Print Friendly and PDFPrintPrint Friendly and PDFPDF NITROGEN TETROXIDE (ALSO KNOWN AS NITROGEN DIOXIDE)
CASRN: 10544-72-6

See Occupational Exposure Standards

Human Health Effects:

Human Toxicity Excerpts:

... SLOWLY EVOLVING BUT PROGRESSIVE INFLAMMATION OF LUNGS CAUSES PROFUSE EXUDATION INTO ALVEOLAR SPACE. FLUID LOSS FROM BLOOD PRODUCES MASSIVE PULMONARY EDEMA & SEVERE HEMOCONCENTRATION. ... IMPAIRED GAS EXCHANGE IN LUNGS, BREATHING ... RAPID & CYANOSIS ... INTENSE. DEATH ... DUE TO ASPHYXIA ... /NITROGEN OXIDES/
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. III-320]**PEER REVIEWED**

DURING THE BREAKING OF MANY GLASS AMPOULES OF PURE NITRATE-FREE NITROGEN DIOXIDE-NITROGEN TETROXIDE ... WHENEVER LIQ OR CONCN GAS CAME IN CONTACT WITH DRY SKIN CORROSION RESULTED. CORRODED AREA HAD SAME APPEARANCE THAT RESULTS FROM CONTACT WITH NITRIC ACID OR ITS CONCENTRATED VAPORS EXCEPT ... NOT AS INTENSE. /NITROGEN DIOXIDE-NITROGEN TETROXIDE/
[Patty, F. (ed.). Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume II: Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Interscience Publishers, 1963. 923]**PEER REVIEWED**

INHALATION OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN HIGH CONCN MAY RESULT IN TRIPHASIC SEQUENCE OF ACUTE BRONCHOSPASM, DELAYED PULMONARY EDEMA & LATE BRONCHIOLITIS OBLITERANS. LOW CONCN INDUCE PULMONARY FIBROSIS WITH CHRONIC EXPOSURE. /NITROGEN DIOXIDE/
[GUIDOTTI TL; ENVIRON RES 15 (3): 443-72 (1978)]**PEER REVIEWED**

ONLY VERY HIGH VAPOR CONCN INDUCE PROMPT OR IMMEDIATE DISTRESS. USUALLY THERE ARE NO SYMPTOMS AT THE TIME OF EXPOSURE, EXCEPT PERHAPS FOR A SLIGHT & TRANSIENT COUGH, MILD FATIGUE, & BRIEF NAUSEA. THE ACUTE DANGER PERIOD ARISES 5 TO 72 HR LATER, WHEN A SLOWLY EVOLVING BUT PROGRESSIVE INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS CAUSES PROFUSE EXUDATION INTO THE ALVEOLAR SPACES. FLUID LOSS FROM THE BLOOD PRODUCES MASSIVE PULMONARY EDEMA & SEVERE HEMOCONCENTRATION. BECAUSE OF IMPAIRED GAS EXCHANGE IN THE LUNGS, BREATHING BECOMES RAPID & CYANOSIS BECOMES INTENSE. DEATH IS USUALLY DUE TO ASPHYXIA WITHIN A FEW HR AFTER RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS BEGIN. /NITROGEN OXIDES/
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. III-320]**PEER REVIEWED**

SYMPTOMATOLOGY: 1. Usually no symptoms occur at the time of exposure, with the exception of a slight cough and perhaps fatigue and nausea. Exposure to low concn may result in impaired pulmonary defense mechanisms (macrophages, cilia) with complications ... . 2. Only very concn nitrous fumes produce prompt coughing, choking, headache, nausea, abdominal pain and dyspnea (tightness and burning pain in the chest). 3. A symptom-free period follows exposure and lasts for 5-72 hr. 4. Fatigue, uneasiness, restlessness, cough, hyperpnea and dyspnea appear insidiously, as the adult respiratory distress syndrome gradually develops. /Nitrogen oxides/
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. III-323]**PEER REVIEWED**

SYMPTOMATOLOGY: 5. Increasingly rapid and shallow respirations, cyanosis, mild or violent coughing with frothy expectoration and physical signs of pulmonary edema (for example rales and rhonchi). The vital capacity is rapidly reduced. A serous exudate may develop in the pleural cavity, but its volume is usually small. 6. Anxiety, mental confusion, lethary and finally loss of consciousness. 7. A weak, rapid pulse, dilated heart, venous congestion, intense cyanosis and severe hemoconcentration. Circulatory collapse is secondary to anoxia and hemoconcentration. 8. An asphyxial death due to blockade of gas exchange in the lungs. Death commonly occurs within a few hours after the first evidence of pulmonary edema. /Nitrogen oxides/
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. III-323]**PEER REVIEWED**

SYMPTOMATOLOGY: 9. Sometimes a second acute phase follows the initial pulmonary reaction after a quiescent period of several weeks. Cough, tachypnea, dyspnea, fever, tachycardia and cyanosis at this stage are usually due to bronchiolitis obliterans. The relapse may be abrupt and fulminating, leading either to death or a slow convalescence. 10. In nonfatal cases, convalescence may be complicated by infectious bronchitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, pneumonia and general asthenia. Rarely diffuse pulmonary fibrosis may develop. /Nitrogen oxides/
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. III-323]**PEER REVIEWED**

... SEVERE SYMPTOMS & DEATH OF UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN FARMERS WHO WERE WORKING IN OR NEAR SILOS ... ("SILO-FILLERS' DISEASE") RESULTED FROM ACUTE EXPOSURE TO OXIDES OF NITROGEN. /NITROGEN OXIDES/
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. III-320]**PEER REVIEWED**

NITROGEN DIOXIDE, WITH ITS DIMER NITROGEN TETROXIDE, IS LARGEST COMPONENT OF MOST /NITROGEN OXIDE/ FUMES & CAUSES MOST OF DAMAGE.
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. III-320]**PEER REVIEWED**

A review by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists suggests that a 60 min exposure of humans to 100 ppm leads to pulmonary edema and death; 50 ppm to pulmonary edema with possible subacute or chronic lesions in the lungs; and 25 ppm to respiratory irritation and chest pain. Fifty ppm moderately irritating to the eyes and nose; 25 ppm is irritating to some people.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 4109]**PEER REVIEWED**

BACKGROUND: Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) is characterized by persistent bronchial hyperreactivity and asthmatic symptoms in a previously healthy individual after a single intense exposure to an irritant fume, vapor, or gas. On October 23, 1995, a cloud of dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) escaped from a railroad tanker car in Bogalusa, Louisiana, exposing an estimated 4,000 citizens to the gas. METHODS: A sample of 234 patients with respiratory complaints after the spill received a complete history and physical examination, a symptom questionnaire, and pulmonary function tests. Patients whose previously undocumented asthma-like symptoms persisted for 3 months after exposure to N2O4 had methacholine challenge testing. RESULTS: Of the 234 patients evaluated, six met the criteria for a diagnosis of RADS. The distance of these six patients from the source of the leak, their durations of exposure, and initial symptoms were not different from those of the sample patients who did not have RADS. CONCLUSIONS: After evaluation of 234 symptomatic patients who were exposed to N2O4, we diagnosed six cases of RADS. There were no demographic characteristics or initial symptoms that identified patients who were at risk of having this syndrome. We believe we are the first to report cases of RADS due to N2O4 exposure.
[Conrad E et al; South Med J 91 (4): 338-41 (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

VAPORS ARE EXTREMELY TOXIC & MAY CAUSE FATAL LUNG DAMAGE EVEN IN VERY DILUTE CONCN. BOTH LIQ & VAPOR MAY CAUSE SEVERE EYE & SKIN BURNS.
[National Fire Protection Association. Fire Protection Guide on Hazardous Materials. 9th ed. Boston, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1986.,p. 49-68]**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

EXPOSURE TO NITROGEN TETROXIDE IN THE MISSILE INDUSTRY CAN PRODUCE IDENTICAL SYMPTOMS AS THOSE FROM NITROGEN DIOXIDE & SHOULD BE TREATED IN A SIMILAR FASHION.
[Arena, J.M. Poisoning: Toxicology-Symptoms Treatments. Third Edition. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1974. 223]**PEER REVIEWED**

Industrial exposures can take place wherever nitric acid is made or used and has occurred most commonly where metals are dipped in acid baths. Electric arc welding, and to a lesser extent gas welding, can generate hazardous concentrations.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 4097]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emergency Medical Treatment:

Emergency Medical Treatment:

EMT Copyright Disclaimer:
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The following Overview, *** NITROGEN OXIDES ***, is relevant for this HSDB record chemical.

Life Support:
  o   This overview assumes that basic life support measures
      have been instituted.                           
Clinical Effects:
  SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
   0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Exposure to nitrogen oxides is usually via inhalation
         and may result in acute or chronic changes of the
         pulmonary system including pulmonary edema,
         pneumonitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, fibrosing
         bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, emphysema and
         possibly methemoglobinemia.
     o   Exposure to low concentrations of nitrogen oxides
         usually results in mild and transient symptoms
         including a slight cough, fatigue and nausea.  Very
         concentrated exposures may result in immediate
         coughing, choking, headache, nausea, abdominal pain and
         dyspnea.
     o   Following exposure, there may be a latent period of 5
         to 72 hours, before inflammation of the lungs develops
         causing exudation into alveolar spaces.  Clinical
         deterioration may then occur.
     o   Nitric oxide toxicity is reviewed in a separate
         document.
  HEENT
   0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Conjunctivitis may occur.
  CARDIOVASCULAR
   0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   A weak rapid pulse and circulatory collapse may
         develop.
  RESPIRATORY
   0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Cough, hyperpnea and dyspnea may be seen.  Rapid and
         shallow respirations, mild or violent coughing and
         physical signs of acute lung injury may develop.  Acute
         lung injury may be delayed 4 to 24 hours.
     o   Nitrogen dioxide can cause bronchospasm, and acute or
         chronic obstructive lung disease (after
         repeated/chronic exposure), and may increase
         susceptibility to respiratory virus infections.
  NEUROLOGIC
   0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Fatigue, restlessness, anxiety, mental confusion,
         lethargy, and loss of consciousness may be noted.
  GASTROINTESTINAL
   0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain may develop.
  HEMATOLOGIC
   0.2.13.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Methemoglobinemia and DIC may occur with nitric oxide
         exposures.
  DERMATOLOGIC
   0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Cyanosis may occur.
  GENOTOXICITY
    o   Chromosome aberrations and mutations in lung cells were
        evident in an in vivo animal study following inhalation
        of NO2 and NO.  Negative results were obtained for
        chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes and spermatocytes
        or micronuclei in bone marrow after NO2 inhalation
        (reviewed in Victorin, 1994).
Laboratory:
  o   Monitor pulmonary function.  Chest x-ray may be diagnostic
      of acute lung injury.  Monitor pulse oximetry and arterial
      blood gases as clinically indicated.       
Treatment Overview:
  INHALATION EXPOSURE
    o   Treatment of exposures to nitrogen oxide is supportive.
        Treatment should be directed towards maintaining
        oxygenation by using oxygen or assisting ventilation if
        necessary.  In patients with bronchiolitis, steroids may
        be beneficial in decreasing the amount of inflammation.
        Methemoglobinemia and mild acidosis may be present, but
        specific treatment for these conditions is usually
        unnecessary.
    o   ACUTE LUNG INJURY:  Maintain ventilation and oxygenation
        and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gas or pulse
        oximetry monitoring.  Early use of PEEP and mechanical
        ventilation may be needed.
    o   METHEMOGLOBINEMIA:  Administer 1 to 2 mg/kg of 1%
        methylene blue slowly IV in symptomatic patients.
        Additional doses may be required.                    
Range of Toxicity:
  o   Death due to airway obstruction from edema of the glottis
      has not been well documented, but is estimated to occur
      with nitrogen dioxide concentrations greater than 100 ppm.
      The odor of nitrogen dioxide is perceptible at 1 to 3 ppm.
      Symptoms generally appear at 13 ppm.         

[Rumack BH: POISINDEX(R) Information System. Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2003; CCIS Volume 115, edition exp February, 2003. Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds):TOMES(R) Information System. Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2003; CCIS Volume 115, edition exp February, 2003.] **PEER REVIEWED**

Antidote and Emergency Treatment:

Basic treatment: Establish a patent airway. Suction if necessary. Aggressive airway management may be needed. Encourage patient to take deep breaths. Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilations if necessary. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 10 to 15 L/min. Monitor for pulmonary edema and treat if necessary ... . Monitor for shock and treat if necessary ... . For eye contamination, flush eyes immediately with water. Irrigate each eye continuosly with normal saline during transport ... . Do not use emetics. For ingestion, rinse mouth and administer 5 ml/kg up to 200 ml of water for dilution if the patient can swallow, has a strong gag reflex, and does not drool. Administer activated charcoal ... . /Nitrogen oxides (NOX) and related compounds/
[Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994.,p. 255-6]**PEER REVIEWED**

Advanced treatment: Consider orotracheal or nasotracheal intubation for airway control in the patient who is unconscious or in respiratory arrest. Early intubation at the first signs of upper airway obstruction may be necessary. Positive-pressure ventilation techniques with a bag-valve-mask device may be beneficial. Monitor cardiac rhythm and treat arrhythmias as necessary ... . Start an IV with D5W TKO /SRP: "To keep open", minimal flow rate/. Consider drug therapy for pulmonary edema ... . Consider the use of vasopressors to treat hypotension without signs of hypovolemia ... . Administer 1% solution methylene blue if patient is symptomatic with severe hypoxia, cyanosis, and cardiac compromise not responding to oxygen. DIRECT PHYSICIAN ORDER ONLY ... . Use proparacaine hydrochloride to assist eye irrigation. /Nitrogen oxides (NOX) and related compounds/
[Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994. 256]**PEER REVIEWED**

Animal Toxicity Studies:

Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:

/NITROGEN TETROXIDE LIQUID/ ... CAN BE EXPECTED TO CAUSE SEVERE BURNS ON EVEN BRIEF CONTACT WITH THE SKIN OR EYES.
[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986. 665]**PEER REVIEWED**

METHEMOGLOBIN LEVELS IN RATS INCR FROM 1.9% TO 36.7% & 54.8% TOTAL BLOOD HEMOGLOBIN @ 1 HR FOLLOWING APPLICATION OF NITROGEN TETROXIDE TO SKIN.
[RYABOV IS; FARMAKOL TOKSIKOL (MOSCOW) 40 (30): 357-8 (1977)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

Pharmacology:

Environmental Fate & Exposure:

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

EXPOSURE TO NITROGEN TETROXIDE IN THE MISSILE INDUSTRY CAN PRODUCE IDENTICAL SYMPTOMS AS THOSE FROM NITROGEN DIOXIDE & SHOULD BE TREATED IN A SIMILAR FASHION.
[Arena, J.M. Poisoning: Toxicology-Symptoms Treatments. Third Edition. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1974. 223]**PEER REVIEWED**

Industrial exposures can take place wherever nitric acid is made or used and has occurred most commonly where metals are dipped in acid baths. Electric arc welding, and to a lesser extent gas welding, can generate hazardous concentrations.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 4097]**PEER REVIEWED**

Artificial Pollution Sources:

Volatile organics and nitrogen oxides are emitted by transportation and industrial sources. Oxides of nitrogen are emitted in the combustion of fossil fuels. /Nitrogen oxides/
[Sullivan TFP; Pollution Engineering; June: 24 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... RELEASED IN REACTION BETWEEN NITRIC ACID & ANY ORG MATERIAL; IN EXHAUST FROM METAL CLEANING ... FROM ELECTRIC ARC WELDING; IN ELECTROPLATING, ENGRAVING, & PHOTOGRAVURE OPERATIONS; IN DYNAMITE BLASTING ... IN DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST; IN BURNING OF NITROCELLULOSE ... & IN COMBUSTION OF SOME SHOE POLISHES. /NITROGEN OXIDES/
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. III-319]**PEER REVIEWED**

/NITROGEN DIOXIDE & NITROGEN TETROXIDE/ ... ARE ... EVOLVED WHEN NITRATED ORG CMPD BURN OR EXPLODE, OR WHEN ORG CMPD (AS GASOLINE) BURN @ HIGH TEMP IN AIR (AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST). /NITROGEN DIOXIDE AND NITROGEN TETROXIDE/
[Thienes, C., and T.J. Haley. Clinical Toxicology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972. 189]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate:

PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION ARISES FROM A SERIES OF ATMOSPHERIC REACTIONS. THE MAIN COMPONENTS ARE OZONE, OXIDES OF NITROGEN, ALDEHYDES, PEROXYACETYL NITRATES, AND HYDROCARBONS. ... THEY ENTER INTO THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT LEAD TO FORMATION OF PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG. /OXIDES OF NITROGEN/
[Doull, J., C.D.Klassen, and M.D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 3rd ed., New York: Macmillan Co., Inc., 1986. 812]**PEER REVIEWED**

Atmospheric Concentrations:

IN TERMS OF AMT OF MATERIAL EMITTED ANNUALLY INTO AIR, FIVE MAJOR POLLUTANTS ACCOUNT FOR CLOSE TO 98% OF POLLUTION. ... NITROGEN OXIDES (6%). /NITROGEN OXIDES/
[Doull, J., C.D. Klaassen, and M. D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1980. 608]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Standards & Regulations:

CERCLA Reportable Quantities:

Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately, when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 10 lb or 4.54 kg. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (section IV. D.3.b).
[40 CFR 302.4 (7/1/97)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical/Physical Properties:

Molecular Formula:

N2-O4
**PEER REVIEWED**

Molecular Weight:

92.02
**PEER REVIEWED**

Color/Form:

COLORLESS GAS
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 4098]**PEER REVIEWED**

YELLOW LIQUID BELOW 22 DEG C
[Thienes, C., and T.J. Haley. Clinical Toxicology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972. 189]**PEER REVIEWED**

Colorless liquid
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 4-74]**PEER REVIEWED**

Boiling Point:

21.15 deg C
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 4-74]**PEER REVIEWED**

Melting Point:

-9.3 deg C
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 4-74]**PEER REVIEWED**

Corrosivity:

Corrosive liquid
[National Fire Protection Association. Fire Protection Guide on Hazardous Materials. 9th ed. Boston, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1986.,p. 49-68]**PEER REVIEWED**

Critical Temperature & Pressure:

Critical temperature: 431 K; critical pressure: 10.1 MPa
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 6-56]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density/Specific Gravity:

1.45 g/cu cm at 20 deg C
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 4-74]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Vaporization:

Molar enthalpy of vaporization: 38.12 kJ/mol at 21.15 deg C
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 6-117]**PEER REVIEWED**

Surface Tension:

In contact with vapor 27.5 dynes/cm at 19.8 deg C
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. F-36]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor Pressure:

646 mm Hg @ 25 deg C
[Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

GAS REACTS WITH WATER TO FORM MIXTURE OF NITROUS ACID & NITRIC ACID
[Patty, F. (ed.). Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume II: Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Interscience Publishers, 1963. 919]**PEER REVIEWED**

0.532 PPM= 1 MG/CU M; 1 PPM= 1.88 MG/CU M @ 25 DEG C & 760 MM HG
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 4098]**PEER REVIEWED**

Molar enthalpy of fusion: 14.65 kJ/mol at -9.3 deg C
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 6-117]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dielectric constant 2.44 at 293.2 K
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 6-160]**PEER REVIEWED**

Critical volume: 167 cu cm/mol
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 6-56]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical Safety & Handling:

DOT Emergency Guidelines:

Health: TOXIC; may be fatal if inhaled or absorbed through skin. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution. /Nitrogen tetroxide, liquid/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-124]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire or explosion: Substance does not burn but will support combustion. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. These are strong oxidizers and will react vigorously or explosively with many materials including fuels. May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Some will react violently with air, moist air and/or water. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket. /Nitrogen tetroxide, liquid/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-124]**QC REVIEWED**

Public safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. ... Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 100 to 200 meters (330 to 660 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Many gases are heavier than air and will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Nitrogen tetroxide, liquid/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-124]**QC REVIEWED**

Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations. /Nitrogen tetroxide, liquid/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-124]**QC REVIEWED**

Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Nitrogen tetroxide, liquid/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-124]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire: Small Fires: Water only; no dry chemical, CO2 or Halon. Contain fire and let burn. If fire must be fought, water spray or fog is recommended. Do not get water inside containers. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Damaged cylinders should be handled only by specialists. Fire involving Tanks: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Do not direct water at source of leak or safety devices; icing may occur. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Nitrogen tetroxide, liquid/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-124]**QC REVIEWED**

Spill or leak: Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. Ventilate the area. /Nitrogen tetroxide, liquid/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-124]**QC REVIEWED**

First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Clothing frozen to the skin should be thawed before being removed. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Keep victim warm and quiet. Keep victim under observation. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. /Nitrogen tetroxide, liquid/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-124]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire Potential:

Strong oxidizer. Enhances combustion of organic matter and other combustible materials.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 49-97]**QC REVIEWED**

NFPA Hazard Classification:

Health: 3. 3= Materials that, on short exposure, could cause serious temporary or residual injury, including those requiring protection from all bodily contact. Fire fighters may enter the area only if they are protected from all contact with the material. Full protective clothing, including self-contained breathing apparatus, coat, pants, gloves, boots, and bands around legs, arms, and waist, should be provided. No skin surface should be exposed.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 49-97]**QC REVIEWED**

Flammability: 0. 0= This degree includes any material that will not burn.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 49-97]**QC REVIEWED**

Reactivity: 0. 0= This degree includes materials that are normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and that do not react with water. Normal fire fighting procedures may be used.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 49-97]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire Fighting Procedures:

Extinguish surrounding fire using suitable agent. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 49-97]**QC REVIEWED**

Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

A violent explosion ocurred during the ready interaction to produce alkyl nitrates.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1351]**PEER REVIEWED**

Liquid ammonia reacts explosively with the solid tetraoxide at -80 deg C, while aqueous ammonia reacts vigorously with the gas at ambient temperature.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1351]**PEER REVIEWED**

In contact with the gas at 200 deg C the barium oxide suddenly reacts, reaches red heat and melts.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1351]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mixtures of the tetraoxide with dichloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene are explosive when subjected to shock of 25 g TNT equivalent or less. Mixtures with trichloroethylene react violently on heating to 150 deg C
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1352]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dinitrogen tetraoxde reacts explosively between -32 deg C and -90 deg C with propene, 1-butene, isobutene, 1,3-butadiene, cyclopentadiene and 1-hexene, but 6 other unsaturated failed to react.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1356]**PEER REVIEWED**

Warm or molten white phosphorus burns vigorously in nitrogen oxide, dinitrogen tetraoxide or dinitrogen pentaoxide. White phosphorus ignites after some delay in contact with the vapor of sulfur trioxide, but immediately in contact with the liquid if a large portion is used.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1438]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interaction with the oxide in carbon tetrachloride is vigorous, producing sparks.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1355]**PEER REVIEWED**

A wide variety of solids, liquids and gases will initiate the violent and often explosive decomposition of nitrogen trichloride. These include conc ammonia, arsenic, dinitrogen tetroxide (above -40 deg C, with more than 25% solutions of trichloride in chloroform), hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen trisulfide, nitrogen oxide, organic matter (including grease from the fingers), ozone, phosphine, phosphorus (solid, or in carbon disulfide solution), potassium cyanide (solid, or aqueous solution), potassium hydroxide solution or selenium.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1041]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Decomposition:

When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of nitroxides.
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 2444]**PEER REVIEWED**

Protective Equipment & Clothing:

WEAR SPECIAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND POSITIVE PRESSURE SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 49-97]**QC REVIEWED**

Vendor recommendations concerning the protective qualities of materials are as follows: Butyl, polyethylene, chlorinated polyethylene and CR-39 received excellent or good ratings from less than three vendors (no fair or poor ratings), and good or fair ratings, with good ratings predominating, from several vendors; Polyvinyl chloride received fair or poor ratings from three or more vendors; Chlorobutyl received excellent or good ratings from three or more vendors.
[ACGIH; Guidelines Select of Chem Protect Clothing Volume #1 Field Guide p.64 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus. /Nitrogen dioxide/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, D.C.: Assoc. of American Railroads,Hazardous Materials Systems (BOE), 1987. 495]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 20 ppm. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous flow mode. Eye protection needed. Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece. /Nitrogen dioxide/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-116. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1994. 228]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concn or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. /Nitrogen dioxide/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-116. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1994. 228]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. Only nonoxidizable sorbents are allowed (not charcoal). Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus. /Nitrogen dioxide/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-116. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1994. 228]**PEER REVIEWED**

Preventive Measures:

SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
**PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipment Methods and Regulations:

No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
[49 CFR 171.2 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
[IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 39th Ed. Montreal, Canada and Geneva, Switzerland : International Air Transport Association, Dangerous Goods Regulations, 1998. 132]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
[IMDG; International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; International Maritime Organization p.2096 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Storage Conditions:

Store in a cool, dry, well ventilated location. Separate from oxidizable materials. Outside or detached storage is preferred.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 49-97]**QC REVIEWED**

Cleanup Methods:

1. Ventilate area of spill or leak to disperse gas. 2. If in the liquid form, allow to vaporize. 3. If in the gaseous form, stop flow of gas. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place in the open air, and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) PublicationNo. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981. 2]**PEER REVIEWED**

Disposal Methods:

SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
**PEER REVIEWED**

Nitrogen tetroxide is a poor candidate for incineration.
[USEPA; Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p.3-9 (1981) EPA 68-03-3025]**PEER REVIEWED**

Occupational Exposure Standards:

OSHA Standards:

Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-1 Ceiling value: 5 ppm (9 mg/cu m).
[29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/98)]**QC REVIEWED**

Vacated 1989 OSHA PEL STEL 1 ppm (1.8 mg/cu m) is still enforced in some states.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 368]**QC REVIEWED**

Threshold Limit Values:

8 hr Time Weighted Avg (TWA): 3 ppm; 15 min Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL): 5 ppm.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs & BEIs: Threshold limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents andBiological Exposure Indices for 2002. Cincinnati, OH. 2002. 45]**QC REVIEWED**

A4; Not classifiable as a human carcinogen.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs & BEIs: Threshold limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents andBiological Exposure Indices for 2002. Cincinnati, OH. 2002. 45]**QC REVIEWED**

NIOSH Recommendations:

Recommended Exposure Limit: 15 Min Short-Term Exposure Limit: 1 ppm (1.8 mg/cu m).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 228]**QC REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

20 ppm
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 228]**QC REVIEWED**

Manufacturing/Use Information:

Major Uses:

INTERMEDIATE IN NITRIC ACID & SULFURIC ACID PRODUCTION; IN NITRATION OF ORG CMPD & EXPLOSIVES; IN MANUFACTURE OF OXIDIZED CELLULOSE CMPD (HEMOSTATIC COTTON); HAS BEEN USED TO BLEACH FLOUR; PROPOSED AS OXIDIZING AGENT IN ROCKET PROPULSION /NITROGEN DIOXIDE/
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996. 1133]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturers:

Cedar Chemical Corporation, Hq, 5100 Poplar Ave, Suite 2414, Memphis, TN 38137, (901) 685-5348; Vicksburg Chemical Company, division, P.O. Box 821003, Vicksburg, MS 39182, (601) 636-1231; Production site: P.O. Box 3, Rifle Range Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers - United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997. 772807]**PEER REVIEWED**

General Manufacturing Information:

COMMERCIAL BROWN LIQ UNDER PRESSURE IS CALLED NITROGEN TETROXIDE. ACTUALLY THIS IS AN EQUILIBRIUM MIXT OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE & COLORLESS NITROGEN TETROXIDE.
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996. 1133]**PEER REVIEWED**

/NITROGEN DIOXIDE & NITROGEN TETROXIDE/ ... ARE FREQUENTLY REFERRED TO AS THE DIOXIDE, & COMPUTATIONS ... ARE ALMOST ALWAYS MADE ON THE SAME BASIS AS THOUGH THE MIXTURE WERE ALL NITROGEN DIOXIDE.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 4098]**PEER REVIEWED**

THIS MIXTURE HAS FREQUENTLY BEEN ERRONEOUSLY REFERRED TO AS NITROUS FUMES, BUT IT IS NOT NITROUS OXIDE & IT IS A GASEOUS MIXTURE & NOT A FUME.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 4098]**PEER REVIEWED**

Nitrogen dioxide and its dimer, nitrogen tetroxide, are always found together at normal environmental temp ... . At -9.3 deg C and below, the oxides are ... composed completely of nitrogen tetroxide. At temp of 135 deg C and above, the gas ... /is/ essentially nitrogen dioxide. At temp within this range, the gases are always present as a mixture ... .
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 4098]**PEER REVIEWED**

Laboratory Methods:

Analytic Laboratory Methods:

ANALYTE: NITROGEN DIOXIDE; MATRIX: AIR; RANGE 3.1-11.5 PPM; PROCEDURE: COLLECTION ON TEA /TRIETHANOLAMINE/-COATED MOLECULAR SIEVE, DESORPTION WITH TEA, SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS. /Nitrogen dioxide/
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual ofAnalytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present.,p. V4 S320]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEASUREMENT OF SUB-PPB BY VOLUME LEVELS OF ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN DIOXIDE SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC ANALYSIS. /NITROGEN DIOXIDE/
[AXELROD HD ET AL; ANAL CHEM 47 (12): 2021-3 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Analyte: nitrite ion; Matrix: air; Procedure: Visible absorption spectrophotometry; Range: 0.13-8.5 ug nitrogen dioxide/sample; Estimated LOD: 0.01 ug nitrogen dioxide/sample; Precision: 0.05. Interferences: In very dusty environments, particles may deposit on the inside surface of the samplers. Resuspension of the dust in the analytical reagent can give a positive bias in the spectrophotometric reading. /Nitrogen dioxide/
[U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSHManual of Analytical Methods, 3rd ed. Volumes 1 and 2 with 1985 supplement, and revisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 1984.,p. V2 6700-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

A REVIEW WITH 12 REFERENCES IS GIVEN OF CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES FOR THE EST OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE CONCN IN AIR. /NITROGEN DIOXIDE/
[COLE HS, SUMMERHAYS JE; J AIR POLLUT CONTROL ASSOC 29 (8): 812-7 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sampling Procedures:

PERSONAL SAMPLER FOR GASES IN AIR ADAPTED TO MEASUREMENT OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE. /NITROGEN DIOXIDE/
[PALMES ED ET AL; AM IND HYG ASSOC J 37 (10): 570-77 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

ANALYTE: NITROGEN DIOXIDE; MATRIX: AIR; COLLECTION ON TEA /TRIETHANOLAMINE/-COATED MOLECULAR SIEVE, DESORPTION WITH TEA. /NITROGEN DIOXIDE/
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual ofAnalytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present.,p. V4 S320]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sampler: Passive (Palmes tube with three triethanolamine-treated screens); Sampling time: Min: 15 minutes @ 5 ppm; Max: 8 hr @ 10 ppm. Sample stability: Use sampler within 1 mo after preparation; analyze within 1 month after sampling. Range studied: 1.2 to 80 ppm-hr (0.13 to 8.5 ug nitrogen dioxide per sample); Overall precision: 0.06. /Nitrogen dioxide/
[U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSHManual of Analytical Methods, 3rd ed. Volumes 1 and 2 with 1985 supplement, and revisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 1984.,p. V2 6700-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

Special References:

Special Reports:

USEPA; Draft Criteria Document: Oxides of Nitrogen (1983).

Synonyms and Identifiers:

Related HSDB Records:

718 [NITROGEN DIOXIDE] (Analog)

Synonyms:

DINITROGEN TETRAOXIDE
**PEER REVIEWED**

Nitrogen dioxide, di-
**PEER REVIEWED**

NITROGEN OXIDE (N2O4)
**PEER REVIEWED**

NITROGEN TETRAOXIDE
**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

UN 1067; Dinitrogen tetroxide

IMO 2.3; Dinitrogen tetroxide

Standard Transportation Number:

49 203 60; Nitroxide tetroxide (gases, compressed, not elsewhere classified, poison)

RTECS Number:

NIOSH/QX1575000

Administrative Information:

Hazardous Substances Databank Number: 1067

Last Revision Date: 20021108

Last Review Date: Reviewed by SRP on 9/18/1998

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