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ETHYLENE

See Occupational Exposure Standards

Human Health Effects:

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of ethylene. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of ethylene. Overall evaluation: Ethylene is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. 60 64 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A4; Not classifiable as a human carcinogen.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs & BEIs: Threshold limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices for 2002. Cincinnati, OH. 2002.32]**QC REVIEWED**

Human Toxicity Excerpts:

AFTER PROLONGED USE, THERE MAY BE MODERATE HYPERGLYCEMIA. POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA & VOMITING OCCUR MORE FREQUENTLY AFTER ETHYLENE THAN AFTER NITROUS OXIDE BUT LESS FREQUENTLY THAN AFTER CYCLOPROPANE. UNPLEASANT AFTERTASTE IS OFTEN EXPERIENCED FOR A FEW HR FOLLOWING ETHYLENE ANESTHESIA. DIFFUSION HYPOXIA MAY OCCUR AT THE CONCLUSION OF ANESTHESIA ...
[American Medical Association, Council on Drugs. AMA Drug Evaluations. 2nd ed. Acton, Mass.: Publishing Sciences Group, Inc., 1973. 227]**PEER REVIEWED**

BECAUSE OF THE HIGH CONCN OF ETHYLENE ... REQUIRED TO PRODUCE & MAINTAIN ANESTHESIA, CYANOSIS IS AN UNAVOIDABLE ACCOMPANIMENT OF ... /ITS/ USE.
[Thienes, C., and T.J. Haley. Clinical Toxicology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972. 53]**PEER REVIEWED**

BLOOD PRESSURE MAY RISE MODERATELY DURING INDUCTION & EARLY PHASE OF SURGICAL ANESTHESIA, BUT IT SOON RETURNS TO NORMAL & REMAINS THERE THROUGHOUT ANESTHESIA. CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS OCCUR INFREQUENTLY WHEN ETHYLENE IS USED, & CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF THE GAS ARE RELATIVELY BENIGN.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 84]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exposure at 37.5% for 15 min may result in marked memory disturbances. Humans exposed to as much as 50% ethylene in air, whereby the oxygen availability is decreased to 10%, experienced a loss of consciousness, and death may follow.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982.,p. 3199]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Moderate concentration in air causes unconsciousness.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-66]**QC REVIEWED**

Vapors are anesthetic.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Drug Warnings:

CHIEF DISADVANTAGE ... IS THAT IT IS EXPLOSIVE. ... EXPLOSIVE RANGE OF ETHYLENE-OXYGEN MIXT IS BROAD, MOST EASILY IGNITED RANGE BEING 5 TO 25% ... DIL WITH AIR OR OXYGEN; MOST CRITICAL TIME ... IS AT END OF ANESTHESIA ... THIS FACT MAKES ... /IT/ UNSUITABLE WHEN IT MUST BE USED INTERMITTENTLY, FOR EXAMPLE DURING LABOR.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 84]**PEER REVIEWED**

POSTANESTHETIC NAUSEA & VOMITING ARE LESS FREQUENT & LESS SEVERE THAN AFTER ETHER.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 84]**PEER REVIEWED**

IT HAS DISADVANTAGE OF PROVIDING INADEQUATE MUSCLE RELAXATION. CONCENTRATIONS SUFFICIENTLY HIGH TO INDUCE HYPOXIA MUST BE EMPLOYED AND THE GAS-OXYGEN MIXTURES ARE EXPLOSIVE; FATAL ACCIDENTS HAVE OCCURRED DURING ETHYLENE ANESTHESIA. CONSEQUENTLY, ITS USE HAS DECLINED MARKEDLY IN RECENT YEARS.
[Osol, A. (ed.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 16th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1980. 987]**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Under environmental conditions, ethylene is a gas; therefore, the most probable route of human exposure to ethylene is by inhalation. (SRC)
**PEER REVIEWED**

THERE IS LITTLE OPPORTUNITY OF EXPOSURE ... DURING ITS MFR BECAUSE PROCESS TAKES PLACE IN CLOSED SYSTEM. EXPOSURES MAY OCCUR AS RESULT OF LEAKS, SPILLS OR OTHER ACCIDENTS THAT RESULT IN RELEASE OF GAS INTO AIR. EMPTY TANKS ... THAT HAVE CONTAINED ETHYLENE ARE ... POTENTIAL SOURCE OF EXPOSURE.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 792]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Cigarette smoke ...
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3198]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 12,280 workers are potentially exposed to ethylene in the USA(1).
[(1) NIOSH; National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

On July 30, 1992, a human operating a walk-behind alkylate-fuelled lawn mower was exposed to ethylene a concn of 70 ug/cu-m(1). On September 23, 1992, a human driving a car in urban traffic was exposed to ethylene at a concn of 9 ug/cu-m(1).
[(1) Ostermark U, Petersson G; Chemosphere 27: 1719-28 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Body Burden:

Ethylene was detected in the expired air from 2 of 8 volunteers (1 smoker) during a test period of approximately 1 hr at quantities of 120 ug (smoker) and 0.91 ug(1).
[(1) Conkle JP et al; Arch Environ Health 30: 290-5 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emergency Medical Treatment:

Emergency Medical Treatment:

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The following Overview, *** ASPHYXIANTS, SIMPLE ***, is relevant for this HSDB record chemical.

Life Support:
   o   This overview assumes that basic life support measures
       have been instituted.
Clinical Effects:
  0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
   0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Simple asphyxiants displace oxygen from the breathing
         atmosphere primarily in enclosed spaces and result in
         hypoxia. Four stages are described, depending on the
         arterial oxygen saturation.
      1)  INDIFFERENT STAGE -
       1.  %O2 Saturation: 90%
       2.  Night vision: decreased
      2)  COMPENSATORY STAGE -
       1.  %O2 Saturation: 82 to 90%
       2.  Respiratory rate: compensatory increase
       3.  Pulse: compensatory increase
       4.  Night vision: decreased further
       5.  Performance ability: somewhat reduced
       6.  Alertness: somewhat reduced
       7.  Symptoms may begin in those with significant
           pre-existing cardiac, pulmonary, or hematologic
           diseases
      3)  DISTURBANCE STAGE -
       1.  %O2 Saturation: 64 to 82%
       2.  Compensatory mechanisms become inadequate
       3.  Air hunger
       4.  Fatigue
       5.  Tunnel Vision
       6.  Dizziness
       7.  Headache
       8.  Belligerence
       9.  Euphoria
       10. Visual acuity: reduced
       11. Numbness and tingling of extremities
       12. Hyperventilation
       13. Poor judgement
       14. Memory loss
       15. Cyanosis
       16. Decreased ability for escape from toxic environment
      4)  CRITICAL STAGE -
       1.  %O2 Saturation: 60 to 70% or less
       2.  Deterioration in judgement and coordination may occur
           in 3 to 5 minutes or less
       3.  Total incapacitation and unconsciousness follow
           rapidly
     B)  All early effects may decrease ability for self-rescue
         from the toxic environment.
     C)  Some agents causing asphyxia are stored and transported
         in compressed or liquid form and can cause frostbite on
         direct skin contact.
  0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  0.2.4 HEENT
   0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Decreases in night vision, visual acuity, and visual
         fields (tunnel vision) may occur.
     B)  Frothy mucous may be seen.
  0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
   0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  An increased pulse rate may occur.
     B)  Cardiac manifestations of prolonged or severe hypoxia
         may include atrial or ventricular dysrhythmias,
         hypotension, myocardial ischemia, myocardial
         infarction, and eventual asystole.
     C)  "Sudden sniffing death", or cardiac arrest, is reported
         following intentional inhalation of hydrocarbons.
  0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
   0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Hyperventilation may develop.
     B)  Cyanosis may occur.
     C)  Bronchoconstriction and respiratory depression may be
         seen.
     D)  Pulmonary edema and lung congestion may occur.
  0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
   0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Various disturbances including headache, dizziness,
         mood disturbances, numbness of the extremities,
         sleepiness, mental confusion, poor judgement and
         coordination, and memory loss may occur.
     B)  Prolonged or severe hypoxia results in unconsciousness.
     C)  Prolonged asphyxia may produce CNS injury.
     D)  Hemiparesis has been reported with volatile substance
         abuse.
     E)  Cerebral edema with brainstem herniation may occur.
     F)  Seizures have been reported following intentional
         inhalation.
  0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
   0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage may
         develop.
  0.2.11 ACID-BASE
   0.2.11.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Hypercapnia may be seen.
  0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
   0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Dermal exposure may cause frostbite injury. Severe
         tissue burns have been reported.
  0.2.15 MUSCULOSKELETAL
   0.2.15.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Rhabdomyolysis and seizures have been reported.
  0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
    A)  Possible sequelae of oxygen deprivation in the unborn
        are controversial. Cerebral palsy, previously thought to
        be due to acute hypoxia during labor and/or childbirth,
        remains poorly understood.
  0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
   0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
     A)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS74-86-2 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  Not Listed
     B)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7440-37-1 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  Not Listed
     C)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS106-97-8 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  Not Listed
     D)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS124-38-9 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  Not Listed
     E)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS74-84-0 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  Not Listed
     F)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS74-85-1 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  IARC Classification
       a)  Listed as: Ethylene
       b)  Carcinogen Rating: 3
        1)  The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not
            classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
            This category is used most commonly for agents,
            mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the
            evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans
            and inadequate or limited in experimental animals.
            Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the
            evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans
            but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed
            in this category when there is strong evidence that
            the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental
            animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures
            and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any
            other group are also placed in this category.
     G)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7440-59-7 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  Not Listed
     H)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS1333-74-0 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  Not Listed
     I)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS74-82-8 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  Not Listed
     J)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7440-01-9 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  Not Listed
     K)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7727-37-9 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  Not Listed
     L)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS74-98-6 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  Not Listed
     M)  IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS115-07-1 (IARC,
         2004):
      1)  IARC Classification
       a)  Listed as: Propylene
       b)  Carcinogen Rating: 3
        1)  The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not
            classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
            This category is used most commonly for agents,
            mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the
            evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans
            and inadequate or limited in experimental animals.
            Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the
            evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans
            but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed
            in this category when there is strong evidence that
            the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental
            animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures
            and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any
            other group are also placed in this category.
  0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
    A)  Refer to reviews on individual simple asphyxiants for
        available genetic toxicity data.
Laboratory:
   A)  Arterial blood gases are useful to assess the degree of
       hypoxemia.
Treatment Overview:
  0.4.3 INHALATION EXPOSURE
    A)  Administer 100% humidified supplemental oxygen with
        assisted ventilation as required.
    B)  If hypoxia has been severe or prolonged, carefully
        evaluate for neurologic sequelae and provide supportive
        treatment as indicated.
    C)  ACUTE LUNG INJURY: Maintain ventilation and oxygenation
        and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gas or pulse
        oximetry monitoring. Early use of PEEP and mechanical
        ventilation may be needed.
    D)  SEIZURES: Administer a benzodiazepine IV; DIAZEPAM
        (ADULT: 5 to 10 mg, repeat every 10 to 15 min as needed.
        CHILD: 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg, repeat every 5 min as needed)
        or LORAZEPAM (ADULT: 2 to 4 mg; CHILD: 0.05 to 0.1
        mg/kg).
     1)  Consider phenobarbital if seizures recur after diazepam
         30 mg (adults) or 10 mg (children > 5 years).
     2)  Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory
         depression, and need for endotracheal intubation.
         Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances,
         hypoxia.
    E)  RHABDOMYOLYSIS: Administer sufficient 0.9% saline to
        maintain urine output of 2 to 3 mL/kg/hr. Monitor input
        and output, serum electrolytes, CK, and renal function.
        Diuretics may be necessary to maintain urine output.
        Urinary alkalinization is NOT routinely recommended.
  0.4.4 EYE EXPOSURE
    A)  DECONTAMINATION: Irrigate exposed eyes with copious
        amounts of room temperature water for at least 15
        minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or
        photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a
        health care facility.
  0.4.5 DERMAL EXPOSURE
    A)  OVERVIEW
     1)  Rewarming and a variety of topical treatments are
         indicated for frostbite injury. SEE MAIN SECTION FOR
         MORE INFORMATION.
Range of Toxicity:
   A)  Unconsciousness leading to death will occur when the
       atmospheric oxygen concentration is reduced to 6 to 8% or
       less.
   B)  Signs of asphyxia will be noted when atmospheric oxygen
       is displaced such that the oxygen concentration is 15 to
       16% or less.
   C)  At increasing altitudes the decreasing atmospheric
       pressure decreases the partial pressure of oxygen,
       decreasing the molecules of oxygen available in
       stipulated percentages.

[Rumack BH POISINDEX(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2004; CCIS Volume 122, edition expires Nov, 2004. Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds): TOMES(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2004; CCIS Volume 122, edition expires Nov, 2004.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Animal Toxicity Studies:

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of ethylene. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of ethylene. Overall evaluation: Ethylene is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. 60 64 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A4; Not classifiable as a human carcinogen.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs & BEIs: Threshold limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices for 2002. Cincinnati, OH. 2002.32]**QC REVIEWED**

Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:

Treatment of rats with up to 500,000 ppm ethylene for 5 hours had no effects, however if the rats were pretreated with 500 mg/kg of Arochlor and exposed at 100,000 ppm ethylene, an increased serum glutamicpyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity and centrolobular necrosis were observed. Similar effects were not evident with other enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital and 3-methyl cholanthrene.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.598]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ethylene was not found to be mutagenic with or without S-9 activating system in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA1537, TA100, or TA1535.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.598]**PEER REVIEWED**

Inhalation of ethylene by Sprague Dawley rats, in concentrations of 0, 300, 1000, 3000, or 10,000 ppm, 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 14 weeks, caused no toxic effects.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.598]**PEER REVIEWED**

A study of 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm ethylene, 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 106 weeks also yielded no chronic toxicologic or carcinogenic effects.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.598]**PEER REVIEWED**

... In dogs ... at 1.4% ethene was a fast acting anesthetic. It reached alveolar, arterial, brain, muscle, and CNS partial pressure in 2 to 8.2 min, even more rapidly than ethyl ether.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3199]**PEER REVIEWED**

... /Ethylene/ is a plant hormone, effective at concn as low as 0.06 mg/l. At higher concn, it may inhibit plant metabolism.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3199]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ethylene showed no mutagenic properties toward Escherichia coli and several Bacillus species.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3199]**PEER REVIEWED**

Various plants were exposed to different concentrations of ethylene, (0.002 - 40.0 ppm) resulting in causing numerous toxic responses.
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983.,p. 634-635]**PEER REVIEWED**

The toxicity and oncogenicity of inhaled ethylene were determined in Fischer-344 rats. 960 were randomly divided into 4 groups of 120 animals of each sex and were exposed 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for up to 24 months to concentrations of ethylene in the air of 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm. The maximum tolerated dose was not used as concentrations above 3000 ppm were considered hazardous because of the risks associated with ethylene's explosive properties. The calculated time-weighted average concentrations for the 24 months of exposure were: 0, 301, 1003, and 3003 ppm, respectively. Randomly selected animals were necropsied and examined after 6, 12, and 18 months of exposure. A complete selection of tissues and organs from all animals in the control and 3000 ppm groups were examined for microscopic lesions. All animals were examined for clinical changes throughout the course of the 2 year study. Gross examination of rats dying during the study, or those that were sacrificed as scheduled, did not reveal any lesions attributable to ethylene exposure. Histologically, a variety of proliferative, degenerative, and inflammatory lesions were observed in both control and 3000 ppm groups. These lesions were typical of those seen in this strain of animal and were ... unrelated to ethylene exposure.
[Hamm TE Jr et al; Fundam Appl Toxicol 4 (3): 473-8 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mixtures of aniline/ethylene/NOx were photolyzed in 22.7 cu m Teflon reaction chamber operated in a cyanic mode. Several minor products, including nitrobenzene, azobenzene, alpha-nitraniline, phenol and benzoic acid, were identified. The production of aerosol was also observed. The product mixtures were exposed to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 both with and without metabolic activation. Exposures of the gas mixtures alone and the aerosol plus gas mixtures were performed. In addition, filters of the aerosol were collected, extracted, and used in a plate incorporation procedure with these strains. The results show the gas phase products from the irradiated mixture to be relatively nonmutagenic in the TA98 and TA100. This same result was found in the aerosol exposure, although the deposition into the media may have been low. However, extracts from the aerosol when directly incorporated into the medium show mutagenic activity for TA98.
[Shepson PB et al; J Environ Sci Health Part A 20 (5): 503-519 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Incubation of cut spurs of Hippophae rhamnoides in atmospheres containing 1 ml ethylene/l for 120 hr induced formation of abscission layer and complete abscission of ripe fruit within 1 week. Presence of leaves decreased the abscisic effect of C2H4.
[Demenko VI et al; Fiziol Rast (Moscow) 33 (1): 188-94 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Treating potato tubers with ethylene donors (Hydrel, Dihydrol or Camposan) inhibited the sprouting of the growth points and increased abscisic acid content of the meristem of the growth points and of the cortical parenchyma. However, abscisic acid content of the tubers increased less when Hydrel was used at growth-stimulating (0.05%) than at growth-inhibiting (0.5 and 1%) concentrations. Abscisic acid concentration in the tubers decreased 90-120 days after the treatment resulting in active tuber sprouting after that time when 0.05% Hydrel was used, while when the high Hydrel concentrations were applied, the abscisic acid concentration remained still at a high level inhibiting the sprouting 120-150 days after treatment and even later. Thus, the increase in abscisic acid concentration resulting from treatment with ethylene donors was the main cause of inhibition of tuber sprouting. The other ethylene donors behaved similarly as Hydrel did also increasing the abscisic acid concentration in the tuber tissues. In the control tubers (treated with 0.05% ethylene donors) the abscisic acid decreased 210 days after the treatment to 0.08 ug/g fresh matter while in tubers treated at 0.5% concentration it remained at that time at a level 10-fold that in the control. A direct relation between the concentration of ethylene donors used for treatment and abscisic acid concentration in the tubers was found.
[Korableva NP et al; Fiziol Biokhim Mikrobiol 18 (1): 600-4 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Ethylene is not a cardiac sensitizer in the dog.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3199]**PEER REVIEWED**

Male rats exposed to 10, 25 and 57x10+3 ppm for 4 hr showed increased serum pyruvate and liver weights.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3199]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Mice repeatedly exposed at minimal /CNS depressant/ concn showed no histopathological changes in kidneys, adrenals, hearts, or lungs.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3198]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Liver mitochondrial volume increased in rats treated with ethylene.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3199]**PEER REVIEWED**

Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum) were treated with ethylene or ethephon at several development stages of flower buds. C2H4 hastened flower-bud opening. The earlier C2H4 treatment during the flower-bud development stages, the earlier flowering occurred. C2H4 or ethephon treatment decreased tepal length, but increased degenerated flower buds and distorted flowers. C2H4 also hastened flower senescence to result in earlier wilting and earlier dropping of flowers.
[Lee JS, Roh SM; Han'guk Wonye Hakhoechi 26 (2): 145-9 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, three to five days of age, were exposed by inhalation to 0 (5 male and 9 female rats) or 10,000 ppm (11,500 mg/cu m, 2 males and 10 females) ethylene (purity unspecified) for 8 hr per day on five days per week for three weeks. One week later, the rats received oral administrations of 10 mg/kg body weight Clophen A 50 (a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (not otherwise specified) by gavage twice a week for up to eight additional weeks (promotion), at which time the experiment was terminated and the livers were examined for ATPase-deficient foci. The number of ATPase-deficient foci in the, rats exposed to ethylene did not exceed the control values. In the same experiment, ethylene oxide, administered as a positive control, produced a significant increase in the incidence of ATPase-deficient foci in females.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V60 53-4 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ethylene inhaled at a dose of 11.5 g/cu m (10,000 ppm) for 4 hr is acutely hepatotoxic to rats pretreated with the polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1254 given orally at a dose of 300 umol/kg body wt once daily for 3 days. It is not acutely toxic without such pretreatment.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V19 163 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Male Fischer 344 rats and male B6C3Fl mice (10/species/group) were exposed to ethylene 6 hr/day 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The ethylene target concentrations were 0, 40, 1000 and 3000 ppm. An ethylene oxide control group for each species was exposed under the same conditions at a target concentration of 200 ppm. Bone marrow was collected approximately 24 hr after the final exposure. Polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) to normochromatic erythrocyte (NCE) ratios were determined and 2000 PCE/animal were scored for the presence of micronuclei. Ethylene did not produce statistically significant exposure related increases in the frequency of micronucleated PCE (MNPCE) in the bone marrow of either rats or mice when compared to air exposed control animals. ...
[Vergnes JS, Pritts IM; Mutat Res 324 (3): 87-91 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

Metabolism/Metabolites:

Dioxolane ... the aliphatic analog of the known cytochrome inhibitor, methylenedioxybenzene ... breaks down to ethylene and carbon dioxide.
[The Royal Society of Chemistry. Foreign Compound Metabolism in Mammals. Volume 6: A Review of the Literature Published during 1978 and 1979. London: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1981. 332]**PEER REVIEWED**

Rat liver microsomal monooxygenases transform ethylene to oxirane. ...
[Schmiedel G et al; Toxicol Lett 19 (3): 293-7 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

MALE CBA MICE EXPOSED TO AIR CONTAINING 19.6 MG/CU M ... (14)C-LABELED ETHYLENE METABOLIZED ETHYLENE TO ETHYLENE OXIDE, WHICH BINDS TO CELLULAR PROTEINS.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V19 163 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Four male CBA mice (average body weight, 31 g) were exposed together for 1 hr in a closed glass chamber (5.6 l) to (14)C-ethylene (22 mCi/mmol) in air at 17 ppm x hr (22.3 (mg/cu m) x hr, equivalent to about 1 mg/kg bw). Blood and organs from two mice were pooled 4 hr after the end of exposure. Radioactivity was about the same in kidney (0.16 uCi/g wet weight) and liver (0.14 uCi/g) but lower in testis (0.035 uCi/g), brain (0.02 uCi/g) and Hb (0.0094 uCi/g Hb). Urine was collected from the two other mice during 48 h, and blood was collected after 21 days. 5-(2-Hydroxyethyl)cysteine was identified as a metabolite of ethylene in urine (3% of (14)C in urine) by thin-layer chromatography. The radioactivity in Hb was 0.011 uCi/g Hb. These data, together with those on specific hydroxyethyl derivatives at amino acid residues of Hb, indicated that ethylene was metabolized to ethylene oxide.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V60 55 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In several experiments, disposition of (14)C-ethylene (free of (l4)C-acetylene or greater than or equal to 97% pure) in male Fischer 344 rats (170-220 g) was determined over 36 hr following 5 hr exposures in a closed chamber (35 l) to 10,000 ppm (11,500 mg/cu m). In each experiment, up to four rats were exposed together in a single chamber. Within about 1 min after the end of exposure, animals were transferred to individual all-glass metabolism cages. Most of the eliminated (14)C was exhaled as ethylene (18 umol (504 ug) per rat exposed to acetylene-containing ethylene); smaller amounts were excreted in urine (2.7 umol ethylene equivalents/rat) and feces (0.4 umol) and exhaled as CO2 (0.16 umol). Radioactivity was also found in blood (0.022 umol ethylene equivalents/ml), liver (0.047 umol ethylene equivalents/liver), gut (0.034 umol ethylene equivalents/gut) and kidney (0.006 umol ethylene equivalents/kidney). Pretreatment of animals with a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254; 500 mg/kg bw; single intraperitoneal injection five days before exposure) had no measurable influence on ethylene exhalation but resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in exhaled (14)CO2 (2.04 umol ethylene equivalents/rat) and of (14)C in urine (11.1 umol ethylene equivalents/rat) and in blood (0.044 umol ethylene equivalents/ml). The organ burden of (14)C was one to two orders of magnitude greater in Aroclor 1254-treated than in untreated animals. Radioactivity also became detectable in lungs, brain, fat, spleen, heart and skeletal muscle. The data were interpreted as indicating that the metabolism of ethylene can be stimulated by an inducer of the mixed-function oxidase system.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V60 55-6 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Absorption, Distribution & Excretion:

ETHYLENE IS EXCRETED ALMOST QUANTITATIVELY IN THE EXHALED AIR & UNDERGOES LITTLE CHEMICAL CHANGE IN THE BODY. PARTITION COEFFICIENTS AT BODY TEMPERATURE: BLOOD:GAS= 0.15; HEART:BLOOD= 1.0; FAT:BLOOD= 6. BLOOD:AIR PARTITION RATIO= 0.14 AT 37 DEG C.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 84]**PEER REVIEWED**

GASES WITH LOW BLOOD/GAS SOLUBILITY LIKE ETHYLENE ARE RAPIDLY EXCRETED.
[Doull, J., C.D. Klaassen, and M. D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1980. 48]**PEER REVIEWED**

ETHYLENE HAS BEEN DETERMINED IN EXPIRED AIR OF 2/8 HUMAN SUBJECTS AT RATE OF 0.91 & 120 UG/HR.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V19 161 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... EXCRETED IN URINE ...
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V19 163 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The inhalation pharmacokinetics of ethylene have been investigated in human volunteers at atmospheric concentrations of up to 50 ppm (157.5 mg/cu m) by gas uptake in a closed spirometer system. The uptake, exhalation and metabolism of ethylene can be described by first-order kinetics. Uptake of ethylene into the body is low. Clearance due to uptake, which reflects the transfer rate of ethylene from the atmosphere into the body, was 25 l/hr for a man of 70 kg. This value represents only 5.6% of the experimentally obtained alveolar ventilation rate of 150 l/hr. The majority (94.4%) of ethylene inhaled into the lungs is exhaled again without becoming systemically available via the blood stream. Maximal accumulation of ethylene in the same man, determined as the thermodynamic partition coefficient whole body:air was 0.53. The concentration ratio at steady state was even smaller (0.33), owing to metabolic elimination. Clearance due to metabolism, in relation to the concentration in the atmosphere, was calculated to be 9.3 l/hr for a man of 70 kg. This indicates that at steady state about 36% of systemically available ethylene is eliminated metabolically and 64% is eliminated by exhalation as the unchanged substance, as can be calculated from the values of clearance of uptake and of clearance of metabolism. The biological half-life of ethylene was 0.65 hr. The alveolar retention of ethylene at steady state was calculated to be 2%. From theoretical considerations of the lung uptake of gases and vapors, it can be deduced that the low uptake rate of ethylene is due to its low solubility in blood: Ostwald's solubility coefficient for human blood at 37 deg C, 0.15.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V60 53 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Four male CBA mice (average body weight, 31 g) were exposed together for 1 hr in a closed glass chamber (5.6 l) to (14)C-ethylene (22 mCi/mmol) in air at 17 ppm x hr (22.3 (mg/cu m) x hr, equivalent to about 1 mg/kg bw). Blood and organs from two mice were pooled 4 hr after the end of exposure. Radioactivity was about the same in kidney (0.16 uCi/g wet weight) and liver (0.14 uCi/g) but lower in testis (0.035 uCi/g), brain (0.02 uCi/g) and Hb (0.0094 uCi/g Hb). Urine was collected from the two other mice during 48 h, and blood was collected after 21 days. 5-(2-Hydroxyethyl)cysteine was identified as a metabolite of ethylene in urine (3% of (14)C in urine) by thin-layer chromatography. The radioactivity in Hb was 0.011 uCi/g Hb. These data, together with those on specific hydroxyethyl derivatives at amino acid residues of Hb, indicated that ethylene was metabolized to ethylene oxide.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V60 55 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In several experiments, disposition of (14)C-ethylene (free of (l4)C-acetylene or greater than or equal to 97% pure) in male Fischer 344 rats (170-220 g) was determined over 36 hr following 5 hr exposures in a closed chamber (35 l) to 10,000 ppm (11,500 mg/cu m). In each experiment, up to four rats were exposed together in a single chamber. Within about 1 min after the end of exposure, animals were transferred to individual all-glass metabolism cages. Most of the eliminated (14)C was exhaled as ethylene (18 umol (504 ug) per rat exposed to acetylene-containing ethylene); smaller amounts were excreted in urine (2.7 umol ethylene equivalents/rat) and feces (0.4 umol) and exhaled as CO2 (0.16 umol). Radioactivity was also found in blood (0.022 umol ethylene equivalents/ml), liver (0.047 umol ethylene equivalents/liver), gut (0.034 umol ethylene equivalents/gut) and kidney (0.006 umol ethylene equivalents/kidney). Pretreatment of animals with a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254; 500 mg/kg bw; single intraperitoneal injection five days before exposure) had no measurable influence on ethylene exhalation but resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in exhaled (14)CO2 (2.04 umol ethylene equivalents/rat) and of (14)C in urine (11.1 umol ethylene equivalents/rat) and in blood (0.044 umol ethylene equivalents/ml). The organ burden of (14)C was one to two orders of magnitude greater in Aroclor 1254-treated than in untreated animals. Radioactivity also became detectable in lungs, brain, fat, spleen, heart and skeletal muscle. The data were interpreted as indicating that the metabolism of ethylene can be stimulated by an inducer of the mixed-function oxidase system.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V60 55-6 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Biological Half-Life:

The biological half-life of ethylene was 0.65 hr.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V60 53 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mechanism of Action:

CURRENTLY, GENERAL ANESTHETICS ARE THOUGHT TO ACT BY FLUIDIZING LIPID (CRITICAL VOL HYPOTHESIS) IN MEMBRANES OF NERVE CELLS, WHICH INTERFERES WITH NORMAL PHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTIONS OF MEMBRANES. THIS THEORY IS COMPATIBLE FOR ALL GENERAL ANESTHETICS ... /GENERAL ANESTHETICS/
[American Medical Association, AMA Department of Drugs. AMA Drug Evaluations. 4th ed. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1980. 307]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ethylene interferes with the activities of plant hormones causing growth retardation.
[Waldbott GL; Health Eff Environ Pollut p.47 (1973)]**PEER REVIEWED**

An angular transducer has been used to measure the short-term growth response in submerged and ethylene-treated deep-water rice plants. The lag time between the start of submergance and the onset of the response is 200 minutes, indicating that growth-related biosynthetic processes take place before internodal elongation starts. The level of endogenous ethylene in the internodes rises steeply prior to the onset of growth, which is further support for the hypothesis that accumulation of ethylene is a prerequisite for the growth response in submerged plants. The growth rate plotted against time shows a 1st peak after 6 hr, followed by a decrease and subsequent increase in the growth rate. Similar growth curves have also been found in other plants after application of IAA and gibberellic acid. Partial adaption of plants to growth hormones may be the reason for biphasic growth-response curves.
[Rose-John S, Kende H; Short-term Growth Response of Deep-water rice to Submergence and Ethylene 38 (2): 129-34]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interactions:

THE RATE OF RISE OF ALVEOLAR ETHYLENE CONCN WILL BE ACCELERATED WHEN ADMIN SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH 70% NITROUS OXIDE.
[LaDu, B.N., H.G. Mandel, and E.L. Way. Fundamentals of Drug Metabolism and Disposition. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1971. 113]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pharmacology:

Therapeutic Uses:

Humans exposed to as much as 50% ethylene in air, whereby the oxygen availability is decreased to 10%, experience loss of consciousness, and death may follow at 8% /oxygen/ ... . Therefore, ethylene used as an anesthetic agent /SRP: Former use/ should be supplemented with the appropriate oxygen concn.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3199]**PEER REVIEWED**

/SRP: Former use/ It is one of the preferred anesthetic agents; its advantages over comparable human anesthetics are rapid onset and recovery time after exposure termination and little or no effect on cardiac and pulmonary functions. That is, respiration, blood pressure, and pulse rates are rarely changed, even under anesthetic conditions. Cardiac arrhythmias occur infrequently and affect little the renal and hepatic functions. ... However, the disadvantage as an anesthetic is its explosion and flammability properties, which may coincide with the most commonly applied concentration ranges.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3198]**PEER REVIEWED**

/SRP: Former use/ ... FOR ANALGESIA, FEW INHALATIONS OF 25-35% MIXT WITH OXYGEN. FOR INDUCTION OF ANESTHESIA, 80-90% CONCN OF ETHYLENE WITH 10-20% OXYGEN ... . HOWEVER, 90% CONCN ... SHOULD BE GIVEN FOR NO LONGER THAN 2-3 MIN. PATIENTS USUALLY CAN BE MAINTAINED ON MIXT OF 80% ETHYLENE & 20% OXYGEN. IF SATISFACTORY ANESTHESIA CANNOT BE ATTAINED WITH ETHYLENE, GAS MUST BE SUPPLEMENTED WITH BARBITURATE, STRONG ANALGESIC, OR OTHER ANESTHETIC VAPOR (EG, ETHER, HALOTHANE).
[American Medical Association, Council on Drugs. AMA Drug Evaluations. 2nd ed. Acton, Mass.: Publishing Sciences Group, Inc., 1973. 227]**PEER REVIEWED**

/SRP: Former use/ ... SPEED OF INDUCTION IS RAPID, EXCEEDING THAT OF NITROUS OXIDE. AFTER PATIENT HAS TAKEN SIX OR MORE DEEP INHALATIONS, MENTAL CLOUDING SUPERVENES & UNCONSCIOUSNESS SOON FOLLOWS.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 83]**PEER REVIEWED**

/SRP: Former use/ IN ORDER TO SPEED INDUCTION, HYPOXIC MIXTURES OF ETHYLENE & OXYGEN (EG 85:15) ARE SOMETIMES ADMIN FOR FEW MIN AT THE BEGINNING OF ANESTHESIA.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 84]**PEER REVIEWED**

/SRP: Former use/ WHEN AN ANESTHETIC MIXT OF ETHYLENE & OXYGEN IS INHALED, SURGICAL ANESTHESIA ... OCCURS IN 2 TO 5 MIN. AFTER ADEQUATE PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION, ETHYLENE CAN CARRY ANESTHESIA TO LOWER BORDER OF PLANE ONE ...
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 84]**PEER REVIEWED**

/SRP: Former use/ ... SERIOUSLY ILL PATIENTS CAN OFTEN BE ANESTHETIZED WITH ETHYLENE-OXYGEN MIXT ALONE. SUBANESTHETIC CONCN OF ETHYLENE ARE ANALGESIC, AND INHALATION OF 25 TO 35% OF GAS PRODUCES MAXIMAL ANALGESIA WITHOUT LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS OR COOPERATIVENESS.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 84]**PEER REVIEWED**

/SRP: Former use/ THE RESPIRATORY MECHANISM OF FETUS & ACTIVITY OF UTERUS ARE NOT DEPRESSED WHEN ETHYLENE IS USED IN OBSTETRICS, PROVIDED PRECAUTIONS ARE TAKEN TO AVOID HYPOXIA.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 84]**PEER REVIEWED**

/SRP: Former use/ IT PERMITS RAPID INDUCTION OF ANESTHESIA. EXCITEMENT & STRUGGLE ARE MINIMAL, & RECOVERY ... IS RAPID. MYOCARDIUM IS NOT "SENSITIZED" TO CATECHOLAMINES BY ETHYLENE.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 84]**PEER REVIEWED**

Drug Warnings:

CHIEF DISADVANTAGE ... IS THAT IT IS EXPLOSIVE. ... EXPLOSIVE RANGE OF ETHYLENE-OXYGEN MIXT IS BROAD, MOST EASILY IGNITED RANGE BEING 5 TO 25% ... DIL WITH AIR OR OXYGEN; MOST CRITICAL TIME ... IS AT END OF ANESTHESIA ... THIS FACT MAKES ... /IT/ UNSUITABLE WHEN IT MUST BE USED INTERMITTENTLY, FOR EXAMPLE DURING LABOR.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 84]**PEER REVIEWED**

POSTANESTHETIC NAUSEA & VOMITING ARE LESS FREQUENT & LESS SEVERE THAN AFTER ETHER.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 84]**PEER REVIEWED**

IT HAS DISADVANTAGE OF PROVIDING INADEQUATE MUSCLE RELAXATION. CONCENTRATIONS SUFFICIENTLY HIGH TO INDUCE HYPOXIA MUST BE EMPLOYED AND THE GAS-OXYGEN MIXTURES ARE EXPLOSIVE; FATAL ACCIDENTS HAVE OCCURRED DURING ETHYLENE ANESTHESIA. CONSEQUENTLY, ITS USE HAS DECLINED MARKEDLY IN RECENT YEARS.
[Osol, A. (ed.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 16th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1980. 987]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interactions:

THE RATE OF RISE OF ALVEOLAR ETHYLENE CONCN WILL BE ACCELERATED WHEN ADMIN SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH 70% NITROUS OXIDE.
[LaDu, B.N., H.G. Mandel, and E.L. Way. Fundamentals of Drug Metabolism and Disposition. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1971. 113]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate & Exposure:

Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary:

Ethylene's release to the environment is wide spread since it is a ubiquitous product of incomplete combustion and it is produced by all plant tissue in significant amounts and acts as an endogenous plant growth regulator. In the atmosphere, gas-phase ethylene may be degraded by ozone (half-life of 6.5 days), nitrate radicals (half-life of 190 days), or photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals (estimated half-life of 1.9 days). Hydrolysis, bioconcentration, adsorption, and biodegradation are not expected to be important fate processes of ethylene in soil or aquatic ecosystems. In soil and water, ethylene may oxidize to ethylene oxide. The high vapor pressure suggests that the gas may permeate through soil and sediment. Volatilization is expected to be the primary environmental fate process in soil and water. Volatilization half-lives from a model river and a model environmental lake have been estimated to be 1.6 and 50 hr, respectively. The most probable route of human exposure to ethylene is by inhalation of contaminated air. (SRC)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Under environmental conditions, ethylene is a gas; therefore, the most probable route of human exposure to ethylene is by inhalation. (SRC)
**PEER REVIEWED**

THERE IS LITTLE OPPORTUNITY OF EXPOSURE ... DURING ITS MFR BECAUSE PROCESS TAKES PLACE IN CLOSED SYSTEM. EXPOSURES MAY OCCUR AS RESULT OF LEAKS, SPILLS OR OTHER ACCIDENTS THAT RESULT IN RELEASE OF GAS INTO AIR. EMPTY TANKS ... THAT HAVE CONTAINED ETHYLENE ARE ... POTENTIAL SOURCE OF EXPOSURE.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 792]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Cigarette smoke ...
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3198]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 12,280 workers are potentially exposed to ethylene in the USA(1).
[(1) NIOSH; National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

On July 30, 1992, a human operating a walk-behind alkylate-fuelled lawn mower was exposed to ethylene a concn of 70 ug/cu-m(1). On September 23, 1992, a human driving a car in urban traffic was exposed to ethylene at a concn of 9 ug/cu-m(1).
[(1) Ostermark U, Petersson G; Chemosphere 27: 1719-28 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Body Burden:

Ethylene was detected in the expired air from 2 of 8 volunteers (1 smoker) during a test period of approximately 1 hr at quantities of 120 ug (smoker) and 0.91 ug(1).
[(1) Conkle JP et al; Arch Environ Health 30: 290-5 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Natural Pollution Sources:

Ethylene is produced by all plant tissues in significant amounts and acts as an endogenous plant growth regulator(1). It has been found in the gaseous metabolites released by germinating bean, corn, cotton, and pea seeds, from fading morning glory flowers and from ripening avocadoes and apples(1,3). Ethylene is produced by soil microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria(1). Ethylene is released to the atmosphere in emissions from biomass combustion and volcanos(2). Photodegradation of dissolved organic material possibly released from plankton is expected to be the primary production mechanism of ethylene in the mid-Atlantic ocean(4).
[(1) IARC; IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. 19: 157-86 (1979) (2) Graedel TE et al; Atmospheric Chemical Compounds. Orlando, FL: Academic Press Inc p. 142 (1986) (3) Mattheis JP et al; J Agric Food Chem 39: 1902-6 (1991) (4) Plass C et al; J Atmos Chem 15: 235-51 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Artificial Pollution Sources:

Exhaust gases from jet engines ... The combustion products of burning white pine wood ... .
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V19 161 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... In cigarette smoke ... .
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3198]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emission of burning woodchips and green brush ... /and/ burning wheat straw ... .
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983. 633]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emissions from burning agricultural wastes ... .
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983. 633]**PEER REVIEWED**

Flue gas of municipal incinerator ... .
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983. 633]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ethylene is released in emissions from acrylonitrile, chemical and petroleum manufacture, auto and diesel exhaust, polymer, refuse, wood(1) and polyethylene(2) combustion, foundries, sewage treatment plants, turbine engines, veneer drying, wood pulping, tobacco smoke, and some solvents(1).
[(1) Graedel TE et al; Atmospheric Chemical Compounds. Orlando, FL: Academic Press Inc p. 142 (1986) (2) Hodgkin JH et al; J Macromol Sci-Chem A17: 35-44 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate:

TERRESTRIAL FATE: Volatilization is expected to be the primary fate process of ethylene in soil(SRC) based on a measured vapor pressure of 5.213X10+4 mm Hg at 25 deg C(1) and a Henry's Law constant of 0.228 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(2). Calculated Kocs of 100 and 300(3,SRC) indicate a medium to high mobility class for ethylene in soils(4); however, its high vapor pressure would suggest that the gas may permeate through soil(SRC). Pure culture studies suggest that ethylene may be susceptible to microbial degradation; however, it is expected to oxidize to ethylene oxide which is not metabolized and may accumulate in the environment(5-6).
[(1) Daubert TE, Danner RP; Physical & Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals NY, NY: Hemisphere Pub Corp (1989) (2) Wasik SP, Tsang W; J Phys Chem 74: 2970-6 (1970) (3) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 4-9, 5-4, 5-10, 7-4, 7-5, 15-15 to 15-32 (1990) (4) Swann RL et al; Res Rev 85:17-28 (1983) (5) Hou CT et al; Appl Environ Microbiol 46: 171-7 (1983) (6) Hou CT et al; Appl Environ Microbiol 38: 127-34 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

AQUATIC FATE: Ethylene may oxidize to ethylene oxide in water(4-5). Hydrolysis of ethylene is not expected to be an important fate process in aquatic environments(3,SRC). Estimated Kocs of 100 and 300(3,SRC) and a high vapor pressure of 5.213X10+4 mm Hg at 25 deg C(1) indicate that the gas may permeate through organic matter contained in sediments and suspended material(SRC). The experimental Henry's Law constant of 0.228 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(2) suggests rapid volatilization of ethylene from environmental waters(3). Based on this Henry's Law constant, the volatilization half-life from a model river has been estimated to be 1.6 hr(3,SRC)
[(1) Daubert TE, Danner RP; Physical & Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals NY, NY: Hemisphere Pub Corp (1989) (2) Wasik SP, Tsang W; J Phys Chem 74: 2970-6 (1970) (3) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 4-9, 5-4, 5-10, 7-4, 7-5, 15-15 to 15-32 (1990) (4) Hou CT et al; Appl Environ Microbiol 46: 171-7 (1983) (5) Hou CT et al; Appl Environ Microbiol 38: 127-34 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based on the experimental vapor pressure of 5.213X10+4 mm Hg at 25 deg C(1), ethylene is expected to exist almost entirely in the vapor phase in the ambient atmosphere(2). Vapor-phase ethylene will degrade rapidly in the ambient atmosphere by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with a half-life of about 1.9 days(3,SRC). Vapor-phase ethylene will also degrade in the ambient atmosphere by reaction with ozone and nitrate radicals with respective half-lives of 6.5 and 190 days(4,5,SRC).
[(1) Daubert TE, Danner RP; Physical & Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals NY, NY: Hemisphere Pub Corp (1989) (2) Eisenreich SJ et al; Environ Sci Technol 15: 30-8 (1981) (3) Atkinson R; J Chem Phys Ref Data Monograph 1 p.103 (1989) (4) Atkinson R, Carter WPL; Chem Rev 84: 437-70 (1984) (5) Sabljic A, Guesten H; Atmos Environ 24A: 73-8 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Biodegradation:

Pure culture studies suggest that ethylene may be susceptible to microbial degradation(1-3).
[(1) Hou CT et al; Appl Environ Microbiol 46: 171-7 (1983) (2) Patel RN et al; Div Ind Microbial 23: 187-205 (1982) (3) Hou CT et al; Appl Environ Microbiol 38: 127-34 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Abiotic Degradation:

Estimated lifetime under photochemical smog conditions in S.E. England: 7.2 hours.
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983. 633]**PEER REVIEWED**

The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of ethylene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals is measured to be 8.52X10-12 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 1.9 days at an atmospheric concn of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm(1,SRC). The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of ethylene with ozone in the troposphere is measured to be 1.75X10-18 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C which corresponds to a half-life of about 6.5 days at an atmospheric concn of 7X10+11 molecules per cu cm(2,SRC). The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of ethylene with nitrate radicals (NO3) is measured to be 2.14X10-16 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(3) which corresponds to a half-life of about 190 days at an atmospheric concn of 2X10+8 NO3 radicals per cu cm(4,SRC). Alkenes are generally resistent to environmental hydrolysis(5); therefore, hydrolysis is not expected to be an important aquatic fate process of ethylene(SRC).
[(1) Atkinson R; J Chem Phys Ref Data Monograph 1 p.99 (1989) (2) Atkinson R, Carter WPL; Chem Rev 84: 437-70 (1984) (3) Sabljic A, Guesten H; Atmos Environ 24A: 73-8 (1990) (4) Atkinson R et al; Environ Sci Technol 21: 1123-6 (1987) (5) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 7-4, 7-5 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Bioconcentration:

No bioaccumulation.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.1 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Based on a measured water solubility of 131 mg/l at 25 deg C(3), a measured log octanol/water partition coefficient of 1.13(2), and recommended regression-derived equations(1), BCFs for ethylene can be estimated to be 40 and 4, respectively(SRC). These BCF values indicate that bioconcentration in aquatic organisms will not be an important fate process for ethylene(SRC).
[(1) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 5-4, 5-10 (1990) (2) Hansch C, Leo AJ; Medchem Project Issue No 26 Claremont, CA: Pomona College (1985) (3) McAuliffe C; J Phys Chem 70: 1267-75 (1966) (4) Swann RL et al; Res Rev 85:17-28 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Soil Adsorption/Mobility:

Based on a measured water solubility of 131 mg/l at 25 deg C(3), a measured log octanol/water partition coefficient of 1.13(2), and recommended regression-derived equations(1), Kocs for ethylene can be estimated to be 300 and 100, respectively(SRC). According to a suggested classification scheme(4), these Kocs indicate that ethylene will have medium to high mobility in soil(SRC).
[(1) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc p. 4-9 (1990) (2) Hansch C, Leo AJ; Medchem Project Issue No 26 Claremont, CA: Pomona College (1985) (3) McAuliffe C; J Phys Chem 70: 1267-75 (1966) (4) Swann RL et al; Res Rev 85:17-28 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Volatilization from Water/Soil:

The Henry's Law constant for ethylene has been measured to be 0.228 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(1). According to a suggested classification scheme(2), this Henry's Law constant indicates that volatilization is rapid from all bodies of water. Based on this Henry's Law constant, the volatilization half-life from a model river (1 m deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec) can be estimated to be about 1.6 hours(2,SRC). The volatilization half-life from a model lake (1 meter deep flowing 0.05 m/sec with a wind velocity of 0.5 m/sec) can be estimated to be about 50 hours(2,SRC).
[(1) Wasik SP, Tsang W; J Phys Chem 74: 2970-6 (1970) (2) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 15-15 to 15-32 (1990) (3) Smith JH et al; Environ Sci Technol 14: 1332-7 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Water Concentrations:

SURFACE WATER: Ethylene was found at a concn range of 63-246 pMol/l in sea water from the mid- Atlantic ocean during September and October of 1988(2). In April of 1985, ethylene was detected in several water samples taken from the Indian Ocean along the coast of Madagascar and Africa at a concn range of 6-36 ppbV(1). In June of 1976, ethylene was found in South Texas Coastal waters at a concn range of 5.8-13.2 nl/l; the major source of ethylene in this area is expected to be offshore petroleum operations(3). In 1977, concns of ethylene (20.1 and 20.7 nl/l) were detected in the Gulf of Mexico near the outflow of the Mississippi River and the discharge of formation waters and hydrocarbon venting from offshore oil production; other concns monitored in the Gulf of Mexico ranged from 0.6-5 nl/l(4). Ethylene concns in the Caribbean Sea were monitored to be 3.7-4.7 nl/l in 1977(4).
[(1) Bonsang B et al; J Atmos Chem 6: 3-20 (1988) (2) Plass C et al; J Atmos Chem 15: 235-51 (1992) (3) Brooks JM et al; Fate and Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine Organisms and Ecosystems DA Wolfe Ed. NY,NY pp.373-83 (1977) (4) Sauer TCJR; Limnol Oceanogr 25: 338-51 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

SURFACE WATER: During 1966-1973, ethylene was found in several surface waters (concn): Gulf of Mexico (1.7-35 nl/l), Caribbean Sea (2.2-12 nl/l), Atlantic Ocean (1.1-11 nl/l), Pacific Ocean (2-11 nl/l), York River, VA (13 nl/l), Potomac River (11 nl/l), and the lower Chesapeake Bay (9 nl/l)(1).
[(1) Swinnerton JW, Lamontagne RA; Environ Sci Technol 8: 657-63 (1974)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Effluent Concentrations:

In May of 1983, emissions of ethylene from automobile exhaust ranged from 4.45 to 7.44 %TNMHC (total non- methane hydrocarbon) at 6 sites on U.S. Highway 70, Raleigh, NC(1). Emissions of ethylene from various gasoline fueled engines ranged from 108-135 mg/km driven(2). In another study, emissions of ethylene from various gasoline fueled engines averaged 211.94 mg/km driven in an urban area, 123.2 mg/km driven in a suburban area, 93.39 mg/km driven in a rural area, and 82.58-102.26 mg/km driven on a motorway(3). Furthermore, emissions of ethylene increased from about 6.2 to about 13 % of total hydrocarbon content (THC) when the speed increased from 20 km/hr to about 115 km/hr(3). Ethylene concns ranged from 0.04-1.06 ppm in air containing automotive emissions(4). Ethylene was qualitatively identified in emissions from burning polyethylene(5) and it has been detected in emissions from alkylate-powered lawn mowers and mopeds(7). The average concn of ethylene in the Lincoln Tunnel (connecting Weehawhen, NJ with Manhattan Island, NY) was 1,374.9 ppbC in 1970 and 408.7 ppbC in 1982(6).
[(1) Zweidinger RB et al; Environ Sci Technol 22: 956-62 (1988) (2) Westerholm RN et al; Environ Sci Technol 22: 925-30 (1988) (3) Bailey JC et al; Atmos Environ 24A: 43-52 (1990) (4) Bellar T et al; Anal Chem 34: 763-5 (1962) (5) Hodgkin JH et al; J Macromol Sci-Chem A17: 35-44 (1982) (6) Lonneman WA et al; Environ Sci Technol 20: 790-6 (1986) (7) Ostermark U, Petersson G; Chemosphere 27: 1719-28 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ethylene was detected in 9 jet engine emission samples at a concn range of 0.27-731.3 ppmC(1). Ethylene was detected at a concn range of 537-847 ppb in 3 wood combustion emissions(2). Ethylene was qualitatively identified in stack emissions from waste incineration(3). Emissions of ethylene from various gasoline fueled cars were: 3.02-5.31 % of total hydrocarbon content (THC) in a 1987 Toyota Camry, 3.55-7.04 %THC in a 1986 GM Grand Am, 3.8-5.91 %THC in a 1986 Ford Mustang, 5.32-9.27 %THC in a 1984 GM Cavalier, 3.13-4.75 %THC in a 1986 Chrysler Omni, 2.84-5.61 %THC in a 1987 Nissan Sentra, 4.04-6.71 %THC in a 1985 Honda Accord, 3.42-5.82 %THC in a 1987 Toyota Corolla, and 4.27- 6.37 %THC in a 1987 Dodge Caravelle(4).
[(1) Katzman H, Libby WF; Atmos Environ 9: 839-42 (1975) (2) Kleindienst TE et al; Environ Sci Technol 20: 493-501 (1986) (3) Junk GA, Ford CS; Chemosphere 9: 187-230 (1980) (4) Stump F et al; Atmos Environ 23: 307-20 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sediment/Soil Concentrations:

In 1977, respective ethylene concns in core samples taken from the Bearing shelf, Bearing slope, and Aleutian basin were: 10- 131, 11-91, and 9-150 ml/l interstitial water(1).
[(1) Kvenvolden KA, Redden GD; Geochim Cosmochim ACTA 44: 1145-50 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Atmospheric Concentrations:

... Detected in average community air at very low levels, but is more prevalent in the air of large metropolitan areas.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3198]**PEER REVIEWED**

Urban air: 12-250 ppb; downtown Los Angeles, California: 20-102 ppb; East San Gabriel Valley: 15-37 ppb.
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983. 633]**PEER REVIEWED**

RURAL/REMOTE: In January of 1980, ethylene was detected at concns of 50 and 200 parts per trillion in trace gases from the South Pole and the Pacific Northwest (approximately 45 deg N), respectively(1). Ethylene was detected at an average concn range of 0.6-1.7 ppb in ambient air samples taken in Exelberg, Austria during July 15-August 22, 1987(2). Ethylene was detected at a concn range of 2.7-16.2 in 15 of 15 ambient air samples from both picnic and interior forest sites taken at Jones State Forest, TX in January of 1978(3). Ethylene was detected in the ambient air of Tulsa, OK at a concn range of 6.5-11.5 ppbC on July 27, 1978; 37 km downwind from this site, in a rural atmosphere, ethylene was detected at a concn of 1 ppbC(4). Ethylene was detected in the ambient air of Smoky Mountain National Park, TN at a concn range of 1.4-7.4 ppbC in September of 1978(4). Ethylene was detected in the ambient air of Rio Blanco county, CO at a concn range of 1.2-1.4 ppbC in September of 1978(4).
[(1) Rasmussen RA et al; Science 211: 285-87 (1981) (2) Puxbaum H et al; Atmos Environ 22: 2841-50 (1988) (3) Seila RL; Non-Urban Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Ambient Air North of Houston, Texas, USEPA-500/3-79-010 (1979) (4) Arnts RR, Meeks SA; Biogenic Hydrocarbon Contribution to the Ambient Air of Selected Areas, USEPA- 600/3-80-023 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

URBAN/SUBURBAN: In September of 1969, ethylene was detected in the ambient air of Pt. Barrow, AK at an average concn of 0.5 ppb(1). Ethylene was detected in the ambient air of Jetmore, KA and San Jose, CA at respective concns of 383 and 6796 parts per trillion(2). The average ethylene concn monitored in the ambient air of Harwell, England was 2.3 ppb(3). The concn range of ethylene in Houston air, which includes industrial locations and tunnels, was monitored to be 3.15-682 ppb during September of 1973-April of 1974(4).
[(1) Cavanaugh LA et al; Environ Sci Technol 3: 251-7 (1969) (2) Singh HB et al; Atmospheric Distributions, Sources and Sinks of Selected Halocarbon, Halocarbons, SF6 + N2O .USEPA-600/3-79-107 (1979) (3) Cox RA et al; AERE-R8324, Harwell, Oxfordshire: UK Atomic Energy Authority (1976) (4) Lonneman WA et al; Hydrocarbons in Houston Air, USEPA-600/3-79/018 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

INDOOR AIR: Ethylene was qualitatively identified in trace amounts in nuclear submarine atmospheres(1). Ethylene was detected at an average concn of 490 ppbV in the indoor air of a house in Sundarijal, Nepal during December of 1982-January of 1983; the use of biomass fuels is expected to be responsible for the high ethylene concn(2).
[(1) Schaefer KE; Arch Environ Health 9: 320-31 (1964) (2) Davidson CI et al; Environ Sci Technol 20: 561-567 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Food Survey Values:

Ethylene was detected at concns of 2.27 and 9.32 uL/l in internal samples of Bisbee Delicious apples from 2 orchards during fruit growth and maturation in 1990(1). Ethylene has been found in the gaseous metabolites released by germinating bean, corn, cotton, and pea seeds(2).
[(1) Mattheis JP et al; J Agric Food Chem 39: 1902-6 (1991) (2) IARC; IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. 19: 157-86 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Plant Concentrations:

Ethylene is produced by all plant tissue in significant amounts and acts as an endogenous plant growth regulator(1).
[(1) IARC; IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans 19: 157-86 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Environmental Concentrations:

The average airborne yield of ethylene was measured to be 1,200 ug/cigarette(1).
[(1) Lofroth G et al; Environ Sci Technol 23: 610-14 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Standards & Regulations:

FIFRA Requirements:

Ethylene is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues when: (a) Used as a plant regulator on fruit and vegetable crops in conformity with good agricultural practice before or after harvest, or (b) Injected into the soil to cause premature germination of witchweed in bean (lima and string), cabbage, cucumber, eggplant, okra, onion, pasture grass, pea (field and sweet), peanut, pepper, potato, sweet potato, sorghum, soybean, squash, tomato, turnip, and watermelon fields as part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture witchweed control program.
[40 CFR 180.1016(e) (7/1/92)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical/Physical Properties:

Molecular Formula:

C2-H4
**PEER REVIEWED**

Molecular Weight:

28.05
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989.,p. 597-8]**PEER REVIEWED**

Color/Form:

COLORLESS GAS
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989.,p. 597-8]**PEER REVIEWED**

MONOCLINIC PRISMS WHEN IT SOLIDIFIES AT -181 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989.,p. 597-8]**PEER REVIEWED**

Odor:

SWEET
[Sax, N.I. and R.J. Lewis, Sr. (eds.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 11th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1987.,p. 484-5]**PEER REVIEWED**

Olefinic, hedonic tone: unpleasant to neutral
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983. 633]**PEER REVIEWED**

Taste:

SLIGHTLY SWEET
[Osol, A. and J.E. Hoover, et al. (eds.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 15th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1975. 981]**PEER REVIEWED**

Boiling Point:

-102.4 DEG C @ 700 MM HG
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989.,p. 597-8]**PEER REVIEWED**

Melting Point:

-169 DEG C
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 75th ed. Boca Raton, Fl: CRC Press Inc., 1994-1995.,p. 3-163]**PEER REVIEWED**

Corrosivity:

Ethylene is a noncorrosive gas.
[General Electric Co; Material Safety Data Sheet #457 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Critical Temperature & Pressure:

CRITICAL TEMPERATURE: +9.6 DEG C; CRITICAL PRESSURE: 50.7 ATM
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989.,p. 597-8]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density/Specific Gravity:

567.37 kg/cu m (-103.8 deg C)
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.3 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Combustion:

-11,272 cal/g = -471.94x10+5 J/kg
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Vaporization:

207.7 Btu/lb = 115.4 cal/g = 4.832x10+5 J/kg
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient:

Log Kow= 1.13
[Hansch, C., Leo, A., D. Hoekman. Exploring QSAR - Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constants. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society., 1995. 4]**QC REVIEWED**

Solubilities:

1 VOL DISSOLVES IN ABOUT 4 VOL WATER @ 0 DEG C, IN ABOUT 9 VOL WATER @ 25 DEG C, IN ABOUT 0.5 VOL ALCOHOL @ 25 DEG C, IN ABOUT 0.05 VOL ETHER @ 15.5 DEG C
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

SOL IN ACETONE, BENZENE
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989.,p. 597-8]**PEER REVIEWED**

131 mg/l at 20 deg C; 256 cu cm/l at 0 deg C
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983. 632]**PEER REVIEWED**

Water solubility: 131 mg/l at 25 deg C
[McAuliffe C; J Phys Chem 70: 1267-75 (1966)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Spectral Properties:

MAX ABSORPTION (GAS): 161.5 NM (LOG E= 3.92)
[Weast, R.C. (ed.). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 60th ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1979.,p. C-298]**PEER REVIEWED**

INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.363 @ 100 DEG C/D
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 75th ed. Boca Raton, Fl: CRC Press Inc., 1994-1995.,p. 3-163]**PEER REVIEWED**

IR: 1131 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Prism Collection)
[Weast, R.C. and M.J. Astle. CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volumes I and II. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc. 1985.,p. V1 619]**PEER REVIEWED**

UV: 3-3 (Organic Electronic Spectral Data, Phillips et al, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
[Weast, R.C. and M.J. Astle. CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volumes I and II. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc. 1985.,p. V1 619]**PEER REVIEWED**

MASS: 4 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
[Weast, R.C. and M.J. Astle. CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volumes I and II. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc. 1985.,p. V1 619]**PEER REVIEWED**

Surface Tension:

16 dynes/cm = 0.016 N/m at -104 deg C
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor Density:

0.978 (AIR= 1)
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 549]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor Pressure:

Vapor pressure 4,040 kPa (-1.5 deg C)
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.3 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Viscosity:

0.01 mPa.s 20 deg C
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.4 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

1 mg/cu m = 0.86 ppm; 1 ppm = 1.17 mg/cu m
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983. 632]**PEER REVIEWED**

BURNS WITH A LUMINOUS FLAME
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989.,p. 597-8]**PEER REVIEWED**

Specific gravity: 0.57 at -130.8 deg C
[ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982. 225]**PEER REVIEWED**

Latent heat of fusion 3.33 kj/mole (-169.4 deg C)
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.4 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Latent heat of vaporization 13.6 kj/mole (-103.8 deg C)
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.4 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of formation 52.47 kj/mole (25 deg C)
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.4 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ionization potential 10.51 eV
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.4 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat capacity, constant pressure: 1.516 J/g deg C; Heat capacity, constant volume: 1.220 J/g deg C
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.4 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Coefficient of thermal expansion 3.7x10-3 at 20 deg C
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.4 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of combustion 1,411 Kj/mole
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.3 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

POLYMERIZES @ HIGH PRESSURES
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V19 158 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Henry's Law constant = 0.228 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C
[Wasik SP, Tsang W; J Phys Chem 74: 2970-6 (1970)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical Safety & Handling:

DOT Emergency Guidelines:

Fire or explosion: EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE. Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Will form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket. /Ethylene, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-115]**QC REVIEWED**

Health: Vapors may cause dizziness or asphyxiation without warning. Some may be irritating if inhaled at high concentrations. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. /Ethylene, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-115]**QC REVIEWED**

Public safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 50 to 100 meters (160 to 330 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Many gases are heavier than air and will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Keep out of low areas. /Ethylene, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-115]**QC REVIEWED**

Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection. Always wear thermal protective clothing when handling refrigerated/cryogenic liquids. /Ethylene, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-115]**QC REVIEWED**

Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for l600 meters (1 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions. /Ethylene, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-115]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire: DO NOT EXTINGUISH A LEAKING GAS FIRE UNLESS LEAK CAN BE STOPPED. Small fires: Dry chemical or CO2. Large fires: Water spray or fog. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Fire involving Tanks: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Do not direct water at source of leak or safety devices; icing may occur. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Ethylene, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-115]**QC REVIEWED**

Spill or leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. Prevent spreading of vapors through sewers, ventilation systems and confined areas. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. CAUTION: When in contact with refrigerated/cryogenic liquids, many materials become brittle and are likely to break without warning. /Ethylene, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-115]**QC REVIEWED**

First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. Clothing frozen to the skin should be thawed before being removed. In case of contact with liquefied gas, thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. /Ethylene, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-115]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire or explosion: EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE. Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Will form explosive mixtures with air. Silane will ignite spontaneously in air. Those substances designated with a "P" may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket. /Ethylene; Ethylene, compressed/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-116]**QC REVIEWED**

Health: Vapors may cause dizziness or asphyxiation without warning. Some may be toxic if inhaled at high concentrations. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. /Ethylene; Ethylene, compressed/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-116]**QC REVIEWED**

Public safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 100 meters (330 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Many gases are heavier than air and will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Keep out of low areas. /Ethylene; Ethylene, compressed/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-116]**QC REVIEWED**

Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection. /Ethylene; Ethylene, compressed/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-116]**QC REVIEWED**

Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions. /Ethylene; Ethylene, compressed/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-116]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire: DO NOT EXTINGUISH A LEAKING GAS FIRE UNLESS LEAK CAN BE STOPPED. Small fires: Dry chemical or CO2. Large Fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Fire involving tanks: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Do not direct water at source of leak or safety devices; icing may occur. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles, if this is impossible withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Ethylene; Ethylene, compressed/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-116]**QC REVIEWED**

Spill or leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. /Ethylene; Ethylene, compressed/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-116]**QC REVIEWED**

First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with liquefied gas, thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. /Ethylene; Ethylene, compressed/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-116]**QC REVIEWED**

Odor Threshold:

Odor Index at 20 deg C = 57,100
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983. 633]**PEER REVIEWED**

Detection in air by odor (purity not specified) 2.60x10+2 ppm.
[ASTM; Compilation of Odor and Taste Threshold Values Data p.71 (1978)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fire Potential:

Flammable gas
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-66]**QC REVIEWED**

VERY DANGEROUS, WHEN EXPOSED TO HEAT OR FLAME.
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. 1337]**PEER REVIEWED**

NFPA Hazard Classification:

Health: 1. 1= Materials that, on exposure, would cause irritation, but only minor residual injury, including those requiring the use of an approved air-purifying respirator. These materials are only slightly hazardous to health and only breathing protection is needed.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 325-50]**QC REVIEWED**

Flammability: 4. 4= This degree includes flammable gases, pyrophoric liquids, and Class IA flammable liquids. The preferred method of fire attack is to stop the flow of material or to protect exposures while allowing the fire to burn itself out.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 325-50]**QC REVIEWED**

Reactivity: 2. 2= This degree includes materials that are normally unstable and readily undergo violent chemical change, but are not capable of detonation. This includes materials that can undergo chemical change with rapid release of energy at normal temperatures and pressures and materials that can undergo violent chemical changes at elevated temperatures and pressures. This also includes materials that may react violently with water or that may form potentially explosive mixtures with water. In advanced or massive fires involving these materials, fire fighting should be done from a safe distance or from a protected location.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 325-50]**QC REVIEWED**

Flammable Limits:

Lower flammable limit: 2.7% by volume; Upper flammable limit: 36.0% by volume
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-66]**QC REVIEWED**

Autoignition Temperature:

914 deg F (490 deg C)
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-66]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire Fighting Procedures:

STOP FLOW OF GAS, CARBON DIOXIDE, DRY CHEMICAL OR FINE WATER SPRAY.
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. 1337]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. /Ethylene, compressed; ethylene, refrigerated liquid/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1992.436]**PEER REVIEWED**

Evacuation: If fire becomes uncontrollable or container is exposed to direct flame; consider evacuation of one-third (1/3) mile radius. /Ethylene, compressed; ethylene, refrigerated liquid/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1992.436]**PEER REVIEWED**

Stop flow of gas before extinguishing fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Use fine spray or fog to control fire by preventing its spread and absorbing some of its heat. Dry chemical or carbon dioxide may be appropriate. Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance. Use remote equipment wherever possible.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-66]**QC REVIEWED**

Firefighting Hazards:

Flashback along vapor trail may occur.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-66]**QC REVIEWED**

Ethylene floats and boils on water.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Explosive Limits & Potential:

3.1-32%
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 792]**PEER REVIEWED**

ETHYLENE-AIR MIXT OF FROM 3-28% ETHYLENE & ETHYLENE-O2 MIXTURE OF FROM 3-80% ETHYLENE ARE EXPLOSIVE.
[Thienes, C., and T.J. Haley. Clinical Toxicology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972. 54]**PEER REVIEWED**

Explosive decomposition occurred at 350 deg C under a pressure of 170 bar.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 258]**PEER REVIEWED**

The limiting pressures and temperatures for explosive decomposition of ethylene with electric initiation were determined in the ranges 100-250 bar and 120-250 deg C.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 258]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

Reacts vigorously with oxidizing materials.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-66]**QC REVIEWED**

CAN REACT VIGOROUSLY WITH ALCL3, (CCL4 + BENZOYL PEROXIDE), (BROMOTRICHLOROMETHANE + ALCL3), O3.
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. 1337]**PEER REVIEWED**

In absence of nitrogen as a diluent, interaction with /trifluoromethyl hypofluorite/ ... /and/ ethylene is explosive on mixing.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 127]**PEER REVIEWED**

EXPLOSIVE REACTION WITH CHLORINE IS POSSIBLE.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-66]**QC REVIEWED**

A violent explosion occurred when a mixture of tetrafluoroethylene and excess ethylene was heated at 160 deg C and 480 bar. Traces of oxygen must be vigorously excluded.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 261]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Polymerization:

Hazardous polymerization may occur.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-66]**QC REVIEWED**

Polymerization of ethylene in presence of metallic copper becomes violent above a pressure of 54 bar at about 400 deg C, much carbon being deposited.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 260]**PEER REVIEWED**

Preventive Measures:

Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Approach fire with caution. /Ethylene, compressed; ethylene, refrigerated liquid/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1992.436]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. /Ethylene, compressed; ethylene, refrigerated liquid/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1992.436]**PEER REVIEWED**

Evacuation: If material leaking (not on fire) consider evacuation from downwind area ased on amount of material spilled, location and weather conditions. /Ethylene, compressed; ethylene, refrigerated liquid/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1992.436]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipment Methods and Regulations:

No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
[49 CFR 171.2 (7/1/96)]**QC REVIEWED**

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
[IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 38th ed. Montreal, Canada and Geneva, Switzerland: International Air Transport Association, Dangerous Goods Board, January, 1997. 148]**QC REVIEWED**

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
[IMDG; International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; International Maritime Organization p.2059 (1988)]**QC REVIEWED**

Storage Conditions:

STORE IN COOL DRY, WELL-VENTILATED LOCATION. PROTECT AGAINST STATIC ELECTRICITY & LIGHTNING. ISOLATE FROM OXIDIZING MATERIALS, HALOGENS, AND OTHER COMBUSTIBLES.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-66]**QC REVIEWED**

FOR USE AS AN ANESTHETIC, ETHYLENE IS PURIFIED & STORED AS A GAS IN STEEL CYLINDERS.
[Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 83]**PEER REVIEWED**

Protect containers against physical damage. Outdoor or detached storage is preferred. For indoor storage, use a fireproof, well-ventilated, area isolated from any sources of ignition.
[ITII. Toxic and Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1988. 225]**PEER REVIEWED**

Cleanup Methods:

Spills on land: Contain if possible, by forming mechanical and/or chemical barriers to prevent spreading.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.49 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Spills on water: Contain if possible. If solubilized in water, apply activated carbon at 10% of the spill amount over the region occupied by 10 mg/l or greater concentrations. Mechanical dredges or lifts may then be used to remove immobilized masses of pollutants. Peat moss is also recommended as a sorbent.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.49 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

By forced ventilation, maintain concentration of gas below the range of explosive mixture. Remove the tank or cylinder to an open area. Leave to bleed off in the atmosphere.
[ITII. Toxic and Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1988. 225]**PEER REVIEWED**

Disposal Methods:

Do not discharge ethylene directly into sewers or surface waters. Dispose of by incineration. If necessary, a flammable solvent may be added to aid in burning.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) p.49 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Occupational Exposure Standards:

Threshold Limit Values:

Simple asphyxiant - inert gas or vapor. A TLV may not be recommended for each simple asphyxiant because the limiting factor is the available oxygen.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs & BEIs: Threshold limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices for 2002. Cincinnati, OH. 2002.32]**QC REVIEWED**

A4; Not classifiable as a human carcinogen.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs & BEIs: Threshold limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices for 2002. Cincinnati, OH. 2002.32]**QC REVIEWED**

Manufacturing/Use Information:

Major Uses:

OXYETHYLENE WELDING & CUTTING METALS; MFR MUSTARD GAS AND MANY OTHER ORGANICS; MEDICATION: INHALATION ANESTHETIC
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989. 598]**PEER REVIEWED**

REFRIGERANT
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 792]**PEER REVIEWED**

PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR
[Farm Chemicals Handbook 1994. Willoughby, OH: Meister, 1994.,p. C-149]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEM INT FOR ETHYLENE OXIDE, ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE, ETHYLBENZENE, ETHYL ALCOHOL, ACETALDEHYDE, LINEAR PRIMARY ALCOHOLS & VINYL ACETATE MONOMER; MONOMER FOR POLYETHYLENE
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacture of ethyl chloride
[ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982. 224]**PEER REVIEWED**

Raw material for anesthetics
[ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982. 224]**PEER REVIEWED**

Cooling medium
[ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982. 224]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solvent
[ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982. 224]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacture of tetraethyl lead
[ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982. 224]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIAL USE OF ETHYLENE IS AS A "BUILDING BLOCK" FOR CHEMICAL RAW MATERIALS WHICH IN TURN ARE USED TO MFR A LARGE VARIETY OF SUBSTANCES AND PRODUCTS. SOME OF MAJOR CHEM & MATERIALS DERIVED FROM ETHYLENE ARE: VINYL CHLORIDE MONOMER OR 1,2-DICHLOROETHANE ... STYRENE MONOMER ... ACETALDEHYDE ...
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 792]**PEER REVIEWED**

COMPRESSED GAS USED TO INITIATE DEGREENING & RIPENING OF BANANAS, CITRUS FRUITS, HONEYDEW MELONS, PEARS, & PINEAPPLES. APPLIED BEFORE HARVEST OF PINEAPPLES TO INDUCE FLOWERING.
[Farm Chemicals Handbook 1994. Willoughby, OH: Meister, 1994.,p. C-149]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEDICATION
**QC REVIEWED**

Manufacturers:

Amoco Chemical Company, 200 East Randolph Drive, Chicago, IL 60601, (312) 856-3200; Chemical & Specialty Product Group; Production site: Alvin, TX 77512-1488
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Lyondell Petrochemical Co, One Houston Center, 1221 McKinney, Suite 1600, PO Box 3646, Houston, TX 77253-3646 (713) 652-7200; Production site: Channelview, TX 77530
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chevron Chemical Co, 6001 Bollinger Canyon Rd, San Ramon, CA 94583 (510) 842-5500; Olefins and Derivatives Division, PO Box 3766, Houston, TX 77253; Production sites: Cedar Bayou, TX 77520; Port Arthur, TX 77640
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dow Chemical USA, Hq, 2020 Dow Center, Midland, MI 48674, (517) 636-1000; Production sites: Freeport, TX 77541; Plaquemine, LA 70764
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Du Pont, 1007 Market St, Wilmington, DE 19898, (302) 774-1000; Du Pont Chemicals (800) 441-9442; Production site: Orange, TX 77630
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Eastman Chemical Company, PO Box 431, Kingsport, TN 37662 (615) 229-2000; Texas Eastman Co; Production site: Longview, TX 75607
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exxon Chemical Co, 13501 Katy Freeway, Houston, TX 77079 (713) 870-6000, division; Exxon Chemical Americas, PO Box 3272, Houston, TX 77253-3272; Production sites: Baton Rouge, LA 70821; Baytown, TX 77520
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

The BFGoodrich Co, Hq, 3925 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44313, (216) 374-2000; BFGoodrich Chemical Group, 6100 Oak Tree Blvd, Cleveland, OH 44131; Production site: Calvert City, KY 42029
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Koch Refining Co, PO Box 2256, Wichita, KS 67201, (316) 832-5259; Production site: Corpus Christi, TX 78403
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mobil Oil Corp, 3225 Gallows Rd, Fairfax, VA 22037-0001 (703) 846-3000; Mobil Chemical Company, division, 100 First Stamford Place, PO Box 10070, Stamford, CT 06904-2070; Petrochemicals Division, Intercontinental Center, Suite 906, 15600 JF Kennedy Boulevard, Houston, TX 77032-2343; Production sites: Beaumont, TX 77704-2295; 9822 La Porte Freeway, Houston, TX 77017
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Occidental Petroleum Corporation, Hq, 10889 Wilshire Blvd, Suite 1500, Los Angeles, CA 90024, (310) 879-1700; Petrochemical, Occidental Tower, 5005 LBJ Freeway, PO Box 809050 (75380), Dallas, TX 75244 (214) 404-3800; Production sites: Chocolate Bayou, TX 77511; Corpus Christi, TX 78410; Lake Charles, LA 70629
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sun Co, Inc (R&M), 1801 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19103, (215) 977-3451; Production sites: Brandenburg, KY 40108 (Doe Run Works); Claymont, DE 19703
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Phillips Petroleum Company, Hq, Phillips Building, Bartlesville, OK 74004, (918) 661-6600; Chemicals Division; Olefins and Cyclics Branch; Production site: Sweeny, TX 77480
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Quantum Chemical Co, 11500 Northlake Dr, Cincinnati, OH 45249 (513) 530-6500; Production sites: Clinton, IA 52732; Morris, IL 60450; Deer Park, TX 77536
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Rexene Corp, Hq, 5005 LBJ Freeway, Occidental Tower, Dallas, TX 75244, (214) 450-9000; Production site: Odessa, TX 79760
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shell Oil Co, Hq, One Shell Plaza, PO Box 2463, Houston, TX 77252-2463, (713) 241-6161; Shell Chemical Co, division (address same as Hq); Production sites: Deer Pk, TX 77536 (Houston plant); Norco, LA 70079
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Texaco Chemical Co, 3040 Post Oak Blvd, PO Box 27707, Houston, TX 77056 (713) 961-3711; Company's sale to Huntsman Chemical Corp is anticipated during the first quarter, 1994; Huntsman Chemical Corp, 2000 Eagle Gate Tower, Salt Lake City, UT 84111 (801) 532- 5200; Production sites: Port Arthur, TX 77640; Port Neches, TX 77651
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Formosa Plastics Corporation U.S.A., 9 Peach Tree Rd, Livingston, NJ 07039 (201) 992-2090; Production site: Point Comfort, TX 77978
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Union Carbide Corporation, Hq, Old Ridgeway Road, Danbury, CT 06817, (203) 794-2000; CIndustrial Chemicals Division; Production sites: Seadrift, TX 77983; Taft, LA 70057; Texas City, TX 77590
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 594]**PEER REVIEWED**

Javelina Gas Processing, 5314 I-37 Frontage Rd, Corpus Christi, TX 78407 (512) 289-4900; Production site: Corpus Christi, TX 78407
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sweeny Olefins Limited Partnership, 820B Adams Bldg, Bartlesville, OK 74004 (918) 661-4011; Production site: Sweeny, TX 77480
[SRI. 1994 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1994.. 593]**PEER REVIEWED**

Methods of Manufacturing:

CRACKING OF ETHANE, PROPANE AND BUTANE RECOVERED FROM PROCESSING OF NATURAL GAS AND OF HEAVIER FEEDSTOCKS SUCH AS NAPHTHA. RECLAMATION FROM THE BY PRODUCT OFF-GASES GENERATED DURING THE CRACKING OF PETROLEUM IN GASOLINE REFINING
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

BY ABSTRACTING 1 MOLECULE OF WATER FROM 1 MOLECULE OF ETHYL ALCOHOL. THIS MAY BE ACCOMPLISHED BY PASSING ALCOHOL THROUGH A RED-HOT TUBE CONTAINING ALUMINUM OXIDE OR THROUGH A TOWER OF COKE IMPREGNATED WITH GLACIAL PHOSPHORIC ACID (METAPHOSPHORIC ACID).
[Osol, A. and J.E. Hoover, et al. (eds.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 15th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1975. 981]**PEER REVIEWED**

Although ethylene is produced by various methods as follows, only a few are commercially proven: thermal cracking of hydrocarbons (the principal route for the industrial production of ethylene), catalytic pyrolysis, membrane dehydrogenation of ethane, oxydehydrogenation of ethane, oxidative coupling of methane, methanol to ethylene, dehydration of ethanol, ethylene from coal, disproportionation of propylene, and ethylene as a by-product.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V9 883]**PEER REVIEWED**

General Manufacturing Information:

ETHYLENE, NF /IS/ MARKETED UNDER GENERIC NAME AS COMPRESSED GAS @ 750 PSI IN RED (WHO, VIOLET) METAL CYLINDERS.
[American Medical Association, Council on Drugs. AMA Drug Evaluations. 2nd ed. Acton, Mass.: Publishing Sciences Group, Inc., 1973. 227]**PEER REVIEWED**

6th highest-volume chemical produced in US (1979)
[Sax, N.I. and R.J. Lewis, Sr. (eds.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 11th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1987. 484]**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

GRADES: TECHNICAL (95% MIN); 99.5 MIN; 99.9 MOLE %; NF.
[Sax, N.I. and R.J. Lewis, Sr. (eds.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 11th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1987. 484]**PEER REVIEWED**

Impurities:

PURITY NOT LESS THAN 96% ETHYLENE BY GAS VOL, NOT MORE THAN 0.5% ACETYLENE, NOT MORE THAN 4% METHANE & ETHANE.
[Sax, N.I. and R.J. Lewis, Sr. (eds.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 11th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1987. 484]**PEER REVIEWED**

Consumption Patterns:

40.5% FOR POLYETHYLENE; 19.5% FOR ETHYLENE OXIDE; 14% FOR ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE; 8.5% FOR ETHYLBENZENE; 5.5% FOR ETHYL ALCOHOL; 4% FOR ACETALDEHYDE; 2% FOR LINEAR PRIMARY ALCOHOLS; 2% FOR VINYL ACETATE MONOMER; 4% FOR MISC APPLICATIONS (1973)
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

... LESS THAN 0.5 MILLION KG ETHYLENE ARE USED ANNUALLY TO RIPEN FRUITS & VEGETABLES.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V19 159 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Polyethylene resins, 48%; Ethylene oxide, 18%; Ethylene dichloride, 13%; Ethylbenzene, 8%; Linear alcohols, 5%; Vinyl Acetate, 2%; Ethyl alcohol, 2%; Miscellaneous, 4% (1984)
[CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SYNOPSIS: Ethylene, 1984]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ethylene. Low-density polyethylene (including linear low-density polyethylene), 28%; high-density polyethylene, 24%; ethylene oxide, 14.8%; ethylene dichloride, 12.3%; ethylbenzene, 8%; linear olefins and alcohols, 6%; vinyl acetate monomer, 2.6%; acetaldehyde, 1.3%; ethyl alcohol, 1%; ethylene-propylene elastomers, 1%; miscellaneous, 1%.
[Kavaler AR; Chemical Marketing Reporter 233 (6): 21 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ethylene. Demand: 1987: 35.1 billion lb; 1988: 36 billion lb; 1991 /projected/: 40 billion lb (Foreign trade is negligible).
[Kavaler AR; Chemical Marketing Reporter 233 (6): 21 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Uses: Low-density polyethylene (including linear low-density polyethylene), 28%; high-density polyethylene, 25%; ethylene oxide, 14 %; ethylene dichloride, 13%; ethylbenzene, 7%; linear olefins and alcohols, 6%; vinyl acetate monomer, 3%; acetaldehyde, 1%; ethyl alcohol, 1%; ethylene-propylene elastomers, 1%; miscellaneous, 1%.
[Chemical Marketing Reporter p.19, CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ethylene 2/28/94 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Production:

(1972) 9.47X10+12 GRAMS
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1975) 9.31X10+12 GRAMS
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1985) 1.39X10+12 g
[Chem. Eng. News 64(16): 13 1986]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1990) 36.47 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 70 (15): 17 (4/13/92)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1991) 39.96 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 71 (15): 11 (4/12/93)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1992) 40.93 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1993) 41.25 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Imports:

(1972) NEGLIGIBLE
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1984) 1.50X10+9 g
[CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SYNOPSIS: Ethylene, 1984]**PEER REVIEWED**

Imports grew from 20 million pounds in 1991 to 95 million pounds in 1992.
[Chemical Marketing Reporter p.19, CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ethylene 2/28/94 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Exports:

(1972) NEGLIGIBLE
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1975) 1.41X10+9 GRAMS
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exports rose from barely 1 million pounds in 1991 to over 35 million pounds in 1992.
[Chemical Marketing Reporter p.19, CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ethylene 2/28/94 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Laboratory Methods:

Clinical Laboratory Methods:

ASSAY METHOD INTENDED FOR MEDICINAL USE INVOLVES GC & THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY DETECTOR (CARSON, NA; J ASSOC OFF ANAL CHEM; 55, 1067 (1972)).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V19 161 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Analytic Laboratory Methods:

METHODS OF DETECTING UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS, INCL ETHYLENE, IN AIR ... INFRA-RED SPECTROPHOTOMETRY HAS BEEN USED TO DETECT ETHYLENE IN GASEOUS MIXTURES, WITH LIMIT OF DETECTION OF 50 UG. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COMBINED WITH MASS SPECTROMETRY ...
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).p. V19 161 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Nondispersive IR: Minimum full scale: 500 ppm.
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983. 633]**PEER REVIEWED**

... /The/ ethane and ethylene formed and expired into hydrocarbon-purified air were sampled and analyzed by gas chromatography.
[Ando K et al; Osaka-furitsu Koshu Eisei Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku, Rodo Eisei Hen 21: 35-39 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

ASTM Method D4490; Toxic gas vapor detector tube, Detection limit = 0.1 ppm.
[Environmental Technology, Volume 11.03 Atmospheric Analysis; Occupational health and Safety, ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-1187 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sampling Procedures:

UNICO detector tube: 0.5 ppm; AVER detector tube: 10 ppm; DRAGER detector tube: 5,000 ppm.
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983. 634]**PEER REVIEWED**

Special References:

Special Reports:

Toxicology Review: Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 8: 91 (1967)

Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ethylene (Draft) (1981)

Hopkins J; Food Chem Toxicol 32 (2): 191-3 (1994). Review of the carcinogenic potential of ethylene.

Synonyms and Identifiers:

Synonyms:

ACETENE
**PEER REVIEWED**

ATHYLEN (GERMAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

BICARBURRETTED HYDROGEN
**PEER REVIEWED**

ELAYL
**PEER REVIEWED**

ETHENE
**PEER REVIEWED**

ETILENO
**PEER REVIEWED**

LIQUID ETHYLENE
**PEER REVIEWED**

OLEFIANT GAS
**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

GRADES: TECHNICAL (95% MIN); 99.5 MIN; 99.9 MOLE %; NF.
[Sax, N.I. and R.J. Lewis, Sr. (eds.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 11th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1987. 484]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

UN 1962; Ethylene, compressed

IMO 2.1; Ethylene, compressed; ethylene, refrigerated liquid

UN 1038; Ethylene, refrigerated liquid

Standard Transportation Number:

49 057 34; Ethylene, compressed

49 057 35; Ethylene, refrigerated liquid

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