanine in liver DNA were followed in Syrian golden hamsters administered hydrazine in their drinking water for a period of 2 years. /Results indicate/ that hydrazine may be a hepatocarcinogen to which B6C3F1 mice may be particularly susceptible due to the persistence of O6-methylguanine in this mouse strain.
[Shank RC; Archives of Toxicol Suppl 10: 204-16 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

...The mechanism of action appears to be through indirect alkylation of DNA, which itself is closely connected to the toxic action of hydrazine (i.e., through reacting with a cellular intermediate in the initiation of neoplastic transformation).
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 762]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interactions:

COMBINED ACTION OF COMMERCIAL HYDRAZINE-BENZENE & BENZIDINE-SULFATE IN RATS INCREASED THE INCIDENCE OF TUMORS & REDUCED THE MEAN LATENT PERIOD OF NEOPLASM DEVELOPMENT.
[GENIN VA ET AL; GIG TR PROF ZABOL 6: 28 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pretreatment of Vicia faba root-tip meristems with a nontoxic dose of either hydrazine or N,N'-diformylhydrazine prior to the administration of maleic hydrazide, separated by 2 hr, resulted in a significant reduction of the yield of maleic hydrazide-induced chromatid aberrations compared to control treatments (maleic hydrazide only). This clastogenic adaptation was not observed when the alkylating agent triethylene melamine was used instead of maleic hydrazide. Thus, pretreatment with the hydrazines induces an error-free repair system which reduces maleic hydrazide-induced damage and both hydrazines and maleic hydrazide appear able to induce oxidative DNA lesions.
[Heindorff K et al; Mutat Res 142 (4): 183-6 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Administration of the hepatotoxin and carcinogen, inorganic hydrazine, to rodents results in the formation of 7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine in liver DNA; co-administration of methyl-(14)C-methionine or (14)C-formate with the hydrazine lables the methylguanines, suggesting involvement of the 1-carbon pool in the methylation process. The present study investigates the proposal that the methylation mechanism involves reaction of hydrazine with endogenous formaldehyde to yield formaldehyde hydrazone, which could be metabolized to the potent methylating agent diazomethane. Hamsters were pretreated with methanol, ethanol or cyanamide to alter the endogenous hepatic aldehyde levels prior to administration of hydrazine. Formaldehyde levels were refractory to the pretreatment; hepatic acetaldehyde levels were increased, but hydrazine administration under such conditions did not result in the formation of ethylated guanines in DNA. Methanol and ethanol inhibited hydrazine-induced methylaton of DNA. Hydrazine incubated with liver S9 fraction and calf thymus DNA induced the formation of 7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine when formaldehyde was present in the incubation system; substitution of formaldehyde with acetaldehyde in the incubation medium did not result in any detectable alkylation of DNA. Both liver microsomal and cytosolic fractions demonstrated heat-liable activity in supporting the hydrazine-induced methylation process. Tetraformyltrisazine or a similar reaction product of hydrazine and formaldehyde, may be a more important intermediate than formaldehyde hydrazone in the hydrazine-induced methylation of DNA.
[Bosan WS et all; Carcinogeneses 7 (3): 413-8 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pharmacology:

Therapeutic Uses:

EXPTL USE: THE RESPONSE OF RED CELLS FROM PATIENTS WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE TO HYDRAZINE TREATMENT IN VITRO IS TO INHIBIT THE SICKLED MORPHOLOGY, WHILE THE METABOLIC CHARACTERISTICS & OSMOTIC FRAGILITY OF THE CELLS REMAIN UNALTERED. HOWEVER, THE OXYGEN AFFINITY OF THE SICKLE CELL HEMOGLOBIN IS DECREASED.
[PRICE-EVANS C ET AL; BIOCHEM BIOPHYS ACTA 691 (2): 367 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interactions:

COMBINED ACTION OF COMMERCIAL HYDRAZINE-BENZENE & BENZIDINE-SULFATE IN RATS INCREASED THE INCIDENCE OF TUMORS & REDUCED THE MEAN LATENT PERIOD OF NEOPLASM DEVELOPMENT.
[GENIN VA ET AL; GIG TR PROF ZABOL 6: 28 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pretreatment of Vicia faba root-tip meristems with a nontoxic dose of either hydrazine or N,N'-diformylhydrazine prior to the administration of maleic hydrazide, separated by 2 hr, resulted in a significant reduction of the yield of maleic hydrazide-induced chromatid aberrations compared to control treatments (maleic hydrazide only). This clastogenic adaptation was not observed when the alkylating agent triethylene melamine was used instead of maleic hydrazide. Thus, pretreatment with the hydrazines induces an error-free repair system which reduces maleic hydrazide-induced damage and both hydrazines and maleic hydrazide appear able to induce oxidative DNA lesions.
[Heindorff K et al; Mutat Res 142 (4): 183-6 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Administration of the hepatotoxin and carcinogen, inorganic hydrazine, to rodents results in the formation of 7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine in liver DNA; co-administration of methyl-(14)C-methionine or (14)C-formate with the hydrazine lables the methylguanines, suggesting involvement of the 1-carbon pool in the methylation process. The present study investigates the proposal that the methylation mechanism involves reaction of hydrazine with endogenous formaldehyde to yield formaldehyde hydrazone, which could be metabolized to the potent methylating agent diazomethane. Hamsters were pretreated with methanol, ethanol or cyanamide to alter the endogenous hepatic aldehyde levels prior to administration of hydrazine. Formaldehyde levels were refractory to the pretreatment; hepatic acetaldehyde levels were increased, but hydrazine administration under such conditions did not result in the formation of ethylated guanines in DNA. Methanol and ethanol inhibited hydrazine-induced methylaton of DNA. Hydrazine incubated with liver S9 fraction and calf thymus DNA induced the formation of 7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine when formaldehyde was present in the incubation system; substitution of formaldehyde with acetaldehyde in the incubation medium did not result in any detectable alkylation of DNA. Both liver microsomal and cytosolic fractions demonstrated heat-liable activity in supporting the hydrazine-induced methylation process. Tetraformyltrisazine or a similar reaction product of hydrazine and formaldehyde, may be a more important intermediate than formaldehyde hydrazone in the hydrazine-induced methylation of DNA.
[Bosan WS et all; Carcinogeneses 7 (3): 413-8 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate & Exposure:

Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary:

Hydrazine's production and use as a chemical intermediate, reducing agent, as rocket fuel and as a boiler water treatment agent may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Hydrazine is also naturally produced by Azotobacter agile during nitrogen fixation. If released to the atmosphere, hydrazine will exist solely in the vapor phase in the ambient atmosphere, based on a measured vapor pressure of 14.4 mm Hg at 25 deg C. Vapor-phase hydrazine is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals and ozone with estimated half-lives of about 6 and 9 hours, respectively. Release of hydrazine to soil is expected to result in degradation in soils containing a high percentage of organic carbon and in strong adsorption in soils containing high clay content. In other soils, especially sandy soils, hydrazine may have high mobility. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected based on an estimated Henry's Law constant of 6.1X10-7 atm-cu m/mole. The potential for volatilization of hydrazine from dry soil surfaces may exist based on the vapor pressure of this compound. Biodegradation is not expected to be an important environmental fate process in the presence of a large amount of hydrazine due to its toxicity to microorganisms; it may be important at low hydrazine concentrations. Release of hydrazine to water should result in rapid degradation of hydrazine, especially in water containing high concentrations of organic matter and dissolved oxygen. The estimated half-life of hydrazine in pond water is 8.3 days. Based on soil studies, hydrazine may bind to clay and organic matter found in sediments and particulate material in water; it should not strongly adsorb to other types of particulates. This compound should not volatilize from water surfaces given its estimated Henry's Law constant. A measured BCF value of 316 suggests that bioconcentration in aquatic organisms may be high. Based on the physical properties of this compound, low bioconcentration is predicted. Occupational exposure may occur through inhalation or dermal contact at workplaces where hydrazine is produced or used. The general population may be exposed to hydrazine through inhalation of cigarette smoke or the ingestion of trace residues in processed foods. (SRC)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

... Route of human exposure to hydrazine is ingestion of trace residues in processed foods. ...
[DHHS/NTP; Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens p.115-6 (1985) NTP 85-002]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE SMOKE FROM A BLENDED US CIGARETTE CONTAINED 31.5 NG HYDRAZINE.
[HOFFMAN D ET AL; IARC SCI PUBL; VOL 9, ISS N-NITROSO CMPD ENVIRON, PROC WORK CONF 159 (1973, 1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

An industrial hygiene assessment of the extent of exposure to hydrazine compounds was carried out due to the growing number of such compounds shown to be animal carcinogens in laboratory studies. The report summarizes production and uses of hydrazine compounds, the toxic effects of such compounds, relevant exposure standards, sampling and analytical methods relevant to exposure assessment, and observations made during surveys conducted at eight facilities in the United States where these compounds were either prepared or used. The sites visited for the survey were of four basic types: those which used hydrazine compounds as propellants, those which manufactured the compounds, those which used hydrazine as an aircraft emergency power unit fuel, or sites where hydrazine was used in boiler water treatment. Personal exposures measured were generally within the range from below the limit of detection to 1.0 ppm as an 8 hour time weighted average. The OSHA permissible exposure limits for the hydrazine compounds of interest ranged from 0.5 to 5 ppm. The number of workers exposed was found to be low. Large scale propellant and emergency jet power unit usage was relatively new, and the manufacturing methods had not been used until recently. /Data indicated/ that the accumulated person years of exposure are relatively low; it is unlikely that suitable cohorts exist for retrospective expsoure studies.
[Fagen JM and McCammon CM; Proceedings of the Fourth NCI/EPA/NIOSH Collaborative Workshop: Progress on Joint Environment and Occupational Cancer Studies April 22-23 NIH Pub# 88-296 p261-96 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 59,147 workers (2,840 of these are female) are potentially exposed to hydrazine in the US(1). About 2000 Finnish employees were exposed to hydrazine between the years 1980-1989(2). Occupational exposure may be through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where hydrazine is produced or used(SRC). The general population will be exposed to hydrazine via inhalation of ambient air and cigarette smoke, ingestion of food, and dermal contact with vapors and other products containing hydrazine(SRC).
[(1) NIOSH; National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) (1983) (2) Tossavainene A, Jaakkola J; Appl Occup Environ Hyg 9: 28-31 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Natural Pollution Sources:

Hydrazine has been found to be a primary product of nitrogen fixation by Azotobacter algae
[IARC MONOGRAPHS 1972-PRESENT V4 p.130]**PEER REVIEWED**

Artificial Pollution Sources:

ONE SOURCE HAS REPORTED THAT THE BURNING OF ROCKET FUELS BASED ON HYDRAZINE & DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE PRODUCES EXHAUST GASES WHICH CONTAIN ONLY TRACE QUANTITIES OF UNCHANGED FUEL.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 130 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine's production and use as a chemical intermediate, reducing agent, as rocket fuel(1) and as a boiler water treatment agent(2) may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams(SRC).
[(1) Budavari S; The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 12th Edition. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc. p. 816 (1996) (2) Ashford RD; Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals Wavelength Publications Ltd p. 474 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE USE OF HYDRAZINE IN BOILER WATER TREATMENT MIGHT RESULT IN ITS BRIEF APPEARANCE IN WASTE DISCHARGE, BUT IT WOULD REACT WITH OXYGEN RAPIDLY.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 130 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate:

THE USE OF HYDRAZINE AS A CHEMICAL INTERMEDIATE WOULD NOT BE LIKELY TO RESULT IN ITS APPEARANCE IN UNREACTED FORM IN THE ENVIRONMENT.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 130 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

TERRESTRIAL FATE: Of the initial concentration of hydrazine in cleaned sand (100% sand), Vandenburg Air Force Base soil (99.1% sand, 0.4% clay, pH 6.1), organic soil (96.1% sand, 1% clay, 1% carbon, pH 6.4), and clay (69.3% sand, 27.95% clay, pH 3.7), 0%, 14%, 28%, and 18% was degraded, respectively(1). Based on further results from this study, hydrazine should be mobile in most soils. Of the initial amount of hydrazine applied to the same four soil types as above, cleaned sand, Vandenburg Air Force Base (VAFB) soil, organic soil, and clay, 2%, 44%, 25%, and 59% was adsorbed, respectively(1). Therefore, leaching of this compound may result upon release of hydrazine to sandy soil; however, hydrazine is expected to degrade in soil high in organic carbon and to adsorb to soils high in clay content(1,SRC). Biodegradation is not expected to be significant when large amounts of hydrazine are released due to the high microbial toxicity of hydrazine(2); at lower concentrations, however, hydrazine biodegradation could be important(3,SRC). Volatilization of hydrazine should not be important from moist soil surfaces(SRC) given an estimated Henry's Law constant of 6.1X10-7 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), calculated from experimental values for vapor pressure(4) and water solubility(5). The potential for volatilization of hydrazine from dry soil surfaces may exist(SRC) based on a measured vapor pressure of 14.4 mm Hg(4).
[(1) Braun BA, Zirrolli JA; Environ Fate of Hydrazine Fuels in Aqueous and Soil Environments, Air Force Report No. ESL-TR-82-45 NTIS AD-A125813 (1983) (2) Schirmann JP; Ullmann's Encycl Indust Chem. VCH Publishers: Deerfield Beach, FL VA13: 183 (1989) (3) Sun H et al; Huanjing Kexue 13: 35-9 (1992) (4) Boublik T et al; The Vapor Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapor Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region Elsevier Sci Publ Vol.17 Amsterdam, Netherlands (1984) (5) Amoore JE, Hautala E; J Appl Toxicol 3: 272-290 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

AQUATIC FATE: The estimated half-life of hydrazine, initially present at 1.8 mM, in pond water is 8.3 days(1). In river water, containing substantial amounts of organic matter, 22.6%, 96%, and 100% of the added hydrazine, initially at 5 mg/l, was degraded after about 1 hour, 1 day and 2 days, respectively. In pond water, 20%, 74%, 80%, and 81.6% of the added hydrazine, initially at 5 mg/l, was degraded after about 1 hr, 1 day, 2 days and 3 days, respectively(2). Hydrazine will react with dissolved oxygen at a rate inversely proportional to the concentration of hydrazine. After 4 days, 52%, 48%, 21.4% and 7.4% of the added hydrazine had degraded in hard water, moderately hard water, slightly hard water, and soft water samples, respectively(2). The addition of organic matter increased the amount of hydrazine degraded(2). Based on soil studies(1), hydrazine may bind to clay and organic matter found in sediments and particulate material in water; it should not strongly adsorb to other types of particulates(SRC).
[(1) Braun BA, Zirrolli JA; Environ Fate of Hydrazine Fuels in Aqueous and Soil Environments, Air Force Report No. ESL-TR-82-45 NTIS AD-A125813 (1983) (2) Slonim AR, Gisclard JB; Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 16: 301-9 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

AQUATIC FATE: Based on limited data, biodegradation is not expected to be significant upon the release of large amounts of hydrazine as it is microbially toxic(1); at lower hydrazine concentrations biodegradation may be important(2,SRC). Hydrazine is not expected to volatilize from water surfaces(3,SRC) based on an estimated Henry's Law constant of 6.1X10-7 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), calculated from experimental values for vapor pressure(4) and water solubility(5). According to a classification scheme(6), a BCF value of 316, measured in guppies(7), suggests that bioconcentration in aquatic organisms may be high; however, based on the physical properties of this compound (an estimated BCF value of 0.01(3,SRC), from a measured log Kow(8)), only low bioconcentration is predicted(SRC).
[(1) Schirmann JP; Ullmann's Encycl Indust Chem. VCH Publishers: Deerfield Beach, FL VA13: 183 (1989) (2) Sun H et al; Huanjing Kexue 13: 35-9 (1992) (3) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 5-4, 5-10, 15-1 to 15-29 (1990) (4) Boublik T et al; The Vapor Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapor Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region Elsevier Sci Publ Vol.17 Amsterdam, Netherlands (1984) (5) Amoore JE, Hautala E; J Appl Toxicol 3: 272-290 (1983) (6) Franke C et al; Chemosphere 29: 1501-14 (1994) (7) Slonim AR, Gisclard JB; Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 16: 301-9 (1976) (8) Hansch C et al; Exploring QSAR. Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constants. ACS Prof Ref Book. Amer Chem Soc, Washington, DC. p. 3 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), hydrazine, which has a measured vapor pressure of 14.4 mm Hg at 25 deg C(2), will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase hydrazine is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be about 6 hours(3,SRC). Based on experimental data and assuming an ozone concentration of 7X10+11 molecules/cu cm, the half-life for the reaction between ozone and hydrazine is about 9 hr(4,SRC). It was estimated that the half-life for the reaction of hydrazine with ozone would be < 10 min during ozone pollution episodes and < 2 hr in the 'natural' troposphere(5). Hydrazine will react rapidly with nitrogen oxides in the light and in the dark with a half-life of about 2 hr(6). Direct photolysis is not expected to be an important fate process(SRC).
[(1) Bidleman TF; Environ Sci Technol 22: 361-367 (1988) (2) Boublik T et al; The Vapor Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapor Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region Elsevier Sci Publ Vol.17 Amsterdam, Netherlands (1984) (3) Harris GW et al; J Phys Chem 83: 2557-9 (1979) (3) Tuazon EC et al; Environ Sci Technol 15: 823-28 (1981) (4) Atkinson R, Carter WPL; Chem Rev 84: 437-70 (1984) (5) Tuazon EC et al; Environ Sci Technol 15: 823-28 (1981) (6) Pitts JN Jr et al; Atmospheric Chemistry of Hydrazines: Gas Phase Kinetics and Mechanistic Studies Statewide Air Pollut Res Cent Riverside, CA Rep No. AFESC/ESL-TR-80-39 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Biodegradation:

Pure cultures of Azotobacter vinelandii are capable of metabolizing hydrazine to three carboxylic acids related to 3,4-dihydropyridazinone-5-carboxylic acid and ammonia and nitrogen gas(1) and unidentified, acid-labile compounds(2). The degradation of hydrazine hydrate in river water follows 1st order reaction kinetics(3). The degradation rate increases with increasing temperature, dissolved oxygen, and the presence of microorganisms at pH values of 6-8(3). Hydrazine at 500 mg/l, present in a wastewater mixture of other hydrazine compounds, was incubated with an inoculum prepared from a trickling filter plant; following a 24 hour lag period, this mixture of compounds was readily biodegraded as measured by oxygen uptake(4). No specific information on the fate of hydrazine alone was available in this study(4).
[(1) Bach MK; Biochim Biophys Acta 26: 104-13 (1957) (2) Diamantis AA, Roberts ER; Biochim Biophys Acta 42: 76-91 (1960) (3) Sun H et al; Huanjing Kexue 13: 35-9 (1992) (4) Wachinski AM, Farmwald JA; The Toxicity and Biodegradability of Hydrazine Wastewaters Treated With UV-Chlorinolysis. Final Report December 1978-February 1979. Eng Serv Lab, Air Force Eng Serv Cent, Tyndall AFB, FL USA, AFESC/ESL/ESL-TR-80-31; AD-AO94 187 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Abiotic Degradation:

The absolute rate constant for the reaction of vapor phase hydrazine with hydroxyl radicals over the temperature range 298-424 K determined by flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence is 6.1X10-11 cu cm/molecule sec(1). This corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 6 hours at an atmospheric concentration of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm(1,SRC). The rate constant for the reaction of vapor-phase hydrazine with ozone, determined in a static system with an FT-IR detector, is 3X10-17 cu cm/molecule/sec at 298 K(2). This corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 9 hours at an atmospheric concentration of 7X10+11 ozone molecules per cu cm(2,SRC). Apparent rate constants of about 0.2 ppm/min and about 0.3 ppm/min for the reaction between ozone and hydrazine were estimated from decay rates for the two species determined in the dark in an outdoor 30,000 l Teflon bag at 21-24 and 44 deg C(3). The major product of the reaction was hydrogen peroxide; N20 and NH3 were minor products(3). It was estimated that the half-life for the reaction of hydrazine with ozone would be < 10 min during ozone pollution episodes and < 2 hr in the 'natural' troposphere(3). In the absence of ozone, the hydrazine half-life at 15 deg C and 16% relative humidity is 5 hr, and at 14 deg C and 85% relative humidity is 1.8 hr(3). Ammonia was detected but accounted for only 5-10% of the hydrazine which decayed(3).
[(1) Harris GW et al; J Phys Chem 83: 2557-9 (1979) (2) Atkinson R, Carter WPL; Chem Rev 84: 437-70 (1984) (3) Tuazon EC et al; Environ Sci Technol 15: 823-28 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

When a mixture of 0.87 ppm NO and 0.12 ppm nitrogen dioxide and 1.3 ppm of hydrazine in a 30,000 l Teflon chamber was exposed to sunlight, nearly 100% of the hydrazine was degraded in 30 min(1). The level of nitrous oxide increased throughout the experiment. In the dark under similar conditions, 15% of the initial hydrazine degraded in 26 min and the half-life was about 2 hr(1). Decomposition of the hydrazine to nitrogen gas and water predominated and no evidence of a reaction between hydrazine and nitrogen oxides was observed(1). The half-life for the reaction between hydrazine in atmospheric aerosols with ozone is about 100 min(2). Nitrogen and water are products of the aqueous ozone oxidation of hydrazine(2). The relative contributions to ozone oxidation of hydrazine via aqueous and gas phase routes were estimated for both a moderately polluted and a remote environment; aqueous and gas phase oxidation rates, based on the total amounts of hydrazines present in all forms were slower in the polluted than in the remote environment(3). Aqueous aerosol from a polluted environment would have a much lower pH where 99% or more of the total particular hydrazine present is dissolved in the aerosol as the protonated form; this form oxidizes slowly, if at all(3).
[(1) Pitts NH Jr et al; Atmospheric Chemistry of Hydrazines: Gas Phase Kinetics and Mechanistic Studies Statewide Air Pollut Res Cent Riverside, CA Rep No. AFESC/ESL-TR-80-39 (1980) (2) Judeikis HS, Damschen DE; Amer Chem Soc 186th Mtg Preprints Div Environ Chem 23: 281 (1983) (3) Judeikis HS, Damschen DE; Reactions of Hydrazine With Chemicals Found in Environment. Technol Oper, Aerosp Corp, El Segundo, CA. Report 1992, TR-0091(6448)-1, SSD-TR-92-03; AD-A247064 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine was added at 5.0 mg/l to city, county and stored laboratory water which had been adjusted to the same temperature and dissolved oxygen levels. After 4 days, 10%, 100% and 40% of the added hydrazine had degraded in the city, county and laboratory waters, respectively(1). This result was attributed to the relatively high hardness of the county water(1). The contribution of water hardness to hydrazine degradation was confirmed in another experiment. Samples of hard water, moderately hard water, slightly hard water, and soft water were mixed with 5 mg/l hydrazine. After 4 days, 52%, 48%, 21.4% and 7.4% of the added hydrazine had degraded in the hard water, moderately hard water, lightly hard water, and soft water, respectively(1). After 4 days in hard water with and without fish excreta, 100% and 55% of the added hydrazine had degraded. After 4 days in soft water with and without fish excreta, 70% and 10% of the added hydrazine had degraded(1). Polluting material, rich in organic matter, was the leading contributor to hydrazine degradation(1); it was shown that dissolved organic matter in pond water reduces the effective concentration of added copper, decreasing the rate of hydrazine autoxidation(2). In aqueous systems, the primary mechanism of hydrazine degradation seems to be a four-electron oxidation to N2 gas by oxygen. The oxidation rate was very slow in distilled water but increased with the addition of catalysts such as Cu(II) and phosphate ions. Ammonia as well as N2 gas evolution was correlated with Cu(II) and phosphate ion concentration(3). Hydrazine solutions are inherently unstable in the presence of oxygen under alkaline or neutral conditions (the autoxidation rate was found to be higher at pH 7.0 than at pH 9.0); however, they are quite stable under strongly acidic conditions or in the absence of oxygen(3). After four hours, approximately 72%, 60%, 47%, and 39% of the hydrazine initially present at 0.047, 0.068, 0.158 and 0.195 ppm, respectively, reacted with oxygen in air-saturated distilled water at 20 deg C and pH 9(4).
[(1) Slonum AR, Gisclard JB; Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 16: 301-9 (1976) (2) MacNaughton MG et al; Oxidation of Hydrazine in Aqueous Solutions. CEEDO-TR-78-11. Civil Eng and Environ Dev Office, Tyndall AFB, FL (1978) (3) Moliner AM, Street JJ; J Environ Qual 18: 483-87 (1989) (4) Ellis SRM et al; J Appl Chem 10: 347-52 (1960)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Bioconcentration:

Bioconcentration in guppies was studied using a hydrazine concentration in water of 0.5 ug/g. After 96 hours, the concentration of hydrazine in guppies was about 144 ug/g(1). These values give a bioconcentration factor of 316. An estimated BCF value of 0.01 was calculated for hydrazine(SRC), using a measured log Kow of -2.07(2) and a recommended regression-derived equation(3). According to a classification scheme(4), these BCF values suggest that bioconcentration in aquatic organisms may be high, as for guppies; however, based on this compound's values for log Kow(2) and water solubility(5), the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is generally expected to be low(SRC).
[(1) Slonim AR, Gisclard JB; Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 16: 301-9 (1976) (2) Hansch C et al; Exploring QSAR. Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constants. ACS Prof Ref Book. Amer Chem Soc, Washington, DC. p. 3 (1995) (3) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 5-4, 5-10 (1990) (4) Franke C et al; Chemosphere 29: 1501-14 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Soil Adsorption/Mobility:

Of the initial amount of hydrazine applied to cleaned sand (100% sand), Vandenburg Air Force Base (VAFB) soil (99.1% sand, 0.4% clay, pH 6.1), organic soil (96.1% sand, 1% clay, 1% carbon, pH 6.4), and clay (69.3% sand, 27.95 clay, pH 3.7), 2%, 44%, 25%, and 59% was adsorbed, respectively. Passage of water through columns containing cleaned sand, VAFB soil, organic soil and clay (10% clay soil plus 90% pure sand) treated with 10 ml of a 0.1 v/v solution of hydrazine resulted in 89.1%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 7.6% recovery of hydrazine, respectively(1). The adsorption of hydrazine to montmorillonite follows an L-2 type isotherm with an initial slope that is nonlinear and concave with respect to the abscissa(2). This indicates that hydrazine has a preferential sorption initially compared to the solvent or other solutes, with sorption decreasing as more hydrazine is sorbed(2).
[(1) Braun BA, Zirrolli JA; Environ Fate of Hydrazine Fuels in Aqueous and Soil Environments, Air Force Report No. ESL-TR-82-45 NTIS AD-A125813 (1983) (2) Weber JB, Miller CT; pp. 305-33 in Reactions and Movement of Organic Chemicals in Soils, SSSA Special Publication No 22 (1989) (3) Moliner AM, Street JJ; J Environ Qual 18: 487-91 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is a weak base (pKa= 7.96); at pH values well below the pKa, hydrazine exists primarily as the protonated form and can take part in cation exchange reactions(1). The nature and extent of hydrazine adsorption by clays and soils is very dependent on suspension pH and on the types of surface functional groups present on the solid matrix. Under acidic conditions, pH 4.0, 99.9% of the hydrazine is present as the protonated species and should be able to readily replace Na+ from exchange sites(1). Under alkaline conditions, pH 8.0, approximately 50% of the hydrazine is protonated and 50% is in neutral form. The primary mechanism of hydrazine adsorption in a montmorillonite clay suspension was cation exchange, both at pH 4 and 8; adsorption of hydrazine was lower at the higher pH value(1). The main mechanism for hydrazine retention at pH 4 and at low hydrazine concentrations in the upper Arrendondo soil horizon (fine sand) was also cation exchange. At higher concentrations more than 60% of the hydrazine interacted with a different type of binding site, possibly with organic-surface functional groups such as carbonyl groups(1). Under alkaline conditions, using upper horizon Arrendondo soil, (at pH 8.0) hydrazine was adsorbed more readily than at pH 4(1).
[(1) Moliner AM, Street JJ; J Environ Qual 18: 487-91 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Volatilization from Water/Soil:

With an air velocity at the liquid surface of 63.5 cm/sec, the volatilization of hydrazine from petri dishes containing 25%, 50% and 75% hydrazine-water mixtures was 0.5 g after 6.66 hr, about 1 g after 5 hr, and about 3 g after 5 hr, respectively(1). At each concentration, the rate of volatilization decreased with time(1). The Henry's Law constant for hydrazine is estimated as 6.1X10-7 atm-cu m/mole(SRC) from its experimental values for vapor pressure, 14.4 mm Hg(2), and water solubility (miscible in water at 25 deg C)(3). This value indicates that hydrazine will be essentially nonvolatile from water surfaces(4,SRC). Hydrazine's Henry's Law constant(2,3,SRC) indicates that volatilization from moist soil surfaces should not occur(SRC). The potential for volatilization of hydrazine from dry soil surfaces may exist(SRC) based on the vapor pressure of this compound(2,SRC).
[(1) Stauffer TB; Proc Conf Environ Chem Hydrazine Fuels pp 25-38 NTIS AD-A054194 (1977) (2) Boublik T et al; The Vapor Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapor Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region Elsevier Sci Publ Vol.17 Amsterdam, Netherlands (1984) (3) Amoore JE, Hautala E; J Appl Toxicol 3: 272-290 (1983) (4) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 15-1 to 15-29 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Environmental Concentrations:

THE SMOKE FROM A BLENDED US CIGARETTE CONTAINED 31.5 NG HYDRAZINE.
[HOFFMAN D ET AL; IARC SCI PUBL; VOL 9, ISS N-NITROSO CMPD ENVIRON, PROC WORK CONF 159 (1973, 1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Standards & Regulations:

TSCA Requirements:

Pursuant to section 8(d) of TSCA, EPA promulgated a model Health and Safety Data Reporting Rule. The section 8(d) model rule requires manufacturers, importers, and processors of listed chemical substances and mixtures to submit to EPA copies and lists of unpublished health and safety studies. Hydrazine is included on this list.
[40 CFR 716.120 (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CERCLA Reportable Quantities:

Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately, when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 1 lb or 0.454 kg. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (section IV. D.3.b).
[40 CFR 302.4 (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Releases of CERCLA hazardous substances are subject to the release reporting requirement of CERCLA section 103, codified at 40 CFR part 302, in addition to the requirements of 40 CFR part 355. Hydrazine is an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) subject to reporting requirements when stored in amounts in excess of its threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 1,000 lbs.
[40 CFR 355 (7/1/97)]**QC REVIEWED**

RCRA Requirements:

U133; As stipulated in 40 CFR 261.33, when hydrazine, as a commercial chemical product or manufacturing chemical intermediate or an off-specification commercial chemical product or a manufacturing chemical intermediate, becomes a waste, it must be managed according to Federal and/or State hazardous waste regulations. Also defined as a hazardous waste is any residue, contaminated soil, water, or other debris resulting from the cleanup of a spill, into water or on dry land, of this waste. Generators of small quantities of this waste may qualify for partial exclusion from hazardous waste regulations (40 CFR 261.5).
[40 CFR 261.33 (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Atmospheric Standards:

Listed as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) generally known or suspected to cause serious health problems. The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, directs EPA to set standards requiring major sources to sharply reduce routine emissions of toxic pollutants. EPA is required to establish and phase in specific performance based standards for all air emission sources that emit one or more of the listed pollutants. Hydrazine is included on this list.
[Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, Sect. 112 (b) (1) Public Law 101-549 Nov. 15, 1990]**QC REVIEWED**

Chemical/Physical Properties:

Molecular Formula:

H4-N2
**QC REVIEWED**

Molecular Weight:

32.05
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Color/Form:

COLORLESS OILY LIQUID
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

WHITE CRYSTALS
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 67th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1986-87.,p. B-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

Colorless fuming, oily liquid ... (Note: A solid below 36 degrees F).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**QC REVIEWED**

Anhydrous hydrazine is a waxy solid.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 474]**PEER REVIEWED**

Odor:

PENETRATING ODOR RESEMBLING AMMONIA
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Ammonia-like odor ...
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**QC REVIEWED**

Boiling Point:

113.5 deg C at 760 mm Hg
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Melting Point:

2.0 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Critical Temperature & Pressure:

CRITICAL TEMPERATURE: 380 DEG C; CRITICAL PRESSURE: 14 ATM
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816691]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density/Specific Gravity:

1.011 at 15 deg C/4 deg C; 1.0036 at 25 deg C/4 deg C; 0.9955 at 35 deg C/4 deg C; 1.0253 at 0 deg C/4 deg C; 1.024 at 2 deg C/4 deg C; 1.146 at -5 deg C/4 deg C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dissociation Constants:

pKa= 7.96
[Moliner AM, Street JJ; J Environ Qual 18: 487-91 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Combustion:

-8345 BTU/LB = -4636 CAL/G = -194.1X10+5 J/KG
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Vaporization:

45.27 kJ/mol
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 178]**PEER REVIEWED**

Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient:

LogP= -2.07
[Hansch, C., Leo, A., D. Hoekman. Exploring QSAR - Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constants. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society., 1995. 3]**PEER REVIEWED**

pH:

Aqueous solutions of hydrazine are highly alkaline. pH of a 64 wt% aqueous solution of hydrazine is 12.75.
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 177]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solubilities:

Miscible with water, methyl, ethyl, propyl, and isobutyl alcohols
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

SLIGHTLY MISCIBLE WITH HYDROCARBONS, HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 127 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

INSOL IN CHLOROFORM & ETHER
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH:American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986. 310]**PEER REVIEWED**

water solubility = 1X10+6 mg/l
[Amoore JE, Hautala E; J Appl Toxicol 3:272-290 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Spectral Properties:

Index of Refraction: 1.46979 at 22.3 deg C/D; 1.46444 at 35 deg C/D
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Surface Tension:

66.7 mN/m at 25 deg C
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 178]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor Pressure:

14.4 mm Hg at 25 deg C
[Boublik, T., Fried, V., and Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances. Second Revised Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1984.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Viscosity:

0.974 uPa-sec at 20 deg C
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 178]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

FORMS SALTS WITH INORGANIC ACIDS; HIGHLY POLAR SOLVENT; POWERFUL REDUCING AGENT
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

A GALLON OF COMMERCIAL PRODUCT WEIGHS 8.38 LB; DISSOLVES MANY INORGANIC SUBSTANCES; FORMS AZEOTROPIC MIXT WITH WATER WITH BP OF 120.3 DEG C THAT CONTAINS 55 MOLE-% N2H4; CONTRACTS ON FREEZING
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat capacity: 92.9 J/mole deg K at 1 atm, 25 deg C
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. D-174]**PEER REVIEWED**

DIPOLE MOMENT 1.83-1.90; DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 51.7 AT 25 DEG C; LATENT HEAT OF FUSION AT MP: 3.025 KCAL/MOLE
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ionization potential: 8.36 eV
[NIOSH. Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 2nd Printing. DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 85-114. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, NIOSH/Supt.of Documents, GPO, February 1987. 136]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fuming refractive liq, faint characteristic odor; Density 1.03 at 21 deg C; MP: -51.7 deg C or below -65 deg C (two eutectics); BP: 118-19 deg C at 740 mm Hg; Index of refraction: 1.42842 at 20 deg C/d /Hydrazine hydrate/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Strong base, very corrosive, attacks glass, rubber, cork; very powerful reducing agent; miscible with water or alcohol; insol in chloroform & ether /Hydrazine hydrate/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Surface tension 74.3 mN/m at 25 deg C, viscosity: 1.5 mPa.s at 25 deg C, index of refraction: 1.4644 at 25 deg C/d, heat of formation -242.71 kJ/mol /Hydrazine hydrate/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 564]**PEER REVIEWED**

Colorless crystals; density 1.42; MP: 198 deg C (loses hydrogen chloride); BP: 200 deg C (decomposes); slightly sol in alcohol /Hydrazine dihydrochloride/
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 611]**PEER REVIEWED**

White, crystalline flakes; MP: 81-87 deg C, decompose at approx 190 deg, sol in lower alcohols, insol in most organic solvents /Hydrazine monohydrobromide/
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 611]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solubility: 282.0 g/100 g water at 25 deg C; Melting point= 86.5 deg C /Hydrazine monohydrobromide/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 564]**PEER REVIEWED**

White crystalline flakes, mp: 87-92 deg C, decomposes at approx 240 deg C, sol in water (37 g/100 g water at 20 deg C), somewhat sol in lower alcohols, insol in most organic solvents /Hydrazine monohydrochloride/
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 611]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solid; density 1.939; MP: 137 deg C; BP: 145 deg C; decomp in water; sol in alcohol, insol in ether, benzene, chloroform, & carbon disulfide /Hydrazine perchlorate, hemihydrate/
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 611]**PEER REVIEWED**

MP: 127 deg C; sol in water at 25 deg C /Hydrazine monohydroiodide/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 566]**PEER REVIEWED**

MP: 70.71 deg C, alpha, 62.09, beta; solubility: 327.5 g/100 g water at 25 deg C /Hydrazine nitrate/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 566]**PEER REVIEWED**

Diacidic base
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Boiling point= 56 deg C at 71 mm Hg; 170 deg at 5 atm; 200 deg C at 10 atm; 236 deg C at 20 atm
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of formation= 50.63 kJ/mol; Anhydrous hydrazine is self-explosive.
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 178]**PEER REVIEWED**

hydroxyl radical rate constant = 6.50X10-11 cu-cm/molc sec @ 25 deg C
[Harris GW et al; J Phys Chem 83:2557-9 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical Safety & Handling:

Odor Threshold:

3-4 PPM
[National Research Council. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. 132]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

Vapors are very irritating to the mucous membranes, nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract.
[Sullivan, J.B. Jr., G.R. Krieger (eds.). Hazardous Materials Toxicology-Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1992. 1198]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fire Potential:

HYDRAZINE VAPOR IS EXCEPTIONALLY HAZARDOUS IN THAT ONCE IT IS IGNITED IT WILL CONTINUE TO BURN BY EXOTHERMIC DECOMP IN COMPLETE ABSENCE OF AIR OR OTHER OXIDANT.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Butterworths, 1985. 1190]**PEER REVIEWED**

Flammable liquid. Flammable over a wide range including 100% pure material. Air or oxygen is not required for decomposition. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated. Thermally unstable. Ignites in air at room temperature on metal oxide surfaces, & in a wide variety of porous materials, such as cellulosic materials.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 49-75]**QC REVIEWED**

NFPA Hazard Classification:

Health: 3. 3= Materials that, on short exposure, could cause serious temporary or residual injury, including those requiring protection from all bodily contact. Fire fighters may enter the area only if they are protected from all contact with the material. Full protective clothing, incl self-contained breathing apparatus, coat, pants, gloves, boots and bands around legs, arms and waist should be provided. No skin surface should be exposed.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-59]**QC REVIEWED**

Flammability: 3. 3= Includes Class IB and IC flammable liquids and materials that can be easily ignited under almost all normal temp conditions. Water may be ineffective in controlling or extinguishing fires in such materials.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-59]**QC REVIEWED**

Reactivity: 3. 3= This degree includes materials that, in themselves, are capable of detonation, explosive decomposition, or explosive reaction, but require a strong initiating source or heating under confinement. This includes materials that are sensitive to thermal and mechanical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures and materials that react explosively with water. Fires involving these materials should be fought from a protected location.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-59]**QC REVIEWED**

Flammable Limits:

Lower flammable limit: 2.9% by volume; Upper flammable limit: 98% by volume
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-59]**QC REVIEWED**

Flash Point:

100 deg F; 38 deg C (Closed cup)
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-59]**QC REVIEWED**

Autoignition Temperature:

Ignition temperatures vary widely in contact with iron rust 74 deg F (23 deg C); black iron 270 deg F (132 deg C); stainless steel 313 deg F (156 deg C); glass 518 deg F (270 deg C).
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-59]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire Fighting Procedures:

If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped or safely confined. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. /Hydrazine, anhydrous/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 573]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 573]**PEER REVIEWED**

Explosive Limits & Potential:

EXPLODES DURING DISTILLATION IF TRACES OF AIR ARE PRESENT, ALSO AFFECTED BY UV & METAL ION CATALYSTS.
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 691]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapors explosive.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-59]**QC REVIEWED**

Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

RESIDUE FROM DEHYDRATING HYDRAZINE WITH BARIUM OR CALCIUM OXIDE SLOWLY DECOMP EXOTHERMICALLY IN DAYLIGHT & FINALLY EXPLODES.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1242]**PEER REVIEWED**

EXPLOSIVE METAL HYDRAZIDES FORM WHEN HYDRAZINE & ALKALI METALS ARE MIXED IN LIQUID AMMONIA.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-94]**QC REVIEWED**

While boiling a sample of a polyester fiber in hydrazine in a glass beaker, the technician used a somewhat rusty pair of metal tweezers to handle the sample. When the tweezers were put in the solution, the solution ignited. The ignition temperature of hydrazine varies from 75 deg F in the presence of iron oxide to 518 deg F in a glass container.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-94]**QC REVIEWED**

During the measurement of shock sensitivity of a mixture containing hydrazine, a drop of the hydrazine mixture fell inadvertently on the tetryl donor explosive. The tetryl immediately burst into flame.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-94]**QC REVIEWED**

Oxidizers, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, metallic oxides, acids (Note: Can ignite SPONTANEOUSLY on contact with oxidizers or porous materials such as earth, wood, & cloth).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**QC REVIEWED**

Hydrazine ignites in contact wiht chlorine.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-52]**QC REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is decomposed explosively by chromates & chromic anhydride.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-61]**QC REVIEWED**

Hydrazine reacts vigorously with cupric oxide.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-67]**QC REVIEWED**

Spontaneous ignition occurs when /fluorine & hydrazine/ are mixed.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-86]**QC REVIEWED**

The catalytic decomposition of hydrazine in the presence of Raney nickel may be vigorous at room temp.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-122]**QC REVIEWED**

The blue precipitate formed from nickel perchlorate & hydrazine in water exploded violently when a glass stirring rod was introduced into the suspension.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-123]**QC REVIEWED**

Spontaneous ignition occurs when nitrous oxide & lithium hydride or hydrazine are mixed.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-132]**QC REVIEWED**

Potassium dichromate or sodium dichromate reacts explosively with hydrazine.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-159]**QC REVIEWED**

The action of an ethereal soln of hydrazine on zinc diamide or diethyl zinc, gives a product, zinc hydrazine, which explodes at 70 deg C.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-207]**QC REVIEWED**

Prior History of Accidents:

A Southern Pacific train derailment on July 28, 1991 in Sea Cliff, CA resulted in punctures to sixteen 55 gal drums of hydrazine hydrate. No serious injuries were reported. However, 300 local residents were evacuated, and two, made ill by fumes, were treated and released from a local hospital. A stretch of U.S. Highway 101 was closed resulting in a 10 mile long traffic jam. /Hydrazine hydrate/
[C&E News 69 (31): 4 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

NIOSH considers hydrazine to be a potential occupational carcinogen.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**QC REVIEWED**

Protective Equipment & Clothing:

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL, at any detectable concentration. Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 167]**QC REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 167]**QC REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 167]**QC REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 167]**QC REVIEWED**

Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 167]**QC REVIEWED**

Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. (Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.)
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 167]**QC REVIEWED**

Preventive Measures:

If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to diperse vapors and dilute standing pools of liquid. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; hydrazine, aqueous solution/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 573]**PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
**PEER REVIEWED**

Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; hydrazine, aqueous solution/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994.,p. 573-4]**PEER REVIEWED**

Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 167]**QC REVIEWED**

SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 8]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 8]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 9]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing, & possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 9]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 10]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. ... /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 10]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 10]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 11]**PEER REVIEWED**

The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 167]**QC REVIEWED**

Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 167]**QC REVIEWED**

Shipment Methods and Regulations:

No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
[49 CFR 171.2 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
[IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 38th ed. Montreal, Canada and Geneva, Switzerland: International Air Transport Association, Dangerous Goods Board, January, 1997. 160]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
[IMDG; International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; International Maritime Organization p.3140-2,8173 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Procurement ... of unduly large amt ... should be avoided. To avoid spilling, carcinogens should be transported in securely sealed glass bottles or ampoules, which should themselves be placed inside strong screw-cap or snap-top container that will not open when dropped & will resist attack from the carcinogen. Both bottle & the outside container should be appropriately labelled. ... National post offices, railway companies, road haulage companies & airlines have regulations governing transport of hazardous materials. These authorities should be consulted before ... material is shipped. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 13]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When no regulations exist, the following procedure must be adopted. The carcinogen should be enclosed in a securely sealed, watertight container (primary container), which should be enclosed in a second, unbreakable, leakproof container that will withstand chem attack from the carcinogen (secondary container). The space between primary & secondary container should be filled with absorbent material, which would withstand chem attack from the carcinogen & is sufficient to absorb the entire contents of the primary container in the event of breakage or leakage. Each secondary container should then be enclosed in a strong outer box. The space between the secondary container & the outer box should be filled with an appropriate quantity of shock-absorbent material. Sender should use fastest & most secure form of transport & notify recipient of its departure. If parcel is not received when expected, carrier should be informed so that immediate effort can be made to find it. Traffic schedules should be consulted to avoid ... arrival on weekend or holiday ... /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 13]**PEER REVIEWED**

Storage Conditions:

IN ORDER TO REDUCE FLAMMABILITY HAZARD & MAINTAIN PURITY, IT IS USUALLY STORED UNDER NITROGEN.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2798]**PEER REVIEWED**

Detached storage is preferred. Inside storage should be in a standard flammable liquids storage warehouse, room, or cabinet. Provide water for flushing spills or leaks. Tanks should be located in water-filled dikes. Separate from acids, oxidizing materials, metal oxides. Normally stored under nitrogen.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 49-75]**QC REVIEWED**

Cleanup Methods:

HYDRAZINE REMOVAL FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTEWATER USING ACTIVATED CARBON & COPPER ION CATALYSTS.
[BRUNNER A ET AL; GER OFFEN PATENT 3119707 12/02/82 (KRAFTWERK UNION AG)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the hydrazine with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Evacuation and cleanup using respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.
[National Research Council. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory. Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995. 329]**PEER REVIEWED**

Spill or leak procedures: Eliminate all ignition sources. Approach release from upwind. Use water spray to cool & disperse vapors, protect personnel, & dilute spills to form nonflammable mixtures. Control runoff & isolate discharged material for proper disposal.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 49-75]**QC REVIEWED**

Disposal Methods:

Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U133, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
[40 CFR 240-280, 300-306, 702-799 (7/1/92)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration with facilities for effluent scrubbing to abate any ammonia formed in the combustion process.
[USEPA; Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p.2-10 (1981) EPA 68-03-3025]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is a potential candidate for liquid injection incineration with a temperature range of 650 to 1600 deg C and residence times of 0.1 to 2 seconds. Also a potential candidate for rotary kiln incineration with a temperature range of 820 to 1,600 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases; hours for solids. Also a potential candidate for fluidized bed incineration with a temperature range of 450 to 980 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases; longer for solids.
[USEPA; Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p.3-14 (1981) EPA 68-03-3025]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendable method: Incineration. Peer-review: Dilute well with alcohol, hydrocarbon solvent before burning. Concentrated hydrazine may explode if heated. Hydrazine is a powerful reductant but should be well diluted prior to oxidizing. (Peer-review conclusions of an IRPTC Expert Consultation (May 1985))
[United Nations. Treatment and Disposal Methods for Waste Chemicals (IRPTC File). Data Profile Series No. 5. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Environmental Programme, Dec. 1985. 189]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 14]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas fired type, in which a first stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 15]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter, & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 15]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 16]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols, & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 17]**PEER REVIEWED**

Neutralization of hydrazine fuels with hypochlorite is a recommended procedure for the treatment of fuel spills prior to disposal. Previous research has shown that incomplete reaction of hypochlorite with the methylated hydrazine fuels monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine leads to a wide variety of byproducts, including N-nitrosoamines, which are believed to be highly carcinogenic. The results presented in this paper were obtained as part of a program to assess the environmental implications of using the hypochlorite method for the treatment and disposal of hydrazine fuel spills. The fuels examined were hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine and Aerozine-50. The neutralization products were determined under experimental conditions comparable to those expected for actual spills. The effects of varying the temperature and the pH as well as of aging the final reaction mixture were determined. Quantitative measurements of nitrosoamines produced are presented. Major and environemntally significant minor products were identified using gas chromatography/mass-spectrometry.
[Brubaker KL et al; Govt Reports Announcements & Index Iss 01 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Occupational Exposure Standards:

OSHA Standards:

Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-1 8-hr Time-Weighted Avg: 1 ppm (1.3 mg/cu m). Skin Designation.
[29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/98)]**QC REVIEWED**

Vacated 1989 OSHA PEL TWA 0.1 ppm (0.1 mg/cu m), skin designation, is still enforced in some states.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 365]**QC REVIEWED**

Threshold Limit Values:

8 hr Time Weighted Avg (TWA) 0.01 ppm, skin
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 42]**QC REVIEWED**

A3. A3= Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 42]**QC REVIEWED**

Excursion Limit Recommendation: Excursions in worker exposure levels may exceed three times the TLV-TWA for no more than a total of 30 min during a work day, and under no circumstances should they exceed five times the TLV-TWA, provided that the TLV-TWA is not exceeded.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 6]**QC REVIEWED**

NIOSH Recommendations:

NIOSH considers hydrazine to be a potential occupational carcinogen.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**QC REVIEWED**

NIOSH usually recommends that occupational exposures to carcinogens be limited to the lowest feasible concn.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**QC REVIEWED**

Recommended Exposure Limit: 2-Hr Ceiling Value: 0.03 ppm (0.04 mg/cu m).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**QC REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

NIOSH considers hydrazine to be a potential occupational carcinogen.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**QC REVIEWED**

Manufacturing/Use Information:

Major Uses:

REACTANT IN FUEL CELLS IN MILITARY USES; REDUCING AGENT IN ELECTRODLESS NICKEL PLATING; CHAIN EXTENDER IN URETHANE POLYMERIZATIONS; REDUCING AGENT IN PLUTONIUM EXTRACTION FROM REACTOR WASTE; WATER TREATMENT AGENT-EG, FOR THE REMOVAL OF HALOGENS
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEM INT FOR BLOWING AGENTS-EG, AZOBIS(ISOBUTYRONITRILE); CHEM INT FOR PHOTOGRAPHY CHEMS-EG, TRIAZOLES; CHEM INT FOR PHARMACEUTICALS-EG, ANTITUBERCULANTS; CHEM INT FOR TEXTILE DYES-EG, 2-HYDROXYNAPHTHAZINE; CHEM INT FOR HEAT STABILIZERS; CHEM INT FOR EXPLOSIVES-EG, HYDRAZINIUM AZIDE; CHEM INT FOR HYDRAZINE SALTS USED IN SOLDERING FLUXES; CHEM INT FOR HYDRAZINIUM SULFATE
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

/Hydrazine/ reacts with beta-bicarbonyl compounds to form pyrazole derivatives.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. V19 439 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is employed during nuclear power plants start-up operations to ensure that oxygen is not present to induce the stress-corrosion reaction
[CONSIDINE. CHEMICAL AND PROCESS TECHNOL ENCYC 1974 p.782]**PEER REVIEWED**

Reducing agent for many transition metals and some nonmetals (arsenic, selenium, tellurium), as well as uranium and plutonium; nuclear fuel reprocessing; redox reaction; polymerization catalyst; short stopping agent; component of high-energy fuels; corrosion inhibitor in boiler feedwater & reactor cooling water; wastewater treatment; electrolytic plating of metals on glass & plastics; rocket propellent; manufacture drugs & agricultural chemicals (maleic hydrazide); scavenger for gases; fuel cells; blowing agent.
[Sax, N.I. and R.J. Lewis, Sr. (eds.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 11th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1987. 612]**PEER REVIEWED**

It is used for metal plating, and for reducing noble-metal catalysts and unsaturated bonds in organic compounds
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. V19 609 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical intermediate /Hydrazine hydrate/
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 611]**PEER REVIEWED**

Soldering flux /Hydrazine monobromide/
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 611]**PEER REVIEWED**

Rocket propellant /Hydrazine perchlorate hemihydrate/
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 611]**PEER REVIEWED**

Reducing agent; solvent for inorganic chemicals; manufacture Helman catalyst, consisting of 80% hydrazine hydrate, 19.5% ethanol, 0.5 to 0.05% copper, used to decompose hydrogen peroxide in V-2 type rockets /Hydrazine hydrate/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Explosive /Hydrazine nitrate/
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. V12 767 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical intermediate in manufacture of agricultural chemicals, spandex fibers and antioxidants. Reducing agent; organic hydrazine derivs; rocket fuel.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chlorine scavenger for HCl gas streams /Dihydrochloride/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Oxygen scavenger (boiler water treatment); electrodeless nickel coating reagent; rocket propellant.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 474]**PEER REVIEWED**

Used as a chemical intermediate for the synthesis of acetazolamide; adipic acid dihydrazide; allopurinol; alprazolam; aminoguanidine bicarbonate; 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile; azodicarbonamide; benzene-1,3-disulphohydrazide; benzenesulphohydrazide; t-butylhydrazinium chloride; clofentezine; N,N'-dibenzaloxalyldihydrazide; 1,4-dichlorophthalazine-6-carboxyl chloride; dihydralazine; 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole; 1,1-dimethylhydrazine; diphenylene oxide-3,6-disulphohydrazide; diphenylsulphone-3,3'-disulphohydrazide; N,N'-disalicylhydrazide; elastane; guanoclor; hydramethylnon; hydrazinobis(3-(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate); hydriodic acid; isoniazid; maleic hydrazide; metamitron; metazachlor; methidathion; 2-methyl thiosemicarbazide; metribuzin; nifuratel; nitrofurantoin; oxadiazon; 4,4'-oxybis(benzenesulphohydrazide); Pigment Yellow 101; poly(p-benzhydrazoterephthalamide); polyols, polyurea dispersion; pyrazophos; pyridate; robenidine; N-salicylidene-N'-salicoylhydrazine; semicarbazide hydrochloride; thiosemicarbazide; p-toluenesulphohydrazide; N,N',N"-triaminoguanidine nitrate; triazolam; 1,2,4-triazole; tricyclazole; trihydrazinotriazine.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 474]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEDICATION
**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturers:

Olin Corporation, Hq, 1501 Merritt 7, PO Box 4500, Norwalk, CT (203) 750-3000; Olin Chemicals, (address same as Hq); Production site: PO Box 2896, Interstate 10, (318) 491-3000, Lake Charles, LA 70602
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996. 660]**PEER REVIEWED**

Methods of Manufacturing:

Prepn from hydrazine hydrate.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

In the Olin Raschig process, sodium hypochlorite solution is mixed with a threefold excess of ammonia at 5 deg C to form chloramine, which is then rapidly added to a 30-fold molar excess of anhydrous ammonia under pressure and heated to 130 deg C. The reaction liquor containing 1-2% hydrazine hydrate, is treated as in the conventional Raschig process to give hydrazine hydrate. Anhydrous hydrazine is obtained by removing the water by azeotropic distillation with aniline in a column at atmospheric pressure.
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 181]**PEER REVIEWED**

In the Bayer process, sodium hypochlorite, acetone, and a 20% aqueous solution of ammonia are fed simultaneously and continuously into a reactor at ca. 35 deg C and 200 kPa. Excess ammonia is removed from the reaction mixture by stripping, quenched with water, and recycled to the reactor as an aqueous solution. The aqueous dimethyl ketazine solution, freed from ammonia but containing unreacted acetone, sodium chloride, and organic impurities, is fed into a distillation column where the dimethyl ketazine is recovered as an aqueous azeotrope at atmospheric pressure. The dimethyl ketazine is then hydrolyzed in a distillation column under pressure giving acetone, which is recycled to the reactor, and a 10% aqueous solution of hydrazine. The latter is then concentrated to a hydrazine content of 64%.
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 181]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide is activated by acetamide and disodium hydrogen phosphate. The overall reaction results in the formation of methyl ethyl ketazine in high yield. Methyl ethyl ketazine is separated by decantation; it is then purified by distillation. The purified ketazine is hydrolyzed under pressure to give concentrated aqueous hydrazine and overhead methyl ethyl ketone.
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 181]**PEER REVIEWED**

General Manufacturing Information:

World capacity was about 44,100 metric tons hydrazine in 1992.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 560]**PEER REVIEWED**

Available commercially as anhydrous grade, hydrate, or sulfate.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 474]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is available in anhydrous form as well as aqueous solutions, typically 35, 51.2, 54.4, and 64 wt% N2H4.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 177]**PEER REVIEWED**

A century after its discovery, hydrazine is still difficult to synthesize, mainly for thermodynamic reasons... most hydrazine is produced by variations of the Raschig process, the oxidation of ammonia by hypochlorite. Only one new industrial process has been introduced recently(1980), using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant.
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 177]**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

HYDRAZINE IS PRODUCED IN USA IN A PROPELLANT GRADE WHICH CONTAINS A MINIMUM OF 97.5% OF ACTIVE INGREDIENT.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 129 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Grade: to 99% pure
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 610]**PEER REVIEWED**

Anhydrous propellant grade
[DCE/NCI; Monograph On Human Exposure To Chemicals In The Workplace: Hydrazine p.1-3 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Liquid grade, 55%, 85%, 100% hydrate solutions
[Kuney, J.H. and J.N. Nullican (eds.) Chemcyclopedia. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1988. 187]**PEER REVIEWED**

17%, 25%, 35%, 55%, 75%, 85%, 100% hydrate grades
[Kuney, J.H. and J.N. Nullican (eds.) Chemcyclopedia. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1988. 187]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is available in anhydrous form as well as aqueous solutions, typically 35, 51.2, 54.4, and 64 wt% N2H4.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 560]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine hydrate is a colorless liquid containing 63.4% hydrazine (1:1 N2H4:H2O). Aqueous solutions with lower hydrazine contents are also available. A 35% aqueous solution is commonly used for boiler treatment applications.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 474]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine, greater than or equal to 98.5 wt%; water, less than or equal to 1.0 wt%; chloride, less than or equal to 5 ppm; iron, less than or equal to 20 ppm; aniline, less than or equal to 0.5 wt%; non-volatile residue, less than or equal to 0.005 wt%; carbon dioxide, less than 0.02 wt%; carbon volatile, greater than 0.02 wt%; density 1.008-1.002 g/ml at 25 deg C.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 474]**PEER REVIEWED**

Impurities:

MAJOR IMPURITY IS WATER (UP TO 2.5%), AND UP TO 0.2% OF UNDEFINED INSOL MATERIAL ...
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 129 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Consumption Patterns:

CHEM INT FOR PESTICIDES, 40%; CHEM INT FOR BLOWING AGENTS, 33%; CORROSION INHIBITOR & WATER TREATMENT AGENT, 15%; OTHER USES, 12% (1980)
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

In 1982, 40% of hydrazine output was used in agricultural chemicals, about 33% for blowing agents, 15% for water treatment, and 5% as an aerospace propellant.
[Storck W; Chem Eng News 60: 23-4 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Production:

(1977) AT LEAST 9.08X10+8 G
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

Laboratory Methods:

Clinical Laboratory Methods:

A simple micromethod for the determination of hydrazine in biological samples was demonstrated using samples from male albino rats. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 1 ml/kg of 1 molar (M) hydrazine or 5 ml/kg 0.45M isoniazid. Determinations were made of hydrazine concentrations in the liver, brain, and serum, as well as of the glutathione content of the liver and brain of the treated rats. Hydrazine was determined by reacting samples with 4 percent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde for 20 minutes at room temperature, and assaying the colored product of the reaction at 470 nm using a double beam spectrophotometer. Data of extenction plotted against concentration showed adherence to Beer's law from 0.17 to 1 micromolar hydrazine concentration. ...
[Alvanez de Laviada T et al; J Anal Toxicol (11) 6: 260-2 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Analytic Laboratory Methods:

CHEMILUMINESCENT REACTIONS OF OZONE WITH HYDRAZINE, METHYLHYDRAZINE AND DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE WERE USED TO DETERMINE METHYLHYDRAZINE, AEROZINE (50:50 METHYLHYDRAZINE-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE), AND NITROUS OXIDE IN AIR AT CONCN OF 0.1-100 PPM.
[VOLLTRAUER HN; US NTIS, AD REP; ISS AD-A032446, 25 PAGES (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In a liquid chromatographic method for the determination of hydrazine in polyvinylpyrrolidone. The polyvinylpyrrolidone is dissolved in acetate buffer, hydrazine is derivated with benzaldehyde to form benzalazine, and is quantitated on a silica column using p-nitrobenzene as the internal standard. Reproducibility on repeat analysis is about +/- 10%. Recoveries from spiked samples in most cases were 84% or better.
[Matsui F et al; J Assoc Off Anal Chem 69 (3): 521-23 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

This work characterizes a newly developed, sensitive and convenient spectrophotometric procedure for determination of sub-ppm concentrations of hydrazine and its organic derivatives The method is based on formation of the cuprous neocuproine chelate after reaction of hyrazines with a prepared aqueous solution of the copper (II) neocuproine complex. The cuprous chelate is then directly measured in aqueous solution at 458 nm. The effect of several experimental conditions influencing the reaction are presented and the method was employed for the analysis of 5 different hydrazine compounds. The standard deviation did not exceed + or - 0.47%.
[Besada A; Anal Lett 21 (10): 1917-26 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH Method 3503. Determination of Hydrazine by Visible Absorption Spectrophotometry. DL= 0.009 mg/cu m.
[U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 4th ed.Methods A-Z & Supplements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Aug 1994.]**PEER REVIEWED**

DOE Method S0010R. Collection of Liquid Samples for Effluent Monitoring of Operations Facilities.
[USEPA; EMMI. Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 2.0. NTIS PB95-502415 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sampling Procedures:

Air samples containing hydrazine are taken with a glass tube, 5 cm x 6 mm ID, packed loosely with glass wool, and a glass midget bubbler with 15 ml HCl. A sampling pump is connected to this tube and accurately calibrated at a flow rate of 0.2 to 1 l/min for a total sample size of 7 to 100 liters. This technique has an overall precision of 0.094, over a studied range of 0.59 to 3.4 mg/cu m using 91 liter samples.
[U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSHManual of Analytical Methods, 3rd ed. Volumes 1 and 2 with 1985 supplement, and revisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 1984.,p. 3503-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

Naval Research Laboratory scientists have developed a dosimeter badge for passive hydrazine detection. The new NRL dosimeter badge satisfies the requirement for a small device that provides quantitative personal monitoring without interfering with the person's work and should eliminate larger, more cumbersome detectors presently in use. The badge consists of a diffusion barrier and a critic acid substrate that collects and stabilizes hydrazine and monomethylhydrazine, until it can be analyzed using wet chemical methods.
[Anon; Govt Reports Announcements & Index 17 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Special References:

Special Reports:

KIMBALL RF; MUTAT RES 39 (2): 111 (1977). A REVIEW OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF HYDRAZINE DERIVATIVES IS PRESENTED.

BACK KC ET AL; AVIAT, SPACE ENVIRON MED 49 (4): 591 (1978). A REVIEW OF HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH USE OF HYDRAZINE PROPELLANTS IN MISSILE OPERATIONS.

TOTH B; FALK SYMP 31 (COLONIC CARCINOG): 165 (1982). REVIEW OF HYDRAZINE COMPOUNDS ON COLON & INTESTINE CARCINOGENESIS.

SCHABACHER W; VGB KRAFTWERKSTECH 62 (2): 139 (1982). REVIEW OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO HYDRAZINE & SAFETY GUIDELINES.

Houston WE et al; Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report (1986); Govt Report Announcements & Index Iss 22 (1987).

Keller WC; Toxicity Assessment of Hydrazine Fuels; Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine: 59 (11): A100 (1988).

Stone DA and Niseman FL; Proceedings of the Conference on the Environ Chemistry of Hydrazine Fuels (1987); Govt Reports Announcements & Index Iss 24 (1988).

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services/National Toxicology Program; 9th Report on Carcinogens. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC. (2000)

Synonyms and Identifiers:

Synonyms:

DIAMINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDRAZINE ANHYDROUS
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDRAZINE BASE
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDRAZYNA (POLISH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

LEVOXINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

Oxytreat 35
**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

HYDRAZINE IS PRODUCED IN USA IN A PROPELLANT GRADE WHICH CONTAINS A MINIMUM OF 97.5% OF ACTIVE INGREDIENT.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 129 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Grade: to 99% pure
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 610]**PEER REVIEWED**

Anhydrous propellant grade
[DCE/NCI; Monograph On Human Exposure To Chemicals In The Workplace: Hydrazine p.1-3 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Liquid grade, 55%, 85%, 100% hydrate solutions
[Kuney, J.H. and J.N. Nullican (eds.) Chemcyclopedia. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1988. 187]**PEER REVIEWED**

17%, 25%, 35%, 55%, 75%, 85%, 100% hydrate grades
[Kuney, J.H. and J.N. Nullican (eds.) Chemcyclopedia. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1988. 187]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine is available in anhydrous form as well as aqueous solutions, typically 35, 51.2, 54.4, and 64 wt% N2H4.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 560]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine hydrate is a colorless liquid containing 63.4% hydrazine (1:1 N2H4:H2O). Aqueous solutions with lower hydrazine contents are also available. A 35% aqueous solution is commonly used for boiler treatment applications.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 474]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine, greater than or equal to 98.5 wt%; water, less than or equal to 1.0 wt%; chloride, less than or equal to 5 ppm; iron, less than or equal to 20 ppm; aniline, less than or equal to 0.5 wt%; non-volatile residue, less than or equal to 0.005 wt%; carbon dioxide, less than 0.02 wt%; carbon volatile, greater than 0.02 wt%; density 1.008-1.002 g/ml at 25 deg C.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 474]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

UN 2029; Hydrazine, anhydrous and hydrazine aqueous solutions, with more than 64% hydrazine, by weight.

UN 2030; Hydrazine, aqueous solution with not more than 64% hydrazine, by weight

IMO 3.1; Hydrazine, anhydrous and hydrazine aqueous solutions, with more than 64% hydrazine by weight.

IMO 8.2; Hydrazine aqueous solutions, with not more than 64%, by weight

NA 9188; Hydrazine 35%

Standard Transportation Number:

49 062 25; Hydrazine, anhydrous

49 350 30; Hydrazine, aqueous solution

EPA Hazardous Waste Number:

U133; A toxic waste when a discarded commercial chemical product or manufacturing chemical intermediate or an off-specification commercial chemical product.

RTECS Number:

NIOSH/MU7175000

 

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