Print Friendly and PDFPrintPrint Friendly and PDFPDF1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE
CASRN: 57-14-7

See Occupational Exposure Standards

Human Health Effects:

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: No epidemiological data on the carcinogenicity of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine were available. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine. Overall evaluation: 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. 71 1433 (1999)]**QC REVIEWED**

A3. Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 34]**QC REVIEWED**

Human Toxicity Excerpts:

... WORKERS EXPERIENCED RESPIRATORY DISTRESS AND LATER, NAUSEA AND VOMITING AFTER ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURE TO ... /1,1-DIPHENYLHYDRAZINE/ VAPOR. OTHERS HAVE OBSERVED THAT ACUTE ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURES WILL PRODUCE NOSE AND THROAT IRRITATION, MILD CONJUNCTIVITIS, AND NAUSEA. /1,1-DIPHENYLHYDRAZINE/
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2803]**PEER REVIEWED**

... 6 CASES OF FATTY LIVER ASSOCIATED WITH A RISE IN SGPT LEVELS IN 26 PERSONNEL WORKING WITH LIQUID ROCKET FUELS FOR UP TO 5 YEARS /WERE DESCRIBED/.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 141 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Symptoms: ... dyspnea; lethargy; ... anoxia; convulsions; liver injury.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985. 366]**PEER REVIEWED**

The Carcinogen Assessment Group (CAG), Office of Health and Environmental Assessment in EPA'S Research and Development Office, has prepared a list of chemical substances for which substantial or strong evidence exists showing that exposure to these chemicals, under certain conditions, causes cancer in humans, or can cause cancer in animal species which in turn, makes them potentially carcinogenic in humans. Substances are placed on the CAG list only if they have been demonstrated to induce malignant tumors in one or more animal species or to induce benign tumors that are generally recognized as early stages of malignancies, and/or if positive epidemiologic studies indicated they were carcinogenic. 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is on that list.
[USEPA/CAG; The Carcinogen Assessment Group's List of Carcinogens p.41 (7/14/80)]**PEER REVIEWED**

HIGHLY CORROSIVE & IRRITATING TO SKIN, EYES, AND MUCOUS MEMBRANES. CONVULSANT POISON.
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 473]**PEER REVIEWED**

/A case history/ is presented /regarding/ extensive burns associated with 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) toxicity in a 31-year-old man. Neurological symptoms dominated early developments. Specific treatment with pyridoxine, while begun late, effected a quite rapid resolution and the subsequent progression of treatment was straightforward. In reviewing previous reported findings, the distinctive characteristics of UDMH toxicity /have been elucidated/. The methods for its detection and modes of treatment /is also considered/. ...
[Ohennin C et al; Burns Ind Thrm Inj 14 (2): 130-4 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Several incidents of human inhalation exposure to UDMH /1,1-dimethylhydrazine/ has occurred. Exposure levels were not determined. Symptoms of exposure incl respiratory effects, nausea, vomiting, neurological effects, pulmonary edema, and incr SGPT.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 492]**PEER REVIEWED**

Conclusions: There are no data on human exposures that would serve to identify a critical effect of exposure to either 1,1-dimethylhydrazine or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Judging from animal experiments, the critical effect of both substances is cancer. Acute exposure can have effects on breathing and on the nervous system. Dimethylhydrazine (both isomers) is readily absorbed through the skin.
[Criteria group for occupational standards; Arbete och H71sa(37 (Issue 1993:36 in Swedish)): 31-40 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

... IRRITATING TO SKIN, EYES, MUCOUS MEMBRANES.
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 473]**PEER REVIEWED**

Highly corrosive and irritating to skin, eyes, mucous membranes.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991. 154]**PEER REVIEWED**

Medical Surveillance:

Consider the point of attack /CNS, liver, gastrointestinal system, blood, respiratory system, eyes, skin/ in placement and periodic physical exam.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985. 366]**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Human exposure to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine will most likely result from its use as a component of aerospace propellants. NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has estimated that 2,917 workers are exposed to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in the US(1). Exposure of workers to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Hydrazine Facility was mainly through inhalation(2). The general population may be exposed to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine through the ingestion of food, and dermal contact with vapors, food and other products containing this compound(SRC).
[(1) NIOSH; National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) (1983) (2) Cook L, Glemm R; Evaluation of Atmospheric Concentrations of Hydrazine and Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine In and Around the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Hydrazine Facility, Denver, CO, 18-22 October 1976 and 17-21 January 1977. Industrial Hygiene Special Study No. 35-0101-77, AD-A285 332/2GEN, (1977)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emergency Medical Treatment:

Emergency Medical Treatment:

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The following Overview, *** DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE ***, is relevant for this HSDB record chemical.

Life Support:
  o   This overview assumes that basic life support measures
      have been instituted.
Clinical Effects:
  SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
   0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) has lesser oral and greater
         inhalational toxicity than does hydrazine.  This review
         is based on the properties of methylhydrazine and
         hydrazines, with effects specific for UDMH identified.
     o   The following effects may occur with UDMH:  systemic
         absorption by any exposure route, strong irritation or
         burns of the skin and eyes, CNS stimulation (tremors
         and convulsions), methemoglobinemia, hemolysis, and
         liver or kidney damage.
     o   Dimethylhydrazine is an experimental animal carcinogen
         and a suspected human carcinogen.
  VITAL SIGNS
   0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Anoxia, cyanosis, or fever may occur.
  HEENT
   0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   METHYL HYDRAZINE causes irritation of the eyes, nose,
         and throat.  Vapors may cause eye irritation.  Direct
         contact with the liquid may cause severe eye damage and
         burns of the mucous membranes.  Facial edema,
         conjunctivitis, and excessive salivation have been
         reported with hydrazine exposure.
  RESPIRATORY
   0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Respiratory distress without lower respiratory tract
         irritation has been seen in exposed humans.  Some
         hydrazines may cause delayed death, bronchial mucosal
         destruction, and pulmonary edema.
  GASTROINTESTINAL
   0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia are common.
  HEPATIC
   0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Increased serum liver enzyme levels may be seen after
         acute exposure.
   0.2.9.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     o   Fatty liver has been seen in workers with occupational
         exposure to rocket fuel and in monkeys.
  GENITOURINARY
   0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Diuresis was seen in rats.  Renal function was not
         impaired in dogs.
   0.2.10.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     o   Fatty infiltration in the renal tubular epithelium and
         diuresis were seen in rats.
  HEMATOLOGIC
   0.2.13.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Methemoglobinemia, Heinz bodies, and hemolytic anemia
         have occurred in experimental animals.
  DERMATOLOGIC
   0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   UDMH is corrosive to the skin.  Second- and
         third-degree burns can occur with brief exposure to the
         liquid.  Irritation may follow vapor exposure.  Some
         hydrazines are skin sensitizers.
  MUSCULOSKELETAL
   0.2.15.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Hydrazine has produced arthralgias.
  ENDOCRINE
   0.2.16.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia may occur.
  PSYCHIATRIC
   0.2.18.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Confusion, lethargy, and agitation have been reported.
  IMMUNOLOGIC
   0.2.19.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Cellular and humoral immunological responses were
         depressed in hydrazine-exposed guinea pigs.
   0.2.19.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     o   Some hydrazines are skin sensitizers.
  REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
    o   Fetotoxicity, but not teratogenicity, was seen with
        exposure to high doses in rats.  Methemoglobin inducers
        may be especially hazardous to the fetus.  Abnormal
        sperm morphology has been seen in mice.
  CARCINOGENICITY
   0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
     o   Dimethylhydrazine is an experimental animal carcinogen.
         It is a suspect human carcinogen, but epidemiological
         data are lacking.
  GENOTOXICITY
    o   Dimethylhydrazine has been genotoxic, inducing DNA
        damage, mutations, sister chromatid exchanges, and
        oncogenic transformation in vitro.
  OTHER
   0.2.23.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   Dimethylhydrazine can be hazardous by any route of
         exposure.  Vitamin B6 is antidotal for seizures (and
         posibbly other manifestations) in rats, mice, dogs, and
         monkeys.                                              
Laboratory:
  o   If respiratory tract irritation or respiratory depression
      is evident, monitor arterial blood gases, chest x-ray, and
      pulmonary function tests.
  o   A number of chemicals produce abnormalities of the
      hematopoietic system, liver, and kidneys.  Monitoring
      complete blood count, urinalysis, and liver and kidney
      function tests is suggested for patients with significant
      exposure.
  o   Monitor methemoglobin and blood sugar levels.
Treatment Overview:
  ORAL EXPOSURE
    o   Do NOT induce emesis.
    o   DILUTION:  Immediately dilute with 4 to 8 ounces (120 to
        240 mL) of milk or water (not to exceed 4 ounces/120 mL
        in a child).
    o   ACTIVATED CHARCOAL:  Administer charcoal as a slurry
        (240 mL water/30 g charcoal).  Usual dose:  25 to 100 g
        in adults/adolescents, 25 to 50 g in children (1 to 12
        years), and 1 g/kg in infants less than 1 year old.
    o   GASTRIC LAVAGE:  Consider after ingestion of a
        potentially life-threatening amount of poison if it can
        be performed soon after ingestion (generally within 1
        hour).  Protect airway by placement in Trendelenburg and
        left lateral decubitus position or by endotracheal
        intubation.  Control any seizures first.
     1.  CONTRAINDICATIONS:  Loss of airway protective reflexes
         or decreased level of consciousness in unintubated
         patients; following ingestion of corrosives;
         hydrocarbons (high aspiration potential); patients at
         risk of hemorrhage or gastrointestinal perforation; and
         trivial or non-toxic ingestion.
    o   SEIZURES:  Administer a benzodiazepine IV; DIAZEPAM
        (ADULT:  5 to 10 mg,  repeat every 10 to 15 min as
        needed.  CHILD:  0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg, repeat every  5 min
        as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT:  2 to 4 mg; CHILD:  0.05
        to 0.1 mg/kg).
     1.  Consider phenobarbital if seizures recur after diazepam
         30 mg (adults)  or 10 mg (children > 5 years).
     2.  Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory
         depression, and need  for endotracheal intubation.
         Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances,
         hypoxia.
    o   ACUTE LUNG INJURY:  Maintain ventilation and oxygenation
        and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gas or pulse
        oximetry monitoring.  Early use of PEEP and mechanical
        ventilation may be needed.
    o   METHEMOGLOBINEMIA:  Administer 1 to 2 mg/kg of 1%
        methylene blue slowly IV in symptomatic patients.
        Additional doses may be required.
    o   Pyridoxine may be antidotal.  Dose of pyridoxine is 25
        mg/kg.
  INHALATION EXPOSURE
    o   Rescuers must not enter areas with potential high
        airborne concentrations of this agent without
        SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS (SCBA) to avoid
        becoming secondary victims.
    o   INHALATION:  Move patient to fresh air.  Monitor for
        respiratory distress.  If cough or difficulty breathing
        develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation,
        bronchitis, or pneumonitis.  Administer oxygen and
        assist ventilation as required.  Treat bronchospasm with
        beta2  agonist and corticosteroid aerosols.
    o   SEIZURES:  Administer a benzodiazepine IV; DIAZEPAM
        (ADULT:  5 to 10 mg,  repeat every 10 to 15 min as
        needed.  CHILD:  0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg, repeat every  5 min
        as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT:  2 to 4 mg; CHILD:  0.05
        to 0.1 mg/kg).
     1.  Consider phenobarbital if seizures recur after diazepam
         30 mg (adults)  or 10 mg (children > 5 years).
     2.  Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory
         depression, and need  for endotracheal intubation.
         Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances,
         hypoxia.
    o   ACUTE LUNG INJURY:  Maintain ventilation and oxygenation
        and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gas or pulse
        oximetry monitoring.  Early use of PEEP and mechanical
        ventilation may be needed.
    o   METHEMOGLOBINEMIA:  Administer 1 to 2 mg/kg of 1%
        methylene blue slowly IV in symptomatic patients.
        Additional doses may be required.
    o   Pyridoxine may be antidotal.  Dose of pyridoxine is 25
        mg/kg.
  EYE EXPOSURE
    o   DECONTAMINATION:  Irrigate exposed eyes with copious
        amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes.  If
        irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia
        persist, the patient should be seen in a health care
        facility.
  DERMAL EXPOSURE
    o   DECONTAMINATION:  Remove contaminated clothing and wash
        exposed  area thoroughly with soap and water.  A
        physician may need to  examine the area if irritation or
        pain persists.
    o   Treat dermal irritation or burns with standard topical
        therapy.  Patients developing dermal hypersensitivity
        reactions may require treatment with systemic or topical
        corticosteroids or antihistamines.
    o   SEIZURES:  Administer a benzodiazepine IV; DIAZEPAM
        (ADULT:  5 to 10 mg,  repeat every 10 to 15 min as
        needed.  CHILD:  0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg, repeat every  5 min
        as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT:  2 to 4 mg; CHILD:  0.05
        to 0.1 mg/kg).
     1.  Consider phenobarbital if seizures recur after diazepam
         30 mg (adults)  or 10 mg (children > 5 years).
     2.  Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory
         depression, and need  for endotracheal intubation.
         Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances,
         hypoxia.
    o   ACUTE LUNG INJURY:  Maintain ventilation and oxygenation
        and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gas or pulse
        oximetry monitoring.  Early use of PEEP and mechanical
        ventilation may be needed.
    o   METHEMOGLOBINEMIA:  Administer 1 to 2 mg/kg of 1%
        methylene blue slowly IV in symptomatic patients.
        Additional doses may be required.
    o   Pyridoxine may be antidotal.  Dose of pyridoxine is 25
        mg/kg.
Range of Toxicity:
  o   Minimum lethal human exposure is unknown.
  o   Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) is less toxic than methyl
      hydrazine.    

[Rumack BH: POISINDEX(R) Information System. Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2003; CCIS Volume 116, edition exp May, 2003. Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds):TOMES(R) Information System. Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2003; CCIS Volume 116, edition exp May, 2003.] **PEER REVIEWED**

Antidote and Emergency Treatment:

Specific treatment for exposure consists of thorough washing of all exposed skin areas with soap and water, copious irrigation of the eyes, and prompt removal of the patient from the source of exposure. /Hydrazines/
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1287]**PEER REVIEWED**

After inhalation, observation for progressive respiratory distress is necessary. Chest X-ray and arterial blood gases should be monitored. Administration of oxygen, intubation, and assisted ventilation may become necessary. Pneumonia and bronchitis need to be excluded. /Hydrazines/
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1287]**PEER REVIEWED**

If ingestion has occurred, gastric lavage or emesis should be followed by administration of activated charcoal and catharsis. Emesis is most effective if it is initiated within 30 minutes of ingestion. /Hydrazines/
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1287]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pyridoxine may be antidotal. The suggested dose is with half of this dose given intramuscularly and two-thirds given IV over 3 hours. Seizures should be controlled with diazepam, phenytoin, or phenobarbital. Blood sugar levels should be monitored for severe hypoglycemia, which may appear with or without preceding significant hyperglycemia. The patient should be observed for evidence of intravascular hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, and consequent deterioration of renal function. Patients who are symptomatic or who demonstrate a methemoglobin level greater than 30 per cent should be treated with methylene blue slowly IV every 4 hours as needed. Improvement is dramatic if diagnosis is correct. Liver function should be monitored because hydrazines are known hepatotoxins. /Hydrazines/
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1287]**PEER REVIEWED**

Elimination is enhanced by forced diuresis and acidification of the urine. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis should be effective, but insufficient human data exist on the use of these modalities. Treatment is otherwise symptomatic and supportive. /Hydrazines/
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1287]**PEER REVIEWED**

Animal Toxicity Studies:

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: No epidemiological data on the carcinogenicity of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine were available. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine. Overall evaluation: 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. 71 1433 (1999)]**QC REVIEWED**

A3. Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 34]**QC REVIEWED**

Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:

... DAILY DOSES OF 0.5 MG UNSYMMETRICAL 1,1-DIPHENYLHYDRAZINE IN WATER 5 DAYS/WEEK FOR 40 WEEKS /GIVEN BY GAVAGE/ TO A GROUP OF 25 FEMALE SWISS MICE. LUNG TUMORS WERE FOUND IN 1/8 MICE (0.25 TUMOURS/MOUSE) DYING BETWEEN 40 AND 45 WEEKS AND IN 4/9 MICE (2.6 TUMOURS/MOUSE) DYING BETWEEN 50 AND 60 WEEKS. IN 85 CONTROLS, 2/37 MICE (0.05 TUMOURS/MOUSE) AND 6/42 MICE (0.2 TUMOURS/MOUSE) DEVELOPED LUNG TUMORS WITHIN THE SAME PERIODS.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 140 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

DOGS EXPOSED FOR APPROXIMATELY 3 HR TO A VAPOR CONCN OF 111 PPM OF 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE SHOWED SALIVATION, VOMITING, RESPIRATORY DISTRESS, AND CONVULSIONS. ALL 3 DIED ON THE DAY OF EXPOSURE. SIMILAR SYMPTOMS ... OBSERVED IN 2 OF 3 DOGS EXPOSED TO 52 PPM FOR 4 HOURS; 1 OF THESE DIED.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2802]**PEER REVIEWED**

3 DOGS EXPOSED REPEATEDLY TO 25 PPM DEVELOPED DEPRESSION, SALIVATION, VOMITING, DIARRHEA, ATAXIA, CONVULSIVE SEIZURES, AND HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. THERE WAS A DECREASE IN HEMATOCRIT, HEMOGLOBIN AND RED BLOOD CELL COUNTS AND HEMOSIDERIN WAS DEPOSITED IN THE CELLS OF THE RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM. ... NO SEVERE TOXIC SIGNS WERE OBSERVED IN 3 DOGS EXPOSED TO 5 PPM FOR 6 HR/DAY, 5 DAYS A WK FOR 26 WK. LETHARGY & WT LOSS DEVELOPED AFTER 2 OR 3 WK OF EXPOSURE. THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF MILD ANEMIA AFTER 6 WK OF EXPOSURE. EXAMINATION, 2 WK AFTER EXPOSURE SHOWED ONLY HEMOSIDERIN DEPOSITION IN SPLEEN WITH NO LESIONS IN THE OTHER ORGANS.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2802]**PEER REVIEWED**

ADMINISTRATION OF 0.01% OF /1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE/ IN THE DRINKING WATER OF 50 MALE AND 50 FEMALE SWISS MICE RESULTED IN A HIGH INCIDENCE OF ANGIOSARCOMAS (79%), LOCATED IN VARIOUS ORGANS. BESIDES THESE ANGIOSARCOMAS, TUMORS OF LUNGS (71%), KIDNEYS (10%) AND LIVER (6%) WERE OBSERVED. AVG LATENT PERIOD ... 42 TO 61 WEEKS FOR VARIOUS TUMORS. /NO DATA ON CONTROLS GIVEN./
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 140 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

IP INJECTIONS OF 80-100 MG/KG OF 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE PRODUCED DIURESIS IN RATS. INJECTIONS OF 10 MG RESULTED IN DIURESIS ONLY WHEN GIVEN BY INTRACEREBRAL ROUTE.
[BARTH ML ET AL; TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL 11 (1): 26-34 (1967)]**PEER REVIEWED**

IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSIVENESS OF GUINEA PIGS WAS DECR BY 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE BUT LESS THAN THAT CAUSED BY 6-MERCAPTOPURINE, A KNOWN IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENT. BOTH DEPRESSED HUMORAL & CELLULAR RESPONSES TO TUBERCULIN.
[PANGBURN MK; US NTIS, AD REP; 13 PP (1976) ISS AD-A024165]**PEER REVIEWED**

EXPOSURE TO CONCN OF 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE IN EXCESS OF 10 MG/L DURING NEURULATION WAS TERATOGENIC TO XENOPUS LAEVIS EMBRYOS. ABNORMALITIES: KINKY TAILS, ABNORMAL NOTOCHORD, MICROCEPHALY, CYCLOPIA, SHORTENING OF TRUNKS, & EDEMA. EXPOSURE DURING LATER OR EARLIER PERIODS AFFECTED ONLY VIABILITY.
[GREENHOUSE G; TERATOLOGY 13 (2): 167-77 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

DAILY INJECTIONS OF 70, 50, 30 OR 10 MG 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE (UDMH) PER KG INTO RATS RESULTED IN THE DEATH OF 90, 60, 50, AND 0, RESPECTIVELY, OF THE ANIMALS WITHIN FIRST 3 DAYS. ANIMALS SURVIVING FIRST 3 DAYS BEGAN TO GAIN WEIGHT EVEN THOUGH DAILY DOSING WAS CONTINUED. ANIMALS RECEIVING MORE THAN 10 MG/KG/DAY WERE MARKEDLY DIURETIC THROUGHOUT THE 21 DAY TEST PERIOD. BLOOD UREA NITROGEN AND SERUM GLUTAMIC OXALACETIC TRANSAMINASE SGOT LEVELS WERE SIGNIFICANTLY ELEVATED IN THE 50 MG/KG GROUP AT 21 DAYS AND SLIGHTLY ELEVATED IN THE 30 MG/KG/DAY GROUP. HISTOPATHOLOGIC STUDIES SHOWED SOME EVIDENCE OF EARLY LIPID INFILTRATION IN THE TUBULAR EPITHELIUM OF THE KIDNEY. THUS, ALTHOUGH SOME ANIMALS APPARENTLY ADJUST TO RELATIVELY HIGH DAILY DOSES OF UDMH, BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGIC EVIDENCE INDICATES MILD KIDNEY DAMAGE IN THESE ANIMALS.
[CORNISH HH, HARTUNG R; TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL 15 (1): 62-8 (1969)]**PEER REVIEWED**

HEMATOLOGICAL EFFECTS WERE STUDIED IN RABBITS & MICE ADMIN 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE IP (10 MG/KG/DAY) FOR 20 DAYS. IT DECR THE APPARENT HALF LIFE OF RED BLOOD CELLS FROM 15 DAYS TO 6 DAYS IN RABBITS.
[CIER A ET AL; CR SEANCES SOC BIOL SES FIL 161 (4): 854-8 (1967)]**PEER REVIEWED**

ANIMALS WERE EXPOSED FOR 6 MO TO 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE AT CONCN OF 0.05, 0.5, & 5 PPM. MICE EXPOSED TO HIGHEST CONCN HAD INCREASED INCIDENCE OF HEMANGIOSARCOMAS & KUPFFER CELL SARCOMAS. SKIN, LUNG, PANCREAS, PITUITARY, & LIVER TUMORS WERE INCREASED SIGNIFICANTLY IN RATS. TUMOR INCIDENCE WAS HIGHER THAN IN CONTROLS.
[HAUN CC ET AL; ISS AMRL-TR-79-68 PROC CONF ENVIRON TOXICOL 141-53 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE WAS MUTAGENIC IN VITRO USING BACTERIAL & MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURES. RESPONSES WERE POSITIVE AFTER MICROSOMAL ENZYME ACTIVATION, SUGGESTING FORMATION OF ACTIVE METABOLITE. DOMINANT LETHAL TEST WAS NEGATIVE IN MICE.
[BRUSICK D, MATHESON DW; US NTIS, AD REP; 27 PP (1976) ISS AD-A035475]**PEER REVIEWED**

DIMETHYLHYDRAZINES GAVE NEGATIVE RESULTS IN AMES TESTS. IN HOST MEDIATED ASSAYS, 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE WAS ALSO NEGATIVE. EVIDENTLY, MUTAGENIC ACTIONS OF VARIOUS HYDRAZINE DERIVATIVES ALTHOUGH CHEMICALLY CLOSELY RELATED, DEPEND ON DIFFERENT REACTION MECHANISMS.
[VON WRIGHT A, TIKKANEN L; MUTAT RES 78 (1): 17-23 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE TOXICITY OF MONOMETHYLHYDRAZINE, HYDRAZINE, & UNSYMMETRICAL DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE WAS DETERMINED FOR MIXED & UNICULTURE CULTURES OF NITRIFYING, DENITRIFYING, & ANAEROBIC METHANOGENIC BACTERIA. MONOMETHYLHYDRAZINE WAS MORE TOXIC THAN HYDRAZINE, WHICH WAS MORE TOXIC THAN DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE.
[KANE DA, WILLIAMSON KJ; ARCH ENVIRON CONTAM TOXICOL 12 (4): 447-53 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In a study of chronic intoxication (inhalation & ip) of mice, rats & cats by 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, morphologic exam showed that the nervous tissue & the bronchopulmonary system were damaged, especially in the case of inhalation intoxication.
[Chevrier JP, Pfister A; Eur J Toxicol Environ Hyg 7 (4): 242-6 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine sulfate was more mutagenic in the histidine requiring auxotroph of Salmonella typhimurium, strain TA1530, than 1,1-dimethylhydrazine.
[Tosk J et al; Mutat Res 66 (3): 247-52 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... When /1,1-dimethylhydrazine/ was applied to dogs over a large area of the chest it was absorbed, passed into the aqueous humor, & caused opacity of the cornea.
[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986. 349]**PEER REVIEWED**

The chemical carcinogen hydrazine is a potent stimulator of guanylate cyclase. 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine & hydrazine sulfate, two chemical carcinogens, structurally related to hydrazine decrease guanylate cyclase activity in rat tissues. Hydrazine increased DNA synthesis, but 1,1-dimethylhydrazine & hydrazine sulfate decreased DNA synthesis. The relationship, if any, linking the guanylate cyclase cyclic GMP system to DNA synthesis & carcinogenesis remains to be explored.
[Vesely DL et al; Enzyme 23 (5): 289-94 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDRAZINE DERIV WERE TESTED FOR THEIR ABILITY TO INHIBIT PENTOBARBITAL & CARISOPRODOL OXIDN & AMINOPYRINE N-DEMETHYLATION BY RAT LIVER MICROSOMAL SYSTEMS IN VITRO OR IN VIVO. 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE WAS A WEAK OR NONINHIBITOR. THE INHIBITORY ACTION OF THE COMPOUNDS GENERALLY PARALLELED THEIR LIPID SOLUBILITY.
[KATO R ET AL; JPN J PHARMACOL 19 (2): 315-22 (1969)]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE FRIEDMAN-STAUB ASSAY WAS USED TO STUDY THE INHIBITION OF TESTICULAR DNA SYNTHESIS BY 100 COMPOUNDS. MALE MICE WERE ADMIN CMPD IP OR ORALLY. OF THE 100 TESTED SUBSTANCES APPROX 86% OF THE KNOWN CARCINOGENS &/OR MUTAGENS SHOW UP POSITIVELY IN THIS TEST, WHEREAS ONLY 10% OF NONCARCINOGENIC & NONMUTAGENIC COMPOUNDS DEPRESS DNA-SYNTHETIC ACTIVITY SIGNIFICANTLY. HYDRAZINE & MOST OF ITS DERIVATIVES INHIBITED DNA SYNTHESIS. 71.3% INHIBITION OF THYMIDINE INCORPORTION INTO TESTICULAR DNA OCCURRED WITH N,N-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE (200 MG/KG, ORALLY).
[SEILER JP; MUTAT RES 46 (4): 305-10 (1977)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Induction of malignant periphral nerve sheath tumors by 1,1-dimethylhydrazine was studied in hamsters. MHH:EPH hamsters were injected subcutaneously with 0 or 37.3 mg/kg UDMH (males) and 32.5 mg/kg (females) once a week for life. All animals were necropsied. UDMH induced malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in 43% males and 40% females. The tumors consisted of neurofibrosarcomas and melanotic and unpigmented schwannomas. The schwannomas originated mainly from the cranial nerves whereas the neurofibrosarcomas originated mostly in the thoracic and lumbrosacral nerves. ... Tumor multiplicity was 1.5 in males and 1.33 in females. Malignant dermal melanomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas of the stomach were also found in the treated animals, especially in the females. No peripheral nerve tumors were found in the controls. The authors conclude that UDMH when given sc continuously, induces periphral nerve sheath tumors in hamsters. Since these findings support other evidence of UDMH carcinogenicity, efforts should be made to curtail the widespread use of UDMH.
[Ernst H et al; Cancer Letters 35 (3): 303-11 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

/In an acute dermal toxicity study/ Application of UDMH /1,1-dimethylhydrazine/ to dog skin also produced opacity of the cornea, and erythema /of the test site/.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

Toxic effects from acute exposure /to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine/ incl vomiting, convulsions, other neurological effects, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, and hyperglycemia. /species not specified/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

Rats, mice, and dogs were exposed by inhalation to vapors of UDMH /1,1-dimethylhydrazine/ for 6 hours/day, 5 days/wk. The exposure conc for both rats and mice were 75 ppm for 7 wk or 140 ppm for 6 wk. Dogs were exposed at 5 ppm for 26 wk or 25 ppm for 13 wk. Mortality, neurological, and respiratory effects were observed in rats and mice exposed at either 75 or 140 ppm; however, no morphological tissue changes were observed. At the 25 ppm exposure level, one dog died, and the remaining dogs exhibited neurological effects, decr bw, hemolytic anemia, and hemosiderosis of the reticuloendothelial system. At 5 ppm exposure, dogs had slightly decr bw, hemolytic anemia, and hemosiderosis of the spleen.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mice, rats, and hamsters were admin UDMH /1,1-dimethylhydrazine/ in their drinking water. In mice, a significant incr in tumors of the blood vessels, lungs, kidneys, and liver was observed. Rats developed liver carcinomas, and hamsters developed vascular and cecal tumors.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

An inhalation study was conducted in which dogs, rats, mice, and hamsters were exposed at 0, 0.05, 0.5, or 5 ppm UDMH /1,1-dimethylhydrazine/ 6 hours/day, 5 days/wk for 6 months. The rodents were sacrificed 17-20 mo postexposure. At the time of the report, the dogs were still alive and undergoing observation. However, the UDMH was contaminated with 0.12% dimethylnitrosamine, a carcinogen ... Dogs exposed at 5 ppm had slight abnormalities in liver function tests and elevated SGPT ... no compound-related effects were detected at lower doses. These parameters were reversible during the postexposure period. A compound-related incr in tumors was not evident in hamsters at any dose level. Mice exposed at 5 ppm had incr hemangiosarcomas and Kupffer cell sarcomas; tumors were not observed at lower doses. Rats exposed at 5 ppm had incr lung tumors, squamous cell carcinomas, and hepatocellular carcinomas. Islet cell adenomas of the pancreas were incr in rats exposed at 0.5 ppm but were only slightly (not statistically) incr at 5 ppm. Fibrous histiocytomas were slightly incr and significantly incr at 0.5 and 5 ppm, respectively, and chromophobe adenomas were incr at both 0.5 and 5 ppm in rats ... Dogs exposed at 5 ppm UDMH containing 0.12% dimethylnitrosamine for 8.5 weeks exhibited increases in SGPT ... and marginal changes in hepatic morphology. However, dogs exposed to purified UDMH (5 ppm) had normal liver function parameters and no morphological liver effects.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pregnant rats were admin ip doses of 10, 30, or 60 mg/kg UDMH /1,1-dimethylhydrazine/ on days 6 through 15 of gestation. UDMH was embryotoxic but not teratogenic in pregnant rats. Maternal bw was also depressed as a result of the treatment.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 492]**PEER REVIEWED**

A significant, reversible incr in the percentage of abnormally shaped sperm was observed in mice admin five daily ip injections of UDMH /1,1-dimethylhydrazine/ at doses of 10, 25, 40, 55, or 70% of the UDMH ip LD50 (dose not specified).
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 492]**PEER REVIEWED**

UDMH /1,1-dimethylhydrazine/ is active in S. typhimurium. Mutations were produced by UDMH in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells and V-79 liver cells. Nutritional-deficient strains of E. coli were altered, but UDMH did not induce lambda prophage mutation in this organism. Unscheduled DNA synthesis was increased in hepatocytes. In vivo animals test, incl production of micronuclei in dogs and dominant lethals in mice, were negative, and sperm abnormalities were not produced in mice. DNA interactions can be demonstrated as single-strand breaks in rat hepatocytes and were seen following exposure to UDMH. Hepatocyte damage was seen in vivo using alkaline elution techniques, and fragmentation was seen in liver and lung DNA of mice treated with ip doses.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 492]**PEER REVIEWED**

EXPERIMENTAL: TO REMEDY 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE INTOXICATION 2 TYPES OF DRUGS WERE EFFECTIVE: AN ANTICONVULSIVE, PHENYTOIN & TWO AMINO ACID SALTS, ORNITHINE ALPHA-ACETOGLUTARATE & ARGININE ASPARTATE. FOR ACUTE INTOXICATION THE COMBINATION OF PHENYTOIN & AMINO ACID SALTS DECREASED THE MORTALITY OF MALE RATS. FOR CHRONIC INTOXICATIONS EITHER AMINO ACID SALT HELPED TO RESTORE NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION. THESE TWO TYPES OF TREATMENT ARE PROBABLY USEFUL COMPLEMENTS TO BASIC PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE THERAPY FOR 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE INTOXICATION.
[CHEVRIER J-P; EUR J TOXICOL ENVIRON HYG 8 (1): 32 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Preneoplastic mucosal changes were studied at six different time-points during dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in the rat. After 40 weeks of treatment, seven of 10 animals were bearing a total of 11 colorectal adenocarcinomas. The crypt cell production rate in the normal mucosa of DMH treated animals was greatly increased in the left colon and rectum and further rose with the duration of the experiment. Focal disturbances of the mucosal architecture could be detected as early as 4 weeks after the initiation of DMH-treatment using a stereo microscope. Their incidence was greatest in the left colon and rectum and increased strongly with the duration of carcinogen exposure. Characterization of these mucosal alterations, by means of conventional histology, morphometry after microdissection, cell kinetics, mucin histochemistry and quantitative enzyme histochemistry performed with serial sections, revealed mild epithelial dysplasia, a considerable elongation and dilation of the crypts and a marked increase of the crypt cell production, includig a shift of the main proliferative compartment from the basal to the medial crypt segment as well as the occurrence of mitotic figures in the luminal epithelium. In affected crypts, the goblet cells completely lacked sulfomucins and exclusively contained sialomucins. The activities of the enzymes diaminopeptidase IV (brushborder), succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondria) and acid beta-galactosidase (lysosomes) were markedly reduced. ... Early mucosal alterations are indeed preneoplastic lesions and indicate the existence of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in this animal model. The easy detection of these microadenomas under the stereo microscope and the existence of similar findings in man suggest possible clinical applications. /Dimethylhydrazine, not otherwise specified/
[Sandforth F et al; Eur J Clin Invest 18 (6): 655-62 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The carcinogenicity of daminozide (succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide; Alar), a plant growth regulator used primarily in apple orchards, has been the subject of recent investigations by several national and international organizations because of contradictory study results. The aim of the present study was to assess the carcinogenicity of daminozide alone and in combination with l,l-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), its major contaminant, in a novel medium-term bioassay in Fischer 344 rats, the diethylnitrosamine-hepatectomy model. Rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at 200 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally and then 2 weeks later were given daminozide at 20,000 ppm or daminozide plus 1,1-dimethylhydrazine at 75, 150, or 300 ppm in the diet for 6 weeks and were then killed; all rats underwent a partial (two-thirds) hepatectomy (PH) at week 3. Hepatocarcinogenic potential was assessed by comparing the number and area of preneoplastic foci positive for the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P+) in the liver of treated rats, with those in controls given diethylnitrosamine alone. Daminozide, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, and the combination were not carcinogenic in this model. This novel medium-term bioassay for carcinogenicity is considered to be practical for the rapid evaluation of both agrochemical formulations and contaminants found in agrochemicals and other compounds.
[Cabral R et al; Teratogenesis Carcinogenesis And Mutagenesis 15 (6): 307-12 (1995-6)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Non-Human Toxicity Values:

LC50 Rat inhalation 252 ppm/4 hr
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Mouse inhalation 172 ppm/4 hr
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Hamster inhalation 392 ppm/4 hr
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Mouse intraperitoneal 290 mg/kg (Std deviation +1)
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2802]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Mouse intravenous 250 mg/kg (Std deviation +1)
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2802]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Cats intraperitoneal 30-40 mg/kg
[Chevrier JP et al; Eur J Toxicol Environ Hyg 7 (4): 238-41 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Mouse oral 265 mg/kg (Std deviation +1)
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2802]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rat intravenous 119 mg/kg (Std deviation +1)
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2802]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rat intraperitoneal 131 mg/kg (Std deviation +1)
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2802]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rat oral 122 mg/kg (Std deviation +1)
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2802]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Dog intravenous 60 mg/kg (Std deviation +1)
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2802]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Dogs dermal 1200-1680 mg/kg
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Guinea pig dermal 1329 mg/kg
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rabbit dermal 1060 mg/kg /without occlusion/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rabbit dermal 156 mg/kg /with occlusion/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ecotoxicity Values:

LC50 Daphnia 38 mg/l/24 hr. /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[USEPA; Health and Environmental Effects Profile for 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine (Draft) p.30 (1984) ECAO-CIN-026]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) 11.35 mg/l/96 hr. /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[USEPA; Health and Environmental Effects Profile for 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine (Draft) p.30 (1984) ECAO-CIN-026]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner) 34.00 ug/l/96 hr. /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[USEPA; Health and Environmental Effects Profile for 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine (Draft) p.30 (1984) ECAO-CIN-026]**PEER REVIEWED**

Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

Metabolism/Metabolites:

FORMALDEHYDE WAS FORMED BY OXIDATIVE DEMETHYLATION OF 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE BY RAT LIVER MICROSOMES. PHENOBARBITAL OR 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE PRETREATMENT ENHANCED DEMETHYLASE ACTIVITY.
[WITTKOP JA ET AL; ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS 134 (2): 308-15 (1969)]**PEER REVIEWED**

RATS ADMIN LOW DOSE OF (14)C 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE METABOLIZED APPROX 30% TO (14)C LABELED CARBON DIOXIDE IN 10 HR. CONVERSION OF CONVULSIVE DOSE TO CARBON DIOXIDE AMOUNTED TO SLIGHTLY MORE THAN 13% @ END OF 20 HR. AT LEAST 50% OF ADMIN RADIOACTIVITY APPEARED IN URINE IN 2 DAY PERIOD.
[DOST FN ET AL; BIOCHEM PHARMACOL 15 (9): 1325 (1966)]**PEER REVIEWED**

N-OXIDATION OF ALKYLHYDRAZINES WAS CATALYZED BY MOUSE LIVER MICROSOMAL MIXED FUNCTION OXIDASE. AT PH 7.7 & 25 DEG C, METHYLHYDRAZINE & 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE HAVE NEARLY THE SAME MAXIMAL N-OXIDATION RATE AS DIMETHYLANILINE.
[PROUGH RA; ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS 158 (1): 442-4 (1973)]**PEER REVIEWED**

1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE WHEN ADDED TO SUSPENSION OF RAT LIVER MICROSOMES EXHIBITED BINDING SPECTRA LIKE THOSE SEEN FOR NITROGENOUS LIGANDS TO CYTOCHROME P450.
[HINES RN, PROUGH RA; J PHARMACOL EXP THER 214 (1): 80-86 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The present study provides the first evidence for in vitro metabolic conversion of a 1,1-disubstituted hydrazine to the corresponding nitrosamine. The study shows that superoxide radical which is generated by NADPH-cytochrome reductase is involved in the oxidation of 1,1-diphenylhydrazine to N-nitrosodiphenylamine catalyzed by rat liver microsomes. /1,1-Disubstituted hydrazine/
[Tatsumik et al; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 118 (3): 958-63 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The enzyme systems in rat liver and lung responsible for the oxidative metabolism of hydrazine derivatives were studied to determine whether these enzymes, cytochrome p450 and monoamine oxidase, were responsible for metabolically activating hydrazines to carcinogenic/toxic metabolites. Cytochrome p450 preferentially oxidized the nitrogen to nitrogen bond of 1,2-disubstituted hydrazines and hydrazides, while monoamine oxidase oxidized the nitrogen to nitrogen bond of all the classes of hydrazine derivatives that were tested. Oxidation of the nitrogen to nitrogen bond led to the formation of stable azo intemediates in the case of 1,2-disubstituted hydrazines and to unstable monoazo (diazene) metabolites in the case of monosubstituted hydrazines and hydrazides. /Substituted hydrazines/
[Erikson JM, Prough RA; J Biochem Toxicol 1 (1): 41-52 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A fatty acid stimulated, NADPH-independent pathway for the N-demethylation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine with the generation of formaldehyde was demonstrated in 10,000 g soluble fractions of colonic mucosal homogenates. Tetramethylhydrazine and, to a lesser extent, aminopyrine, but not 1,2-dimethylhydrazine or methylhydrazine, were also substrates for this reaction. Isolated superficial colonic epithelial cells metabolized 1,1-DMH at a faster rate than proliferative epithelial cells. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase activity, and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), an inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities, suppressed formaldehyde production from 1,1-dimethylhydrazine by 50 and 80%. However, in the presence of indomethacin or 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic, acid arachidonate hydroperoxide stimulated formaldehyde formation. This suggested a peroxidative mechanism for 1,1-dimethylhydrazine metabolism, related in part to prostaglandin synthesis. A possible role for lipoxygenase activity in mediating 1,1-dimethylhydrazine metabolism was suggested by the ability of linoleate, which did not increase prostaglandin synthesis, to stimulate 1,1-dimethylhydrazine metabolism and by the fact that 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid was more effective than indomethacin as an inhibitor of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine metabolism. The fatty acid stimulated pathway for N-demethylation was clearly distinct from the mixed function oxidase activities. NADPH did not stimulate 1,1-dimethylhydrazine metabolism to formaldehyde. 7,8-Benzoflavone or SKF-525A, inhibitors of cytochrome p450, and methimazole, an inhibitor of N-demethylation catalyzed by the hepatic microsomal FAD-containing monooxygenase, did not suppress formaldehyde formation. To the extent that 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and tetramethylhydrazine reach the colon unchanged, the results suggest that fatty acid stimulated cooxidation pathways in colonic mucosa may contribute to the metabolism of these agents. Metabolism by superficial cells which are destined to slough may be an important defense mechanism against the toxic and carcinogenic actions of these hydrazines in colon.
[Craven PA et al; Biochem Pharmaol 34 (17); 3101-6 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Absorption, Distribution & Excretion:

IT IS RAPIDLY ABSORBED FROM THE LUNG, GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND INJECTION SITES.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2801]**PEER REVIEWED**

APPROXIMATELY 50% OF THE ABSORBED DOSE IS EXCRETED IN 24 HR.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1070]**PEER REVIEWED**

UNSYMMETRICAL DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE IS /BIOTRANSFORMED/ ... TO CARBON DIOXIDE & UNKNOWN METABOLITES WHICH ARE EXCRETED WITH FREE ... /1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE/ INTO THE URINE.
[Thienes, C., and T.J. Haley. Clinical Toxicology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972. 140]**PEER REVIEWED**

AFTER 5-30 MMOLE/KG WAS APPLIED TO CANINE SKIN IT WAS DETECTABLE IN BLOOD WITHIN 30 SECONDS. BLOOD LEVEL WAS NO HIGHER @ 5-10 MIN SAMPLING TIME. BLOOD LEVELS INCR SLOWLY TO BROAD PEAK FOLLOWED BY SLOW DECLINE & WAS DOSE RELATED.
[SMITH EB, CLARK DA; TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL 18 (3): 649-59 (1971)]**PEER REVIEWED**

UDMH /1,1-dimethylhydrazine/ was absorbed rapidly through the skin of dogs and was detectable in the blood within 30 sec following application.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 491]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mechanism of Action:

The target organ specificity of diethylnitrosamine (DBN) was studied. Male Syrian golden hamsters were administered eight weekly injections of 20 mg/kg diethylnitrosamine, 20 mg/kg dimethylhydrazine, or 300 mg/kg dibutylnitrosamine. One group of treated animals was maintained after the eight weeks on basal diet, the second group received diet supplemented with 1% butylated hydroxyanisole, and the third group received repeat treatment with the carcinogen, but now in the drinking water. No toxic lesions were observed at week nine in the livers of hamsters treated with diethylnitrosamine or dimethylhydrazine. Tracheal lesions were induced by both diethylnitrosamine and dibutylnitrosamine. Only weak binding for glutathione-S-transferase was observed, and an increase in binding for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was apparent in areas of papillomas in which mitotic figures were increased. Adenomatous hyperplastic regions were present in lungs of animals that received dibutylnitrosamine. Forestomach tumors, in the form of solitary outgrowths, were induced by dimethylhydrazine and dibutylnitrosamine. Adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the large intestine and colon were induced only in the dimethylhydrazine treated groups. Butylated hydroxyanisole had no significant effect on tumorigenesis, with the exception of diethylnitrosamine initiated hepatocellular lesions, which were inhibited. All three carcinogens gave rise to clear, glycogen storing liver foci and nodules. No hepatocellular lesions were positive for gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase. Butylated hydroxyanisole tended to enhance the phenotypic instability and was associated with a slight induction of glutathione-S-transferase placental form protein in the hepatocytes of periportal zone one. The results demonstrate that Syrian golden hamsters are suitable test animals for studying comparative neoplasia. /Dimethylhydrazine, not otherwise specified/
[Moore MA et al; JNCI 78 (2): 295-301 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Changes in the intestinal mucosa during carcinogenesis were investigated in 36 rats after ... sc injection of 20 mg dimethylhydrazine/kg bw. More changes were seen in the large than in the small intestine. In the first week, 60% of colonic lymphoid plaques displayed various crypt abscesses and glandular regenerations. These mucosal changes correspond to the glands covering the lymph follicles, in direct contact with lymphoid cells. Beginning in week 8, dysplastic glands developed in these mucosal areas above the lymph follicles. The number of lymphoid plaques with dysplastic glands in the large intestine increased week by week, attaining 75% in week 20. At the end of week 12 the first adenocarcinoma was detected in the cecum by light microscopy, and classified as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells infiltrating the lymph follicles which contained endocrine cells. The majority of adenocarcinomas (10 cases) occurred in week 20. Of these, 7 were localized above the lymphatic plaques in the intestine. Endocrine cells were found in varying numbers in 6 of 10 adenocarcinomas. Three endocrine cell carcinomas, corresponding to human adenocarcinoids or goblet cell carcinoids, developed within the intestinal mucosa; all were identified as poorly differentiated intestinal adenocarcinomas, two of them situated above lymph follicles. These suprafollicular tumors developing from the glandular base were composed of mucoid cells, endocrine cells, and undifferentiated cells. Microacarcinomas are considered as initial stages of endocrine cell carcinoma. The trend of tumor development above colonic lymph follicles, and the histogenesis of endocrine cell carcinomas and de novo carcinomas is discussed. /Dimethylhydrazine, not otherwise specified/
[Shimamoto F; Vollmer E; J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 113 (1): 41-50 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interactions:

This study investigates the influence of two formula diets containing 20 g/100 g diet of either whey protein concentrate or casein or Purina mouse chow, on the humoral immune responsiveness and dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis in A/J mice. After 20 weeks of dimethylhydrazine treatment, the number of plaque forming cells per spleen, following intravenous inoculation with 5 cells, was nearly three times greater in the whey protein-fed group than in the casein-fed mice although both values were substantially below normal. After 24 weeks of dimethylhydrazine treatment the incidence of tumors in the whey protein-fed mice was substantially lower than that in mice fed either the casein or Purina diet. Similarly, the tumor area was less in the whey protein group in comparison to either the casein or Purina groups, with some difference between casein and Purina groups. Body weight curves were similar in all dietary groups. In conclusion, a whey protein diet appears to significantly inhibit the incidence and growth of chemically induced colon tumors in mice.
[Bounous G et al; Clin Invest Med 11 (3): 213-17 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The morphological features of the intestine in monkeys on various diets with and without carcinogen were studied. Seventy adult female vervet monkeys were divided into seven treatment groups. Four groups received a Western high fat low fiber diet; two a Prudent low fat higher fiber diet, and one a control low fat high fiber diet. Three groups received dimethylhydrazine 10 mg/kg intramuscularly at 14 day intervals. After 18 months, monkeys of two groups on the Western high fat low fiberdiet were transferred to the prudent low fat higher fiber diet and 30 months later all were terminated. Small and large intestine were examined macroscopically, histologically with morphometry, histochemically for acid and neutral, sialo- and sulphomucins and enzyme-histochemically for mucosal gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity. Large intestines in all other than control low fat high fiber diet particularly in Western high fat low fiber diet treated animals were dilated, thin walled, less corrugated and contained more residual contents. Diverticulosis was found to be mostly associated with Western high fat low fiber diet. Apparently histologically normal colonic mucosa showed changed mucin secretion, predominantly in Western high fat low fiber diet. groups, and also GGT activity in all but control low fat high fiber diet groups. Changes which could be associated with pre-malignancy occurred predomiantly but not exclusively in carcinogen treated animals. Within 4 years of feeding to monkeys, diets used by affluent western man caused distinct changes suggestive of the development of intestinal diseases such as megacolon, diverticulosis and cancer. Feeding a prudent diet resulted in only a mild reduction of these signs, whereas they were absent in a usual monkey diet that was much lower in animal products and refined carbohydrates.
[Jaskiewicz K et al; Br J Exp Pathol 67 (3): 361-70 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effects of multiple dietary influences of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer in rats were studied. A 24 factorial experimental design was used to examine the main and interactive effects of 15% wheat bran (WB), 1% cholesterol (CH) with cholic acid, 20% beef tallow (BT), and 0.1% indole-3-carbinol (IC) on 160 male F344 rats treated ip with DMH (10 mg/kg) weekly for 16 weeks. The test diets were fed for 3 weeks before, 16 weeks during, and 12 weeks after DMH administration. At necropsy, total weight gain, liver and spleen weights, serum cholestrol levels, liver aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, and the size, number, incidence, and location of intestinal tumors were analyzed for dietary factor effects. The most significant inducer to tumors was the combination of cholesterol+beef tallow+indole-3-carbinol acting in synergism. The single main effect most responsible for tumor morbidity was indole-3-carbinol, which appeared to enhance tumorigenesis via its role as an inducer of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. The wheat bran decreased tumor incidence and burden when added to diets also containing cholesterol, but it otherwise increased tumor burden per tumor-bearing animal and incidence in all other diets. This study demonstrated the need for examining synergistic and antagonist interactions among dietary initiators and/or promoters of colon carcinogenesis, as well as implicating indole-3-carbinol as a significant factor in the development of DMH-induced tumors in rats.
[Pence BC et al; JNCI 77 (1): 269-76 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

DNA damage induced by methylhydrazines (monomethylhydrazine, l,l-dimethylhydrazine, and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine) in the presence of metal ions was investigated by a DNA sequencing technique. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine plus manganese(III) caused DNA cleavage at every nucleotide without marked site specificity. ESR-spin-trapping experiments showed that the hydroxyl free radical (.OH) is generated during the manganese(III)-catalyzed autoxidation of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. DNA damage and hydroxyl free radical generation were inhibited by hydroxyl free radical scavengers and superoxide dismutase, but not by catalase. The results suggest that 1,2-dimethylhydrazine plus manganese(III) generates hydroxyl free radical, not via H202, and that hydroxyl free radical causes DNA damage. In the presence of copper(II), DNA cleavage was caused by the three methylhydrazines frequently at thymine residues, especially of the GTC sequence. The order of copper(II)-mediated DNA damage (1,2-dimethylhydrazine greater than monomethylhydrazine approximately l,l-dimethylhydrazine) was not correlated with the order of methyl free radical (.CH3) generation during copper(II)-catalyzed autoxidation (monomethylhydrazine greater than l,l-dimethylhydrazine much greater than 1,2-dimethylhydrazine). Catalase and bathocuproine, a Cu(I)-specific chelating agent, inhibited DNA damage while catalase did not inhibit the methyl free radical generation. The order of DNA damage was correlated with the order of ratio of H202 production to 02 consumption observed during copper(II)-catalyzed autoxidation of methylhydrazines. These results suggest that the copper(I)-peroxide complex rather than the methyl free radical plays a more important role in methylhydrazine plus copper(II)-induced DNA damage.
[Kawanishi S, Yamamoto K; Biochemistry 30 (12): 3069-75 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effects of l,l-dimethylhydrazine or several early events associated with lymphocyte activation were examined. The concentration of intracellular calcium ((Ca2+)i) and membrane potential of murine lymphocytes were found to be altered upon exposure to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine; intracellular calcium was increased in murine thymocytes, while splenocytes exhibited membrane hyperpolarization. In addition, interleukin-2 receptor expression induced by in-vitro concanavalin A stimulation of murine splenocytes at 24 and 48 hr in ionic fluctuations, thus contributing to altered immune responsiveness.
[Frazier D E JR et al; Toxicol Lett (AMST) 61 (l): 27-37 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Iron-enriched diets caused an increase of tumor rate in two models of dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon tumorigenesis in mice. The effect was independent of the time the iron-diet was fed, ie, during dimethylhydrazine-treatment or following the dimethylhydrazine-treatment period. The increase of tumor rate depended on the iron concentration in the diet (0.5-3.5%). The concentration-dependent iron accumulation in the colonic mucosa of mice was paralleled by increments of malonaldehyde contents indicating lipid peroxidation, another factor known to be involved in tumor development. It is suggested that iron exerts cocarcinogenic activity in the dimethylhydrazine-model by stimulating cell proliferation and inducing oxidative stress in the colonic mucosa. This effect of iron is independent of the time of tumor-initiation by dimethylhydrazine, as it is also observed in the period of tumor-promotion/progression after dimethylhydrazine-treatment.
[Siegers C-P et al; Cancer Lett 65 (3): 245-9 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pharmacology:

Interactions:

This study investigates the influence of two formula diets containing 20 g/100 g diet of either whey protein concentrate or casein or Purina mouse chow, on the humoral immune responsiveness and dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis in A/J mice. After 20 weeks of dimethylhydrazine treatment, the number of plaque forming cells per spleen, following intravenous inoculation with 5 cells, was nearly three times greater in the whey protein-fed group than in the casein-fed mice although both values were substantially below normal. After 24 weeks of dimethylhydrazine treatment the incidence of tumors in the whey protein-fed mice was substantially lower than that in mice fed either the casein or Purina diet. Similarly, the tumor area was less in the whey protein group in comparison to either the casein or Purina groups, with some difference between casein and Purina groups. Body weight curves were similar in all dietary groups. In conclusion, a whey protein diet appears to significantly inhibit the incidence and growth of chemically induced colon tumors in mice.
[Bounous G et al; Clin Invest Med 11 (3): 213-17 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The morphological features of the intestine in monkeys on various diets with and without carcinogen were studied. Seventy adult female vervet monkeys were divided into seven treatment groups. Four groups received a Western high fat low fiber diet; two a Prudent low fat higher fiber diet, and one a control low fat high fiber diet. Three groups received dimethylhydrazine 10 mg/kg intramuscularly at 14 day intervals. After 18 months, monkeys of two groups on the Western high fat low fiberdiet were transferred to the prudent low fat higher fiber diet and 30 months later all were terminated. Small and large intestine were examined macroscopically, histologically with morphometry, histochemically for acid and neutral, sialo- and sulphomucins and enzyme-histochemically for mucosal gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity. Large intestines in all other than control low fat high fiber diet particularly in Western high fat low fiber diet treated animals were dilated, thin walled, less corrugated and contained more residual contents. Diverticulosis was found to be mostly associated with Western high fat low fiber diet. Apparently histologically normal colonic mucosa showed changed mucin secretion, predominantly in Western high fat low fiber diet. groups, and also GGT activity in all but control low fat high fiber diet groups. Changes which could be associated with pre-malignancy occurred predomiantly but not exclusively in carcinogen treated animals. Within 4 years of feeding to monkeys, diets used by affluent western man caused distinct changes suggestive of the development of intestinal diseases such as megacolon, diverticulosis and cancer. Feeding a prudent diet resulted in only a mild reduction of these signs, whereas they were absent in a usual monkey diet that was much lower in animal products and refined carbohydrates.
[Jaskiewicz K et al; Br J Exp Pathol 67 (3): 361-70 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effects of multiple dietary influences of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer in rats were studied. A 24 factorial experimental design was used to examine the main and interactive effects of 15% wheat bran (WB), 1% cholesterol (CH) with cholic acid, 20% beef tallow (BT), and 0.1% indole-3-carbinol (IC) on 160 male F344 rats treated ip with DMH (10 mg/kg) weekly for 16 weeks. The test diets were fed for 3 weeks before, 16 weeks during, and 12 weeks after DMH administration. At necropsy, total weight gain, liver and spleen weights, serum cholestrol levels, liver aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, and the size, number, incidence, and location of intestinal tumors were analyzed for dietary factor effects. The most significant inducer to tumors was the combination of cholesterol+beef tallow+indole-3-carbinol acting in synergism. The single main effect most responsible for tumor morbidity was indole-3-carbinol, which appeared to enhance tumorigenesis via its role as an inducer of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. The wheat bran decreased tumor incidence and burden when added to diets also containing cholesterol, but it otherwise increased tumor burden per tumor-bearing animal and incidence in all other diets. This study demonstrated the need for examining synergistic and antagonist interactions among dietary initiators and/or promoters of colon carcinogenesis, as well as implicating indole-3-carbinol as a significant factor in the development of DMH-induced tumors in rats.
[Pence BC et al; JNCI 77 (1): 269-76 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

DNA damage induced by methylhydrazines (monomethylhydrazine, l,l-dimethylhydrazine, and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine) in the presence of metal ions was investigated by a DNA sequencing technique. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine plus manganese(III) caused DNA cleavage at every nucleotide without marked site specificity. ESR-spin-trapping experiments showed that the hydroxyl free radical (.OH) is generated during the manganese(III)-catalyzed autoxidation of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. DNA damage and hydroxyl free radical generation were inhibited by hydroxyl free radical scavengers and superoxide dismutase, but not by catalase. The results suggest that 1,2-dimethylhydrazine plus manganese(III) generates hydroxyl free radical, not via H202, and that hydroxyl free radical causes DNA damage. In the presence of copper(II), DNA cleavage was caused by the three methylhydrazines frequently at thymine residues, especially of the GTC sequence. The order of copper(II)-mediated DNA damage (1,2-dimethylhydrazine greater than monomethylhydrazine approximately l,l-dimethylhydrazine) was not correlated with the order of methyl free radical (.CH3) generation during copper(II)-catalyzed autoxidation (monomethylhydrazine greater than l,l-dimethylhydrazine much greater than 1,2-dimethylhydrazine). Catalase and bathocuproine, a Cu(I)-specific chelating agent, inhibited DNA damage while catalase did not inhibit the methyl free radical generation. The order of DNA damage was correlated with the order of ratio of H202 production to 02 consumption observed during copper(II)-catalyzed autoxidation of methylhydrazines. These results suggest that the copper(I)-peroxide complex rather than the methyl free radical plays a more important role in methylhydrazine plus copper(II)-induced DNA damage.
[Kawanishi S, Yamamoto K; Biochemistry 30 (12): 3069-75 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effects of l,l-dimethylhydrazine or several early events associated with lymphocyte activation were examined. The concentration of intracellular calcium ((Ca2+)i) and membrane potential of murine lymphocytes were found to be altered upon exposure to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine; intracellular calcium was increased in murine thymocytes, while splenocytes exhibited membrane hyperpolarization. In addition, interleukin-2 receptor expression induced by in-vitro concanavalin A stimulation of murine splenocytes at 24 and 48 hr in ionic fluctuations, thus contributing to altered immune responsiveness.
[Frazier D E JR et al; Toxicol Lett (AMST) 61 (l): 27-37 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Iron-enriched diets caused an increase of tumor rate in two models of dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon tumorigenesis in mice. The effect was independent of the time the iron-diet was fed, ie, during dimethylhydrazine-treatment or following the dimethylhydrazine-treatment period. The increase of tumor rate depended on the iron concentration in the diet (0.5-3.5%). The concentration-dependent iron accumulation in the colonic mucosa of mice was paralleled by increments of malonaldehyde contents indicating lipid peroxidation, another factor known to be involved in tumor development. It is suggested that iron exerts cocarcinogenic activity in the dimethylhydrazine-model by stimulating cell proliferation and inducing oxidative stress in the colonic mucosa. This effect of iron is independent of the time of tumor-initiation by dimethylhydrazine, as it is also observed in the period of tumor-promotion/progression after dimethylhydrazine-treatment.
[Siegers C-P et al; Cancer Lett 65 (3): 245-9 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate & Exposure:

Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary:

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine's production and use as a component of jet and rocket fuels, in chemical synthesis, as a stabilizer for organic fuel additives, as an absorbent for acid gases, in photography and as a plant growth control agent may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. If released to the atmosphere, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine will exist solely in the vapor phase in the ambient atmosphere, based on a measured vapor pressure of 123 mm Hg at 20 deg C. 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is expected to react very quickly with ozone in the troposphere with a maximum estimated half-life of 16.5 min for the reaction between vapor phase 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and ozone. Vapor-phase 1,1-dimethylhydrazine is degraded in the atmosphere more slowly by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals with an estimated half-life of about 6 days. Based on soil studies, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine will generally be mobile in most soils. Leaching of this compound may result upon release of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine to sandy soil; some degradation and adsorption to soils containing clay and organic carbon may occur. 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine may also undergo direct photolysis in soil and water surfaces since hydrazines strongly absorb UV light in the environmentally significant range (> 290 nm). Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected based on an estimated Henry's Law constant of 7.0X10-8 atm-cu m/mole. The potential for volatilization of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine from dry soil surfaces may exist based on its vapor pressure. Release to water is expected to result in oxidation at a rate directly proportional to the pH with half-lives of 3.9 to 630 hr at pH values of 9 to 5. The estimated half lives of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in pond water and seawater based upon experimental results are 16.3 to 22.2 and 12.6 days, respectively. Based on soil studies, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine should not adsorb to sediment and particulate matter in water. This compound is not expected to volatilize from water surfaces given its estimated Henry's Law constant. Bioconcentration in aquatic organisms should be low based on an estimated BCF value of 0.1. The general population may be exposed to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine via ingestion of food. Occupational exposure may occur through inhalation or dermal contact at workplaces where 1,1-dimethylhydrazine is produced or used. (SRC)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Human exposure to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine will most likely result from its use as a component of aerospace propellants. NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has estimated that 2,917 workers are exposed to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in the US(1). Exposure of workers to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Hydrazine Facility was mainly through inhalation(2). The general population may be exposed to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine through the ingestion of food, and dermal contact with vapors, food and other products containing this compound(SRC).
[(1) NIOSH; National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) (1983) (2) Cook L, Glemm R; Evaluation of Atmospheric Concentrations of Hydrazine and Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine In and Around the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Hydrazine Facility, Denver, CO, 18-22 October 1976 and 17-21 January 1977. Industrial Hygiene Special Study No. 35-0101-77, AD-A285 332/2GEN, (1977)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Natural Pollution Sources:

/1,1-Dimethylhydrazine/ has not been reported to occur as such in nature.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 139 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Artificial Pollution Sources:

It may be present in the waste streams from plants where it is produced or used. One source has reported that the burning of rocket fuels based on dimethylhydrazine & hydrazine produces exhaust gases which contain only trace quantities of unchanged fuel.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 139 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine's production and use as a component of jet and rocket fuels, in chemical synthesis, as a stabilizer for organic fuel additives, as an absorbent for acid gases, in photography and as a plant growth control agent(1) may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams(SRC). 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is also formed as a degradation product of daminozide, a plant growth regulator(2).
[(1) Lewis RJ; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. NY,NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., p. 417 (1991) (2) Saxton WL et al; J Agric Food Chem 37: 570-3 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate:

TERRESTRIAL FATE: Of the initial amount of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in cleaned sand (100% sand), Vandenburg Air Force Base soil (99.1% sand, 0.4% clay, pH 6.1), organic soil (96% sand, 1% clay, 1% carbon, pH 6.4), and clay (69.3% sand, 27.95% clay, pH 3.7), 0, 11, 11, and 50% was degraded in less than 1 hour, respectively, due to abiotic factors(1). 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is expected to adsorb to and degrade in soils containing clay and organic carbon(1). During decomposition of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, the oxidative loss of two hydrogens occurs and produces the diazene(1). Volatilization of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine should not be important from moist soil surfaces(SRC) given an estimated Henry's Law constant of 7.0X10-8 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), using a fragment constant estimation method(2). The potential for volatilization of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine from dry soil surfaces may exist(SRC) based on a measured vapor pressure of 123 mm Hg at 20 deg C(3). Biodegradation is not expected to be important in soil due to the microbial toxicity of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine(4)and its rapid elimination by physical processes(SRC).
[(1) Braun BA, Zirrolli JA; Environ Fate of Hydrazine Fuels in Aqueous and Soil Environments Air Force Report No. ESL-TR-82-45 NTIS AD-A125813 30 pp. (1983) (2) Meylan WM, Howard PH; Environ Toxicol Chem 10: 1283-93 (1991) (3) Ohe S; Computer Aided Data Book of Vapor Pressure. Data Book Publ Co., Tokyo, Japan (1976) (4) Kane DA, Williamson KJ; Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 12: 447-53 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

AQUATIC FATE: The estimated half lives of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, initially present in pond water at 6.5 and 13.1 mM, are 16.3 and 22.2 days, respectively, and in sea water at the same concentrations are both 12.6 days(1). Aqueous oxidation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine occurred with half-lives of 3.9-630 hr at pH values of 9-5(2). Based on soil studies(1), 1,1-dimethylhydrazine is not expected to strongly adsorb to suspended solids and sediment in water(SRC). 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine should not volatilize from water surfaces(3,SRC) based on an estimated Henry's Law constant of 7.0X10-8 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), developed using a fragment constant estimation method(3). According to a classification scheme(4), an estimated BCF value of 0.1(5,SRC), from an estimated log Kow(6,SRC), suggests that bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). Biodegradation is not expected to be significant due to the microbial toxicity of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine(7) and its rapid degradation by physical processes(SRC).
[(1) Braun BA, Zirrolli JA; Environ Fate of Hydrazine Fuels in Aqueous and Soil Environ. Air Force Report No. ESL-TR-82-45, NTIS AD-054-194 (1983) (2) Banerjee S et al; Proc Conf Env Chem Hydrazine Fuels NTIS AD-054-194 (1978) (3) Meylan WM, Howard PH; Environ Toxicol Chem 10: 1283-93 (1991) (4) Franke C et al; Chemosphere 29: 1501-14 (1994) (5) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 4-9, 5-4, 5-10, 15-1 to 15-29 (1990) (6) Meylan WM, Howard PH; J Pharm Sci 84: 83-92 (1995) (7) Kane DA, Williamson KJ; Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 12: 447-53 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, which has a measured vapor pressure of 123 mm Hg at 20 deg C(2), will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is expected to react very quickly with ozone in the troposphere; assuming an ozone concentration of 7X10+11 molecules/cu cm, a minimum rate constant of 1X10-15 cu cm/molecule sec(3) translates into a maximum half life of 16.5 min for the reaction between vapor phase 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and ozone(SRC). The half life for the reaction between 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and ozone is at most 1 min and 0.2 hr in an ozone pollution episode and in the natural troposphere, respectively(4). Vapor-phase 1,1-dimethylhydrazine is also degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be about 6 days(5,SRC). 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine may also undergo direct photolysis in soil and water surfaces since hydrazines strongly absorb UV light in the environmentally significant range (> 290 nm)(SRC).
[(1) Bidleman TF; Environ Sci Technol 22: 361-367 (1988) (2) Ohe S; Computer Aided Data Book of Vapor Pressure. Data Book Publ Co., Tokyo, Japan (1976) (3) Tuazon EC et al; Atmos Reaction Mechanisms of Amine Fuels NTIS AD-A118267 (1982) (4) Tuazon EC et al; Environ Sci Technol 15: 823-28 (1981) (5) Meylan WM, Howard PH; Chemosphere 26: 2293-99 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Biodegradation:

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is sufficiently toxic to bacteria to prevent the degradation of this compound by biological waste treatment(1). Biodegradation is not expected to be significant in the environment(SRC).
[(1) Kane DA, Williamson KJ; Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 12: 447-53 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Abiotic Degradation:

The kinetics of oxidation of methylhydrazine and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) by dissolved oxygen in water was measured at various acidities as a function of catalyst (cupric ion) concentration. In dilute solutions the oxidation occurred through a cupric ion catalyzed process and by an uncatalyzed step. The extent of formation of the carcinogen nitrosodimethylamine depended on the initial UDMH concentration. In dilute solutions nitrosodimethylamine was not formed, but in more concentrated solutions, nitrosodimethylamine formation increased with increasing UDMH content, reached a maximum at 60-80% UDMH (by volume) and then decreased.
[Banerjee S et al; Chemosphere 13 (4): 549-60 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dark decay of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in a 3800 L chamber at 13.1 and 13.7 ppm and respective relative humidities (RH) of 17% and 50% and 22 deg C proceeded with half-lives of 341 and 70.9 hr, respectively. In a 6800 L chamber at 12.3 ppm, 11% RH and 24 deg C, dark decay occurred with a half-life of 841 hr(1). Less than 5% of the total losses of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine were attributable to ammonia formation(1). Reaction of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine with ozone occurred too rapidly to measure the rate constant(1). Assuming an upper limit of 2 min for the reaction time, the rate constant of the reaction was said to be greater than 1X10-15 cu cm/molecule sec(1). Assuming an ozone concentration of 7X10+11 molecules/cu cm, this minimum rate constant translates into a maximum half-life of 16.5 min(SRC). The major product was N-nitrosodimethylamine. Hydrogen peroxide, methyl hydroperoxide, and methyl diazene were also formed in substantial amounts(1). An apparent rate constant of about 2X10-17 cu cm/molecule sec was obtained for the reaction of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine with nitrogen dioxide; 1,1-dimethylhydrazine did not react significantly with NO(1). The half-life for the reaction between 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and ozone is at most 1 min and 0.2 hr in an ozone pollution episode and in the natural troposphere, respectively(2). Oxidation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in dry air occurred with half-lives ranging from 10-21 hr at an initial 1,1-dimethylhydrazine partial pressure of 0.314 torr(3). The minimum half-life observed was 0.5 hr measured at 31.9 torr 1,1-dimethylhydrazine(3). The lifetime of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in contact with ozone in atmospheric aerosols is about 1 min(4). The products of ozone oxidation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in water include methanol, nitromethane and nitrosodimethylamine(4).
[(1) Tuazon EC et al; Atmos Reaction Mechanisms of Amine Fuels NTIS AD-A118267 (1982) (2) Tuazon EC et al; Environ Sci Technol 15: 823-28 (1981) (3) Lopez GL; Proc Conf Env Chem Hydrazine Fuels NTIS AD-A054-194 (1977) (4) Judeikis HS, Damschen DE; Amer Chem Soc 186th Mtg Preprints, Div Environ Chem 23: 281 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals has been estimated as 2.5X10-12 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(SRC) using a structure estimation method(1,SRC). This corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 6 days at an atmospheric concentration of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm(1,SRC).
[(1) Meylan WM, Howard PH; Chemosphere 26: 2293-99 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The kinetics of oxidation of methylhydrazine and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine by dissolved oxygen in water was measured at various acidities as a function of catalyst (cupric ion) concentration(1). In dilute solutions the oxidation occurred through a cupric ion catalyzed process and by an uncatalyzed step. The extent of formation of the carcinogen nitrosodimethylamine depended on the initial 1,1-dimethylhydrazine concentration(1). In dilute solutions nitrosodimethylamine was not formed, but in more concentrated solutions, nitrosodimethylamine formation increased with increasing 1,1-dimethylhydrazine content, reached a maximum at 60-80% 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (by volume) and then decreased(1). Aqueous oxidation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine occurred with half lives of 3.9-630 hr at pH values of 9-5(2). Oxidation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine by oxygen in water, catalyzed by Mn+3, was found to occur at a rate of 130 L/mole-sec(3).
[(1) Banerjee S et al; Chemosphere 13 (4): 549-60 (1984) (2) Banerjee S et al; Proc Conf Env Chem Hydrazine Fuels NTIS AD-054-194 (1978) (3) Judeikis HS, Damschen DE; Reactions of Hydrazine With Chemicals Found in Environment. Technol Oper, Aerosp Corp, El Segundo, CA. TR-0091(6448)-1, SSD-TR-92-03; AD-A247064 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Bioconcentration:

An estimated BCF value of 0.1 was calculated for 1,1-dimethylhydrazine(SRC), using an estimated log Kow of -1.19(1,SRC) and a recommended regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this BCF value suggests that bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC).
[(1) Meylan WM, Howard PH; J Pharm Sci 84: 83-92 (1995) (2) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 5-4, 5-10 (1990) (3) Franke C et al; Chemosphere 29: 1501-14 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Soil Adsorption/Mobility:

Of the initial amount of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in cleaned sand (100% sand), Vandenburg Air Force Base (VAFB) soil (99.1% sand, 0.4% clay, pH 6.1), organic soil (96.1% sand, 1% clay, 1% carbon, pH 6.4), and clay (69.3% sand, 27.95% clay, pH 3.7), 5%, 20%, 15%, and 30% was adsorbed, respectively. Passage of 2 liters of distilled, deionized water at 5 ml/min through columns containing sand, VAFB soil, organic soil and clay (10% clay soil plus 90% pure sand) in equilibrium with 10 ml of a 0.1 v/v solution of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine resulted in 99.9%, 42.5%, 21.9%, and 7.2% recovery of this compound, respectively(1). As the hydrazines are all very basic chemicals, adsorption to acidic, clay soils is expected(1).
[(1) Braun BA, Zirrolli JA; Environ Fate of Hydrazine Fuels in Aqueous and Soil Environ Air Force Report No. ESL-TR-82-45, NTIS AD-A125813 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Volatilization from Water/Soil:

The Henry's Law constant for 1,1-dimethylhydrazine is estimated as 7.0X10-8 atm-cu m/mole(SRC) using a fragment constant estimation method(1). This value indicates that 1,1-dimethylhydrazine will be essentially nonvolatile from water surfaces(2,SRC). 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine's Henry's Law constant(1,SRC) indicates that volatilization from moist soil surfaces should not occur(SRC). The potential for volatilization of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine from dry soil surfaces may exist(SRC) based on a measured vapor pressure of 123 mm Hg at 20 deg C(3).
[(1) Meylan WM, Howard PH; Environ Toxicol Chem 10: 1283-93 (1991) (2) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 15-1 to 15-29 (1990) (3) Ohe S; Computer Aided Data Book of Vapor Pressure. Data Book Publ Co., Tokyo, Japan (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Atmospheric Concentrations:

SOURCE DOMINATED: Atmospheric samples taken in and around the hydrazine facility at Rocky Mountain Arsenal in October 1976 and January 1977 contained 1,1-dimethylhydrazine at concentrations ranging from not detected (detection limit= 0.001 ppm) to 1.66 ppm(1).
[(1) Cook L, Glemm R; Evaluation of Atmospheric Concentrations of Hydrazine and Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine In and Around the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Hydrazine Facility, Denver, CO, 18-22 October 1976 and 17-21 January 1977. Industrial Hygiene Special Study No. 35-0101-77, AD-A285 332/2GEN (1977)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Food Survey Values:

Maximum 1,1-dimethylhydrazine concentrations of 0.062 ppm in applesauce, 0.041 ppm in apple juice, 0.007 ppm in frozen cherries, and 0.60 ppm in the canned sour cherries. 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine was not detected in stored, fresh apples or grape juice products (detection limit= 0.1 ppm for all products except for grape juice which was 0.2 ppm)(1).
[(1) Saxton WL et al; J Agric Food Chem 37: 570-73 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Environmental Concentrations:

1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE HAS BEEN ISOLATED FROM TOBACCO IN AMOUNTS FROM 60-174 PPB. ITS ORIGIN WAS NOT DETERMINED.
[SCHMELTZ I ET AL; CANCER LETT 2 (3): 125-31 (1977)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Standards & Regulations:

CERCLA Reportable Quantities:

Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately, when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 10 lb or 4.54 kg. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (section IV. D.3.b).
[40 CFR 302.4 (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Releases of CERCLA hazardous substances are subject to the release reporting requirement of CERCLA section 103, codified at 40 CFR part 302, in addition to the requirements of 40 CFR part 355. Dimethylhydrazine is an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) subject to reporting requirements when stored in amounts in excess of its threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 1,000 lbs.
[40 CFR 355 (7/1/97)]**QC REVIEWED**

RCRA Requirements:

U098; As stipulated in 40 CFR 261.33, when 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, as a commercial chemical product or manufacturing chemical intermediate or an off-specification commercial chemical product or a manufacturing chemical intermediate, becomes a waste, it must be managed according to Federal and/or State hazardous waste regulations. Also defined as a hazardous waste is any residue, contaminated soil, water, or other debris resulting from the cleanup of a spill, into water or on dry land, of this waste. Generators of small quantities of this waste may qualify for partial exclusion from hazardous waste regulations (40 CFR 261.5).
[40 CFR 261.33 (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Atmospheric Standards:

This action promulgates standards of performance for equipment leaks of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI). The intended effect of these standards is to require all newly constructed, modified, and reconstructed SOCMI process units to use the best demonstrated system of continuous emission reduction for equipment leaks of VOC, considering costs, non air quality health and environmental impact and energy requirements. Dimethylhydrazine is produced, as an intermediate or final product, by process units covered under this subpart.
[40 CFR 60.489 (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Listed as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) generally known or suspected to cause serious health problems. The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, directs EPA to set standards requiring major sources to sharply reduce routine emissions of toxic pollutants. EPA is required to establish and phase in specific performance based standards for all air emission sources that emit one or more of the listed pollutants. 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is included on this list.
[Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, Sect. 112 (b) (1) Public Law 101-549 Nov. 15, 1990]**QC REVIEWED**

Chemical/Physical Properties:

Molecular Formula:

C2-H8-N2
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 473]**PEER REVIEWED**

Molecular Weight:

60.10
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

Color/Form:

CLEAR, COLORLESS LIQUID
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 137 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Colorless liquid ...
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 114]**QC REVIEWED**

Odor:

CHARACTERISTIC AMMONIA LIKE FISHY ODOR OF ALIPHATIC HYDRAZINES
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Ammonia or fish-like odor.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 114]**QC REVIEWED**

Boiling Point:

63.9 DEG C AT 760 MM HG
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

Melting Point:

-58 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

Corrosivity:

Highly corrosive.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991. 154]**PEER REVIEWED**

Critical Temperature & Pressure:

Critical temp: 250 deg C; Critical pressure: 5.42 MPa
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 564]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density/Specific Gravity:

0.782 at 25 deg C/25 deg C; 0.791 at 22 deg C/4 deg C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dissociation Constants:

pKa= 7.21 @ 25 deg C
[Braun BA, Zirrolli JA; Environ Fate of Hydrazine Fuels in Aqueous and Soil Environ Air Force Report No. ESL-TR-82-45, NTIS AD-A125813 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Combustion:

-1979 kJ/mol
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 564]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Vaporization:

32.623 kJ/mol
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 563]**PEER REVIEWED**

pH:

STRONGLY ALKALINE LIQ
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2801]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solubilities:

VERY SOL IN METHANOL
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996.,p. 3-196]**PEER REVIEWED**

>10% in water
[Weast, R.C. and M.J. Astle. CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volumes I and II. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc. 1985.,p. V1 745]**PEER REVIEWED**

Miscible with dimethylformamide, hydrocarbons, alcohol, ether; water solubility = 1X10+6 mg/l
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

Spectral Properties:

INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.40753 @ 22.3 DEG C/D
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

MASS: 40 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
[Weast, R.C. and M.J. Astle. CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volumes I and II. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc. 1985.,p. V1 745]**PEER REVIEWED**

NMR: 18721 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
[Weast, R.C. and M.J. Astle. CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volumes I and II. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc. 1985.,p. V1 745]**PEER REVIEWED**

IR: 7647 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Prism Collection)
[Weast, R.C. and M.J. Astle. CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volumes I and II. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc. 1985.,p. V1 745]**PEER REVIEWED**

MASS: 9 (National Bureau of Standards EPA-NIH Mass Spectra Data Base, NSRDS-NBS-63)
[Weast, R.C. and M.J. Astle. CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volumes I and II. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc. 1985.,p. V1 563]**PEER REVIEWED**

Surface Tension:

24.09 dynes/cm at 25 deg C
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 564]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor Density:

1.94 (AIR= 1)
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. 1166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor Pressure:

157 mm Hg at 25 deg C
[Schiessl HW; Hydrazine and its Derivatives. In: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3RD ed. Volume 12: 734-71. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Viscosity:

0.492 millipascal second @ 25 deg C
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 564]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

CONVERSION FACTORS: 1 MG/L= 4.07 PPM AND 1 PPM= 2.5 MG/CU M
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 795]**PEER REVIEWED**

CMPD IS HIGHLY REACTIVE; EASILY OXIDIZABLE AND FORMS SALTS
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 138 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

HYGROSCOPIC /1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

VAPOR (GAS) SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 2.1; RATIO OF SPECIFIC HEATS OF VAPOR (GAS): (EST) 1.152; HEAT OF SOLUTION: (EST) -10 CAL/G
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

CRYSTALS FROM ABSOLUTE ETHANOL /1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

SOL IN WATER, ETHANOL; PRACTICALLY INSOL IN ETHER /1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

FUMES IN AIR AND GRADUALLY TURNS YELLOW
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

DISSOLVES, SWELLS, AND DISINTEGRATES MANY PLASTICS
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ionization potential: 7.46 eV
[NIOSH. Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 2nd Printing. DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 85-114. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, NIOSH/Supt.of Documents, GPO, February 1987. 108]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of fusion: 10.07 kJ/mole; heat capacity: 2.045 J/g.deg C @ 25 deg C; heat of formation: 51.63 kJ/mole; free energy of formation: 206.69 kJ/mole; entropy of formation: 197.99 J/mole.deg C
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 564]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of sublimation: 8.37 kcal/mole @ 298 deg K
[Dean, J.A. Handbook of Organic Chemistry. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1987.,p. 5-55]**PEER REVIEWED**

The kinetics of oxidation of methylhydrazine (MMH) and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) by dissolved O2 in water was measured at various acidities as a function of catalyst (cupric ion) concentration. In dilute solutions the oxidation occurred through a cupric ion catalyzed process and by an uncatalyzed step. The extent of formation of the carcinogen nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) depended on the initial UDMH concentration. In dilute solutions NDMA was not formed, but in more concentrated solutions, NDMA formation increased with increasing UDMH content, reached a maximum at 60-80% UDMH (by volume) and then decreased. The NDMA yield appeared to approximately parallel the viscosity of the medium, and it was speculated that the factors which controlled viscosity may also have been responsible for governing NDMA formation.
[Banerjee S et al; Chemosphere 13 (4): 549-60 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor pressure= 22.3 kPa at 25 deg C
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 564]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical Safety & Handling:

DOT Emergency Guidelines:

Health: Toxic; may be fatal if inhaled, ingested or absorbed through skin. Inhalation or contact with some of these materials will irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /1,1-Dimethylhydrazine; Dimethylhydrazine, symmetrical; Dimethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-131]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire or explosion: Highly flammable: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a "P" may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. /1,1-Dimethylhydrazine; Dimethylhydrazine, symmetrical; Dimethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-131]**QC REVIEWED**

Public safety: Call Emergency Response Telephone Number. ... Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 100 to 200 meters (330 to 660 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /1,1-Dimethylhydrazine; Dimethylhydrazine, symmetrical; Dimethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-131]**QC REVIEWED**

Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations. /1,1-Dimethylhydrazine; Dimethylhydrazine, symmetrical; Dimethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-131]**QC REVIEWED**

Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, isolate for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /1,1-Dimethylhydrazine; Dimethylhydrazine, symmetrical; Dimethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-131]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire: CAUTION: All these products have a very low flash point. Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient. Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /1,1-Dimethylhydrazine; Dimethylhydrazine, symmetrical; Dimethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-131]**QC REVIEWED**

Spill or leak: Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Small spills: Absorb with earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers for later disposal. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor; but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. /1,1-Dimethylhydrazine; Dimethylhydrazine, symmetrical; Dimethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-131]**QC REVIEWED**

First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Wash skin with soap and water. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. /1,1-Dimethylhydrazine; Dimethylhydrazine, symmetrical; Dimethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-131]**QC REVIEWED**

Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances: Small Spills (from a small package or small leak from a large package): First, ISOLATE in all Directions 30 meters (100 feet); then, PROTECT persons Downwind during DAY 0.2 kilometers (0.1 miles) and NIGHT 0.2 kilometers (0.1 miles). LARGE SPILLS (from a large package or from many small packages): First, ISOLATE in all Directions 60 meters (200 feet); then, PROTECT persons Downwind during DAY 0.5 kilometers (0.3 miles) and NIGHT 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles). /1,1-Dimethylhydrazine; Dimethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. TABLE]**QC REVIEWED**

Odor Threshold:

12.0 mg/cu m (low); 20.0 mg/cu m (high)
[Ruth JH; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 47: A-142-51 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A FISHY OR AMINE LIKE ODOR OF 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE CAN BE DETECTED BY MOST INDIVIDUALS IN LESS THAN 1 MINUTE AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 6 TO 14 PPM. THE ODOR OFFERS ADEQUATE WARNING OF EXPOSURES TO CONCN THAT WOULD BE DANGEROUS FOR SHORT EXPOSURES.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2227]**PEER REVIEWED**

The warning properties (irritation & odor) of the hydrazines are probably sufficient to prevent acute poisoning from short exposures. However, in view of the chronic toxicity properties, the warning properties should not be considered adequate for prolonged exposures. They ... have median detectable odor levels of 1 to 10 ppm, but these levels are levels above all the TLVs adopted for hydrazines except phenylhydrazine. /Hydrazines/
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 2797]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

... IRRITATING TO SKIN, EYES, MUCOUS MEMBRANES.
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 473]**PEER REVIEWED**

Highly corrosive and irritating to skin, eyes, mucous membranes.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991. 154]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fire Potential:

It is flammable over a wide range of vapor air concentrations.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 400]**PEER REVIEWED**

NFPA Hazard Classification:

Health: 4. 4= Materials that, on very short exposure, could cause death or major residual injury, including those that are too dangerous to be approached without specialized protective equipment. A few whiffs of the vapor or gas can cause death, or contact with the vapor or liquid may be fatal, if it penetrates the fire fighter's normal protective gear. The normal full protective clothing and breathing apparatus available to the typical fire fighter will not provide adequate protection against inhalation or skin contact with these materials.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-8]**QC REVIEWED**

Flammability: 3. 3= Includes Class IB and IC flammable liquids and materials that can be easily ignited under almost all normal temp conditions. Water may be ineffective in controlling or extinguishing fires in such materials.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-43]**QC REVIEWED**

Reactivity: 1. 1= Includes materials that are normally stable, but may become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures and materials that will react with water with some release of energy, but not violently. Fires involving these materials should be approached with caution.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-43]**QC REVIEWED**

Flammable Limits:

LOWER 2% BY VOL; UPPER 95% BY VOL
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-43]**QC REVIEWED**

Flash Point:

-15 DEG C, 5 DEG F (CLOSED CUP)
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-43]**QC REVIEWED**

Autoignition Temperature:

249 DEG C (480 DEG F)
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 325-43]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire Fighting Procedures:

If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped or safely confined. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 400]**PEER REVIEWED**

Evacuation: If fire becomes uncontrollable or container is exposed to direct flame--consider evacuation of one (1) mile radius.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 400]**PEER REVIEWED**

Toxic Combustion Products:

Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced during combustion of this material.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 400]**PEER REVIEWED**

Firefighting Hazards:

Prolonged exposure of containers of the material to fire or heat may result in their violent rupturing and rocketing due to the decomposition of the material. ... Vapors may travel to a source of ignition and a flame can flash back to the source of vapors.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 400]**PEER REVIEWED**

Explosive Limits & Potential:

UPPER 95 VOL %; LOWER 2 VOL %
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. 1166]**PEER REVIEWED**

VAPOR MAY EXPLODE IF IGNITED IN AN ENCLOSED AREA.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

Contact of dicyanofurazan, or its N-oxide (dicyanofuroxan), with ... dimethylhydrazine ... is instantaneously explosive.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 509]**PEER REVIEWED**

Spontaneous ignition can occur on contact with oxidants like hydrogen peroxide, and fuming nitric acid.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-76]**QC REVIEWED**

Combinations of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, aniline, or furfuryl alcohol as fuels with hydrogen peroxide or a mixture of nitric acid-nitrogen tetroxide- sulfuric acid as oxidizers ignite with little delay and are used as propellants.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-76]**QC REVIEWED**

Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine /&/ nitric oxide ignite on sparking.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997.,p. 491-126]**QC REVIEWED**

Oxidizers, halogens, metallic mercury, fuming nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide [Note: May ignite SPONTANEOUSLY in contact with oxidizers].
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 114]**QC REVIEWED**

VAPOR IS INFLAMMABLE IN AIR & IGNITES SPONTANEOUSLY WHEN IN CONTACT WITH OXIDIZING AGENTS.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 138 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ignites violently on contact with nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen dioxide among other oxidants.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991. 154]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Decomposition:

... When heated to decomp it emits highly toxic fumes of /nitrogen oxides/.
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. 1166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

NIOSH considers 1,1-dimethylhydrazine to be a potential occupational carcinogen.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 114]**QC REVIEWED**

Protective Equipment & Clothing:

RUBBER GLOVES, BOOTS, AND APRON; PLASTIC FACE SHIELD. GAS MASK WITH AMMONIA CANISTER PROTECTS FOR 30 MIN AGAINST 1% CONCN; FOR LONGER PERIODS OR HIGHER CONCN, USE SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

PERMEATION MEASUREMENTS OF HYPERGOLIC FUELS & OXIDANTS, INCLUDING 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE, THROUGH COMMERCIAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MATERIAL IS DISCUSSED.
[ABERNATHY RN ET AL; AM IND HYG ASSOC J 44 (7): 505-13 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... dispensers of liq detergent /should be available./ ... Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. ... In animal laboratory, personnel should ... wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering, & overshoes. ... In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. ... gowns ... /should be/ of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they are not to be worn outside the laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 8]**PEER REVIEWED**

For 1,1-dimethylhydrazine breakthrough times greater than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers for butyl rubber; breakthrough times less (usually significantly less) than one hour reported by (normally two or more testers for neoprene and polyvinyl chloride some data (usually from immersion tests) suggesting breakthrough times greater than one hour are not likely for nitrile rubber.
[ACGIH; Guidelines Select of Chem Protect Clothing Volume #1 Field Guide p.56 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

All systems or equipment containing the hydrazines shall be designed to minimize the possibility of vapor or aerosol inhalation, skin or eye contact, and spill or leaks; such as full face shields, goggles, and full body protection clothing, including gloves and boots. /Hydrazines/
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Hydrazine p.7 (1978) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 78-172]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL, at any detectable concentration. Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 115]**QC REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 115]**QC REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 115]**QC REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 115]**QC REVIEWED**

Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 115]**QC REVIEWED**

Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. (Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.)
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 115]**QC REVIEWED**

Preventive Measures:

THE BASIC VENTILATION METHODS ARE LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION AND DILUTION OR GENERAL VENTILATION.
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. 17]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to diperse vapors and dilute standing pools of liquid.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, D.C.: Assoc. of American Railroads,Hazardous Materials Systems (BOE), 1987. 261]**PEER REVIEWED**

Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, D.C.: Assoc. of American Railroads,Hazardous Materials Systems (BOE), 1987. 261]**PEER REVIEWED**

Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 115]**QC REVIEWED**

SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 8]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 8]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak tight. Horizontal laminar flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 9]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing, & possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 9]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 10]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. ... /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 10]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 10]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 11]**PEER REVIEWED**

Evacuation: If material leaking (not on fire), downwind evacuation must be considered.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, D.C.: Assoc. of American Railroads,Hazardous Materials Systems (BOE), 1987. 261]**PEER REVIEWED**

The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 115]**QC REVIEWED**

Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 115]**QC REVIEWED**

Stability/Shelf Life:

SOLN STORED IN DARK AND COLD ARE RELATIVELY STABLE IN ABSENCE OF OXIDANTS
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 138 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipment Methods and Regulations:

No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
[49 CFR 171.2 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
[IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 38th ed. Montreal, Canada and Geneva, Switzerland: International Air Transport Association, Dangerous Goods Board, January, 1997. 140]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
[IMDG; International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; International Maritime Organization p.3072 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Storage Conditions:

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Storage site should be as close as practicable to lab in which carcinogens are to be used, so that only small quantities required for ... expt need to be carried. Carcinogens should be kept in only one section of cupboard, an explosion proof refrigerator or freezer (depending on chemicophysical properties ...) that bears appropriate label. An inventory ... should be kept, showing quantity of carcinogen & date it was acquired ... Facilities for dispensing ... should be contiguous to storage area. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 13]**PEER REVIEWED**

Cleanup Methods:

Activated carbon, polyurethane foam and polypropylene fibers are the most advantageous agents for cleanup of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine. Also Amberlite XAD resins and Dowex 50WX8 or Amberlite IRA 900 may be used.
[Robinson JS; Haz Chem Spill Cleanup Pollut Technol Review 59: 67 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is available commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 15]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear butyl rubber gloves, laboratory coat, eye protection and self-contained breathing apparatus. Impervious clothing recommended. Eliminate all sources of ignition and flammables. On skin or clothing. Wash skin immediately. Remove contaminated clothing at once. Spills. Cover spill with a 1:1:1 mixture by weight of sodium carbonate or calcium carbonate, clay cat litter (bentonite) and sand. Scoop the solid into a container, transport to the fume hood and slowly add to water, allowing 20 ml of water for each 1 g of dimethylhydrazine. Filter off the clay and sand. For each 1 g of dimethylhydrazine, place 32 ml (approximately 25% excess) of commercial laundry bleach (containing approximately 5% sodium hypochlorite) into a 3-necked round-bottom flask equipped with a stirrer, thermometer and dropping funnel. Add the aqueous dimethylhydrazine dropwise to the stirred hypochlorite solution, monitoring the rate of addition by rise in temperature. The temperature is maintained at 45-50 deg C and addition takes about 1 hour. Stirring continues for 2 hr until the temperature gradually falls to room temperature.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991. 154]**PEER REVIEWED**

Disposal Methods:

Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U098, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
[40 CFR 240-280, 300-306, 702-799 (7/1/92)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CATALYTIC REDUCTIVE DESTRUCTION OF HYDRAZINES, INCLUDING 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE, AS AN APPROACH TO WASTE HAZARD CONTROL IS DISCUSSED.
[LUNN G ET AL; ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL 17 (4): 240-3 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Controlled incineration (oxides of nitrogen are removed from the effluent gas by scrubbers and/or thermal devices).
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985. 367]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 14]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas fired type, in which a first stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 15]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 15]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 16]**PEER REVIEWED**

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols, & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/
[Montesano, R., H. Bartsch, E.Boyland, G. Della Porta, L. Fishbein, R. A. Griesemer, A.B. Swan, L. Tomatis, and W. Davis (eds.). Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory:Problems of Safety. IARC Scientific Publications No. 33. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979. 17]**PEER REVIEWED**

A potential candidate for fluidized bed incineration at a temperature range of 450 to 980 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and longer for solids. A potential candidate for rotary kiln incineration at a temperature range of 820 to 1,600 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and hours for solids. A potential candidate for liquid injection incineration at a temperature range of 650 to 1,600 deg C and a residence time of 0.1 to 2 seconds.
[USEPA; Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p.3-13 (1981) EPA 68-03-3025]**PEER REVIEWED**

Small Quantities. Wear butyl rubber gloves, laboratory coat and eye protection. Work in the fume hood. Prepare a dilute (5%) aqueous solution of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine by adding slowly to the appropriate volume of water. For each 1 g of dimethylhydrazine, place 32 ml (approximately 25% excess) of commercial laundry bleach (containing approximately 5% sodium hypochlorite) into a 3-necked round-bottom flask equipped with a stirrer, thermometer and dropping funnel. Add the aqueous dimethylhydrazine dropwise to the stirred hypochlorite solution, monitoring the rate of addition by rise in temperature. The temperature is maintained at 45-50 deg C and addition takes about 1 hour. Stirring continues for 2 hours until the temperature gradually falls to room temperature.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991. 155]**PEER REVIEWED**

Occupational Exposure Standards:

OSHA Standards:

Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-1 8-hr Time-Weighted Avg: 0.5 ppm (1 mg/cu m). Skin Designation.
[29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/98)]**QC REVIEWED**

Threshold Limit Values:

8 hr Time Weighted Avg (TWA) 0.01 ppm, skin
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 34]**QC REVIEWED**

A3. A3= Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 34]**QC REVIEWED**

Excursion Limit Recommendation: Excursions in worker exposure levels may exceed three times the TLV-TWA for no more than a total of 30 min during a work day, and under no circumstances should they exceed five times the TLV-TWA, provided that the TLV-TWA is not exceeded.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 34]**QC REVIEWED**

NIOSH Recommendations:

NIOSH considers ???CHEMICAL??? to be a potential occupational carcinogen.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 114]**QC REVIEWED**

NIOSH usually recommends that occupational exposures to carcinogens be limited to the lowest feasible concn.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 114]**QC REVIEWED**

Recommended Exposure Limit: 2-Hr Ceiling Value: 0.06 ppm (0.15 mg/cu m).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 114]**QC REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

NIOSH considers 1,1-dimethylhydrazine to be a potential occupational carcinogen.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 114]**QC REVIEWED**

Manufacturing/Use Information:

Major Uses:

THE BASE IN ROCKET FUEL FORMULATIONS
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

STABILIZER FOR ORG PEROXIDE FUEL ADDITIVES; ABSORBENT FOR ACID GASES; IN PHOTOGRAPHY; COMPONENT OF JET AND ROCKET FUEL; PLANT GROWTH CONTROL AGENT
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 417]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEM INT FOR SUCCINIC ACID 2,2-DIMETHYLHYDRAZIDE
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

As a modifer for 1-butene polymers to improve isotacticity
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. V16 475 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine is produced in commercial quantity for use as fuel in the USA space program ... .
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. V12 744 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Used as a chemical intermediate for the synthesis of daminozide.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 330]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturers:

Olin Corporation, 501 Merritt 7, PO Box 4500, Norwalk, CT 06856-4500 (203) 750-3000. Production Site: PO Box 2896, Interstate 10, Lake Charles, LA 70602 (318) 491-3000.
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996. 552]**PEER REVIEWED**

Methods of Manufacturing:

PREPD INDUSTRIALLY BY REACTION OF DIMETHYLAMINE & CHLORAMINE; BY REDN OF NITROSODIMETHYLAMINE (OBTAINED BY TREATING DIMETHYLAMINE SALT WITH SODIUM NITRITE).
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

... By reductive catalytic alkylation of a hydrazide, probably acetic acid hydrazide, with formaldehyde & hydrogen, followed by basic hydrolysis of acetic acid dimethylhydrazide to remove the acetyl qroup ... .
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. V12 744 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Catalytic oxidation of dimethylamine and ammonia.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 816]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrazine + acetic anhydride + formaldehyde + hydrogen (amide formation/reductive methylation/amide hydrolysis).
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994. 330]**PEER REVIEWED**

General Manufacturing Information:

N,N'-(METHYL-(14)C)-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE HAVING A SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF 112.5 MICROCURIE/MMOL WAS PREPARED IN 2 STEPS FROM ETHYL HYDRAZINEDICARBOXYLATE IN DRY 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE & (14)C-METHYL IODIDE WITH A SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF APPROX 58 MICROCURIE/MMOL.
[KUMAR KS ET AL; J LABELLED CMPD RADIOPHARM 19 (6): 763-8 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE IS AVAILABLE IN THE UNITED STATES AS A SINGLE GRADE CONTAINING 98% (MINIMUM) ACTIVE INGREDIENT AND NORMALLY HAVING 1.9% (MAX) DIMETHYLAMINE AND 0.3% (MAX) WATER CONTENT.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 138 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Production:

(1977) AT LEAST 4.54X10+7 G
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1982) PROBABLY GREATER THAN 4.54X10+6 G
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

Laboratory Methods:

Clinical Laboratory Methods:

... A COLORIMETRIC METHOD FOR MEASURING MICROGRAM QUANTITIES OF UNSYMMETRICAL 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE IN BLOOD ... USING TRISODIUM PENTACYANOAMINOFERROATE AS THE COLOR REAGENT; READINGS ARE TAKEN SPECTROPHOTOMETRICALLY AT 500 NM: PINKERTON ET AL; AMER INDUST HYG ASS J 24: 239 (1963).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 140 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

DETERMINATION OF 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE IN URINE & PLASMA BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION LIMIT AT 250 NG.
[FIALA ES, KULAKIS C; J CHROMATOGR 214 (2): 229-33 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Analytic Laboratory Methods:

NIOSH S143: MATRIX: AIR; ANALYTE: 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE; PROCEDURE: BUBBLER COLLECTION, COLORIMETRIC (REACTED WITH PHOSPHOMOLYBDIC ACID TO FORM BLUISH GREEN COLORED COMPLEX); RANGE: 0.506-2.22 MG/CU M. PRECISION (COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION): 0.062. POTENTIAL INTERFERENCES ... STANNOUS ION, FERROUS ION, ZINC, SULFUR DIOXIDE, & HYDROGEN SULFIDE. INTERFERNCES FROM OXIDN OF 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE GIVING A DIMINISHED READING MAY OCCUR WITH HALOGENS & OXYGEN ... OTHER HYDRAZINE DERIVATIVES WILL ALSO INTERFERE ... & HYDROGEN PEROXIDE WILL POSSIBLY REOXIDIZE THE BLUE OXIDE GIVING A LOWER READING.
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual ofAnalytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present.,p. V3 S143-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH 248: Matrix: air; analyte: 1,1-dimethylhydrazine; procedure: adsorption on sulfuric acid-coated silica gel, elution with water, reaction with 2-furaldehyde, extraction with ethyl acetate, gas chromatographic analysis. Precision: 0.04 RSD for 1,1-dimethylhydrazine at 1.6 & 3.8 mg/cu m; range: 4-12000 ug/sample; interferences: cmpd which have nearly the same retention time on the gas chromatography column
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual ofAnalytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present.,p. V1 248-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEMILUMINESCENT REACTIONS OF OZONE WITH HYDRAZINE, METHYLHYDRAZINE AND DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE WERE USED TO DETERMINE METHYLHYDRAZINE, AEROZINE (50:50 METHYLHYDRAZINE-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE), AND NITROUS OXIDE IN AIR AT CONCN OF 0.1-100 PPM.
[VOLLTRAUER HN; US NTIS, AD REP; 25 PAGES (1976) ISS AD-A032446]**PEER REVIEWED**

A SIMPLE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY SYSTEM WHICH IS EFFECTIVE IN RESOLVING DIHYDROCHLORIDES OF HYDRAZINE, METHYLHYDRAZINE, 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE & 1,2-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE WAS REPORTED. THE SYSTEM IS APPLICABLE TO ANALYTICAL (THIN LAYER) AND PREPARATIVE (THICK LAYER) SEPARATIONS. THE FOLIN-CIOCALLTEAU REAGENT WAS A SENSITIVE TOOL FOR DETECTION. IN A STUDY OF LIMITS OF DETECTABILITY, 0.36 UG/SQ CM OF SEPARATED HYDRAZINES WAS EASILY VISIBLE & 0.12 UG/SQ CM WAS STILL DETECTABLE. THE COLOR DEVELOPED IS STABLE FOR AT LEAST A WK. /1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE/
[FIALA ES, WEISBURGER JH; J CHROMATOGR 105 (1): 189-92 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL CAPABLE OF DETECTING LEVELS OF 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE IN AIR IS DESCRIBED. IT IS COUPLED WITH A DYNAMIC AIR SAMPLING SYSTEM & ELECTRONIC CONTROL & AMPLIFICATION CIRCUITRY TO PROVIDE A DIRECT-READING PORTABLE ANALYZER.
[STETTER JR ET AL; TALANTA 26 (9): 799-804 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

RECOVERY RATES FOR AIRBORNE UNSYMMETRICAL DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE 0.588-15.68 UG, EQUIV ATMOSPHERIC CONCN OF 0.04-1.04 MG/CU M, ARE 93.74-93.93% USING A VENTABLE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY PRECOLUMN TRAP.
[MAZUR JF ET AL; AM IND HYG ASSOC J 41 (1): 66-9 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... A COLORIMETRIC METHOD FOR MEASURING UG QUANTITIES OF UDMH /UNSYMMETRICAL 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE/ IN ... WATER AND AIR USING TRISODIUM PENTACYANOAMINOFERROATE AS THE COLOR REAGENT; READINGS ARE TAKEN SPECTROPHOTOMETRICALLY AT 500 NM /IS DISCUSSED.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 140 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Determination of hydrazine and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine after derivatization with salicylaldehyde was done using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Less than 5 ng of the two could be detected. The detection limits for hydrazine and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine solutions were estimated to be 0.025 and 0.20 ppm, respectively.
[Kester PE, Danielson ND; Chromatography 18 (3): 125-8 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A procedure that simultaneously determines hydrazine, methylhydrazine, and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in air utilizes a chilled acetone collection medium which quantitatively traps the hydrazines and converts them to stable derivatives in a single step. The acetone solution is then assayed directly for the derivatives by using a gas chromatograph with a nitrogen specific detector. The overall precision of the methodology is better than 5% for 90 ppb hydrazine. The minimum detectable concentration is estimated to be 4 ppb.
[Holtzclaw JR et al; Anal Chem 56 (14): 2952-6 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The detection of hydrazine has been described down to 0.002% in aqueous & alcoholic soln via thin layer chromatography of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. The basic ASTM D 1385-78 procedure is adaptable to the determination of monomethylhydrazine & unsymmetrical 1,1-dimethylhydrazine as these form colored hydrazones. For mixtures of the 3 hydrazines mentioned, the sample can be derivatized with salicylaldehyde & separated by high pressure liq chromatography, using uv for detection. ... Gas chromatographic techniques for the propellant hydrazines (hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, & unsymmetrical 1,1-dimethylhydrazine) have been developed for high concentrations as well as for dilute aqueous solutions.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. V12 759 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH Method 3515. Determination of 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine by Visible Spectrophotometry. Detection Limit= 0.010 mg/cu m.
[U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 4th ed.Methods A-Z & Supplements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Aug 1994.]**PEER REVIEWED**

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine was detected in fruit and fruit products using GC/ECD following derivatization with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. Detection limit= 1 ppm (2 ppm for grape juice).
[Saxton WL et al; J Agric Food Chem 37: 570-73 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sampling Procedures:

NIOSH S143: Matrix: air; analyte: 1,1-dimethylhydrazine; sampler: midget glass bubbler containing 0.1 M hydrochloric acid.
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual ofAnalytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present.,p. V3 S143-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH 128: Matrix: air; analyte: 1,1-dimethylhydrazine; sampler: adsorption on sulfuric acid-coated silica gel.
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual ofAnalytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present.,p. V1 248-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

Special References:

Special Reports:

LUNN G ET AL; ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL 17 (4): 240-3 (1983). CATALYTIC REDUCTIVE DESTRUCTION OF HYDRAZINES, INCLUDING 1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE, AS AN APPROACH TO WASTE HAZARD CONTROL IS DISCUSSED.

Toth B; Teratogenic hydrazines: a review; In Vivo Jan-Feb 7 (1): 101-10 (1993). The review summarizes the results of 30 hydrazines, which were studied in humans and in six animal species for teratogenic activities.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services/National Toxicology Program; 9th Report on Carcinogens. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC. (2000)

Synonyms and Identifiers:

Synonyms:

AS-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

ASYMMETRIC DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

DIMAZIN
**PEER REVIEWED**

DIMAZINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

ASYM DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

N,N-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

U-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

UNSYM-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE UNSYMMETRICAL
**PEER REVIEWED**

1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZIN (GERMAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

N,N-dimetilidrazina (Italian)
**PEER REVIEWED**

DMH
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDRAZINE, 1,1-DIMETHYL-
**PEER REVIEWED**

NIESYMETRYCZNA DWU METYLOHYDRAZYNA (POLISH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

UDMH
**PEER REVIEWED**

UNSYMMETRICAL-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

Associated Chemicals:

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride;593-82-8

Formulations/Preparations:

1,1-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE IS AVAILABLE IN THE UNITED STATES AS A SINGLE GRADE CONTAINING 98% (MINIMUM) ACTIVE INGREDIENT AND NORMALLY HAVING 1.9% (MAX) DIMETHYLAMINE AND 0.3% (MAX) WATER CONTENT.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V4 138 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

UN 1163; 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine

IMO 3.2; 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine

Standard Transportation Number:

49 062 10; Dimethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical

EPA Hazardous Waste Number:

U098; A toxic waste when a discarded commercial chemical product or manufacturing chemical intermediate or an off-specification commercial chemical product or manufacturing chemical intermediate.

RTECS Number:

NIOSH/MV2450000

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