Print Friendly and PDFPrintPrint Friendly and PDFPDFHYDROGEN PEROXIDE
CASRN: 7722-84-1

See Occupational Exposure Standards

Human Health Effects:

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of hydrogen peroxide. There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of hydrogen peroxide. Overall evaluation: Hydrogen peroxide is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. 71 683 (1999)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A3. Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 42]**QC REVIEWED**

Human Toxicity Excerpts:

Large doses presumably produce gastritis and esophagitis. Cases of rupture of the colon, proctitis and ulcerative colitis have been reported following hydrogen peroxide enemas.
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. II-107]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE CONTINUED USE OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SOLUTION AS A MOUTHWASH, EVEN IN HALF STRENGTH, MAY CAUSE HYPERTROPHIED FILIFORM PAPILLAE OF THE TONGUE ("HAIRY TONGUE") BUT THESE DISAPPEAR AFTER DRUG IS DISCONTINUED.
[Gilman, A. G., L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980. 974]**PEER REVIEWED**

Although ingestion is unlikey to occur, if it does the hydrogen peroxide will cause irritation of the upper GI tract. Decomposition results in rapid liberation of oxygen, leading to distension of the esophagus or stomach, and possibly severe damage and internal bleeding.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1089]**PEER REVIEWED**

FOR HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, INHALATION OF 7 PPM CAUSES LUNG IRRITATION.
[Thienes, C., and T.J. Haley. Clinical Toxicology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972. 191]**PEER REVIEWED**

HEMIPLEGIA HAS FOLLOWED ITS USE TO IRRIGATE THE PLEURAL CAVITY; PRESUMABLY ... BY THE PASSAGE OF THE GAS INTO THE VASCULAR SYSTEM, RESULTING IN CEREBRAL EMBOLISM.
[American Medical Association. AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1991. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, 1991. 1439]**PEER REVIEWED**

MAY IRRITATE TONGUE & BUCCAL MUCOSA /WHEN USED TO TREAT STOMATITIS & GINGIVITIS/.
[American Medical Association. AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1991. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, 1991. 1439]**PEER REVIEWED**

WORKERS EXPOSED TO VAPORS FROM 90% H2O2 HAVE NOTED PRIMARILY RESP IRRITATION, BUT SPLASH OF SUCH HIGH CONCN IS GENERALLY FEARED AS POTENTIAL CAUSE OF SEVERE CORNEAL DAMAGE.
[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986. 492]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effect of Co(II) ion on the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with DNA was investigated by a DNA sequencing technique using (32)P-5'-end-labeled DNA fragments obtained from human c-Ha-ras-1 protooncogene. 20 uM Co(II) (as cobalt chloride, CoCl2) induced strong DNA cleavage in the presence of 0.4 mM hydrogen peroxide even without alkali treatment. Guanine residues were the most alkali-labile site, and the extent of cleavages at the positions of thymine and cytosine was dependent on the sequence. Adenine residues were relatively resistive. Neither Co(II) nor hydrogen peroxide alone caused DNA cleavage. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, present in excess over Co(II), inhibited DNA cleavage. Singlet oxygen scavengers (dimethylfuran, 0.05 M sodium azide, 0.05 M 1,4-diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane, 0.025 M dGMP), sulfur compounds (methional, methionine), and superoxide dismutase inhibited DNA cleavage completely. Hydroxyl radical scavengers, such as dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium formate, were not so effective as singlet oxygen scavengers. Electron spin resonance studies performed in the presence of ADP using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone as a singlet oxygen trap suggest that Co(II) reacts with hydrogen peroxide to produce singlet oxygen or its equivalent. Electron spin resonance studies using 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide showed that the hydroxyl radical adduct of 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide was also formed.
[Yamamoto K et al; Chem Res Toxicol 4 (2): 234-9 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A 33 yr old woman unintentionally ingested a 1 pint bottle of 35% hydrogen peroxide. She vomited, collapsed, and experienced a brief tonic-clonic seizure within minutes. On examination, the patient was intermittently seizing and markedly cyanotic and had copious white foam emanating from her mouth. Vital signs were blood pressure 156/118 mm Hg; pulse, 126; respirations, 32; and temp, 38.2 deg C. Pupils were 6 mm and weakly reactive to light. The heart was rapid and regular, and no SC emphysema was noted. Deep tendon reflexes were 2/4, and plantar responses were flexor. The patient was given 5 mg diazepam, 4 mg naloxone hydrochloride, 100 mg thiamine, and 50 ml of 50% dextrose iv. Within 30 sec after nasotracheal intubation, the patient became apneic and dependent on mechanical ventilation. Gastric lavage was performed. Preoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed mild erythema of the distal esophagus and diffuse hemorrhages and edema of the gastric mucosa. Recurrent postoperative seizures were well controlled with phenytoin therapy. Bilateral cerebral hemisphere swelling was determined; intracranial pressure of 30 cm H2O responded to hyperventilation. Later neurologic examination demonstrated patchy areas of weakness in the upper and lower extremities and truncal ataxia with inability to maintain a sitting position. After 9 days, the patient was transferred to a rehabilitation facility.
[Giberson TP et al; Ann Emerg Med 18 (7): 778-9 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Respiratory effects - Acute lung damage/edema.
[Cralley, L.J., L.V. Cralley (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volume III: Theory and Rationale of Industrial Hygiene Practice. 2nd ed., 3A:The Work Environment. New York, NY: John Wiley Sons, 1985. 171]**PEER REVIEWED**

If swallowed, the sudden evolution of oxygen may cause injury by acute distension of the stomach and also nausea, vomiting, and internal bleeding.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991. 183]**PEER REVIEWED**

Repeated use of hydrogen peroxide topical solution as a mouthwash or gargle may produce a condition known as "hairy tongue" or may cause irritation of the buccal mucous membrane. Concentrated solutions (20-30% or more) of hydrogen peroxide are strongly irritating to skin or mucous membranes and should be handled cautiously. When used rectally in a colonic lavage, the drug has caused gas embolism, rupture of the colon, proctitis, ulcerative colitis, and gangrene of the intestine.
[McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2000.Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2000 (Plus Supplements). 2576]**PEER REVIEWED**

In treatment of corneal ulcerations, particularly in herpetic dendritic keratitis, 20% solution has been applied, after local anesthetic, every two hr as a localized cautery to the ulcer, and has been reported to have had good effect in numerous patients. In one instance a 10% solution was dropped on one eye of a patient after application of cocaine, and this eye was normal by the next day.
[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986. 492]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dropping 1 to 3% hydrogen peroxide solution on the human eye causes severe pain, but this soon subsides.
[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986. 493]**PEER REVIEWED**

DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations were studied in human cells treated with hydrogen peroxide or with ionizing radiation. DNA strand breaks could be produced at dose levels of hydrogen peroxide much lower than those which induced chromosomal aberrations. Doses as low as 0.5 mM of hydrogen peroxide produced about as many DNA strand breaks as 2 Gy of (60)Co gamma-radiation. On the other hand, as much as 20 mM hydrogen peroxide produced only half as many chromosomal aberrations as 1 Gy of (60)Co gamma-radiation.
[Rueff J et al; Mutat Res 289 (2): 197-204 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Large ingestions may produce a mild gastritis from the decomposition of peroxide, which releases large volumes of oxygen and causes gastric distension.
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1102]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ingestion of concentrations greater than 10% can result in dangerous sequelae.
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1221]**PEER REVIEWED**

Seventy-five ppm is considered immediately dangerous to life and health. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide is a superficially corrosive agent with a pH of 8.0.
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1221]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ingestions of industrial strength peroxides can result in severe burns of the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract, with the possibility of rupture of the hollow viscous secondary to the liberation of oxygen. The foam may cause obstruction of the respiratory tract and may result in mechanical asphyxia. Respiratory failure has been the alleged cause of death in fatalities reported after oral ingestion of industrial strength (over 10%) hydrogen peroxide.
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1223]**PEER REVIEWED**

Men accidentally exposed to 90% H2O2 vapor experienced an increased flow of saliva, scratchy feeling of the throat, and respiratory passage inflammation.
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1222]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Hydrogen peroxide leads to genetic damage in vitro through the formation of free radicals.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 782]**PEER REVIEWED**

Although ingestion is unlikely to occur, if it does the hydrogen peroxide will cause irritation of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Decomposition results in rapid liberation of O2, leading to distension of the esophagus or stomach, and possibly severe damage and internal bleeding.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.350]**PEER REVIEWED**

Human exposure by inhalation may result in extreme irritation and inflammation of nose, throat and respiratory tract; pulmonary edema, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, irritability, insomnia, hyper-reflexia; and tremors and numbness of extremities, convulsions, unconsciousness and shock. The latter symptoms are a result of severe systemic poisoning.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.350]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exposure to mist or spray may cause stinging and tearing of the eyes. If hydrogen peroxide is splashed into the eye, severe damage such as ulceration of the cornea may result; sometimes, though rarely, this may appear as long as a week after exposure.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.350]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin contact with hydrogen peroxide liquid will result in temporary whitening of the skin; if the contamination is not removed, erythema and vesicle formation may occur.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.350]**PEER REVIEWED**

The main toxic effect of most peroxides is irritation of skin, mucous membranes and eyes. Prolonged or intense skin contact or splashes in the eyes may cause severe injury. Some organic peroxide vapors are irritating and may also cause headaches, intoxication similar to alcohol, and lung edema in inhaled in high concentrations. Some are ... skin sensitizers. Dialkyl peroxides are generally not as strongly irritating, and the diacyl peroxides are the least irritating of the peroxides. Hydroperoxides, peroxyacids and particularly methyl ethyl ketone peroxide are much more severe. They are extremely irritating and corrosive to the eyes, wit risk of blindness, and may cause serious injury or death if ingested in sufficient quantity. /Peroxides, Organic and Inorganic/
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.349]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fanconi's anemia cells are highly susceptible to both reactive oxygen species and mitomycin C, a DNA cross-linking agent. In this study we have determined the amounts of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, typical of oxidative DNA damage, in Epstein-Barr virus transformed lymphoblasts from Fanconi's anemia patients and normal controls. Fanconi's anemia cells (HSC72 and 99 cells being assigned to Fanconi's anemia complementation group A) formed 2-3 times more 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine than control cells after incubation with 20 mM hydrogen peroxide at 37 deg C for 30 min. Fanconi's anemia cells also formed more 8-hydroxyguanosine, typical of oxidative RNA damage, than control cells. Fanconi's anemia cells showed decreased activity to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Although the activity in Fanconi's anemia cells was only 20-30% less than control cells, the remaining, undecomposed hydrogen peroxide concn was almost twice as much in Fanconi's anemia cells as in control cells, and the remaining hydrogen peroxide concn correlated well with the amounts of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation. The hydrogen peroxide decomposing activity was almost completely inhibited by sodium azide or aminotriazole, both catalase inhibitors. With these inhibitors the amounts of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation were much higher than in those cells without inhibitors, and were almost the same in control cells as in Fanconi's anemia cells. Catalase activity in Fanconi's anemia cell lysates was 70-80% of controls.
[Takeuchi T, Morimoto K; Carcinogenesis 14 (6): 1115-20 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

...MAY CAUSE CHEMICAL BURNS OF SKIN & MUCOUS MEMBRANES, ALTHOUGH BURNS CAUSED BY HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ARE LESS SERIOUS THAN THOSE CAUSED BY SODIUM PEROXIDE.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 299]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

Marked irritation - eye, nose, throat, skin
[Cralley, L.J., L.V. Cralley (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volume III: Theory and Rationale of Industrial Hygiene Practice. 2nd ed., 3A:The Work Environment. New York, NY: John Wiley Sons, 1985. 171]**PEER REVIEWED**

Drug Warnings:

Hydrogen peroxide topical solution /SRP: at concentrations higher than 3 percent/ is acidic to the taste and to litmus paper and produces a froth in the mouth; because hydrogen peroxide concentrate is /SRP: corrosive/, it should not be tasted undiluted.
[McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2000.Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2000 (Plus Supplements). 2576]**PEER REVIEWED**

Populations at Special Risk:

Individuals with eye, skin, and chronic respiratory diseases /may be/ at an increased risk.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) PublicationNo. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981. 1]**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Inhalation of vapor or mist, ingestion, eye and skin contact.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985. 510]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emergency Medical Treatment:

Emergency Medical Treatment:

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The following Overview, *** HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ***, is relevant for this HSDB record chemical.

Life Support:
  o   This overview assumes that basic life support measures
      have been instituted.
Clinical Effects:
  SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
   0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      1.  Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidizing agent which
          liberates oxygen on contact with tissue.
      2.  HOUSEHOLD hydrogen peroxide (3%) is mildly irritating
          to mucus membranes.  In general, ingestion, ocular, or
          dermal exposure to small amounts of dilute hydrogen
          peroxide will cause no serious problems.  Vomiting and
          diarrhea are common after ingestion.  Gastric injury
          has rarely been reported after accidental ingestion.
      3.  HIGH CONCENTRATIONS of hydrogen peroxide (greater than
          10% industrial strength or 35% "Food Grade" solutions)
          are strong oxidizers and are corrosive, causing severe
          burns to mucus membranes, gastrointestinal mucosa,
          skin and eyes.  Complications of ingestion include
          ruptured viscus, coma, seizures, and gas embolization
          with subsequent shock and cardiac arrest.
       a.  Dermal and ocular exposures may result in severe
           burns with corneal ulceration or perforation.
           Corneal injury is in rare cases delayed.
      4.  Inhalation of low concentration mist or spray causes
          mild ocular and respiratory irritation.  Higher
          concentrations can cause severe mucus membrane
          irritation and inflammation, pulmonary edema, and
          systemic poisoning with shock, coma and seizures.
     o   WITH THERAPEUTIC USE
      1.  Rare reports of gas emboli have been described
          following surgical irrigation with 3% hydrogen
          peroxide due to the formation of microbubbles.
  VITAL SIGNS
   0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      1.  Hypotension and apnea have been reported with severe
          poisonings.
  HEENT
   0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      1.  Eye exposure to 3% hydrogen peroxide (household
          strength) may result in immediate pain and irritation,
          however, severe eye injury is rare.
      2.  Ocular exposure to industrial strength hydrogen
          peroxide solutions (greater than 10%) may result in
          ulceration or perforation of the cornea.
  CARDIOVASCULAR
   0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      1.  Ingestion of 35% hydrogen peroxide has resulted in
          oxygen embolization in the portal venous system and
          heart, causing ischemic ECG changes and death.
     o   WITH THERAPEUTIC USE
      1.  Systemic embolization has occurred resulting in EKG
          changes and rarely, cardiac arrest and death.
  RESPIRATORY
   0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      1.  Inhalation of vapors from concentrated (greater than
          10%) solutions may result in severe pulmonary
          irritation.  Interstitial lung disease and respiratory
          arrest have also been reported following massive
          exposures.
  NEUROLOGIC
   0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      1.  Cerebral edema, cerebral gas embolism, cerebral
          infarction, and seizures have  been reported following
          ingestion of concentrated (35%) solutions.  Death has
          been reported as a result of embolic cerebrovascular
          injury.
  GASTROINTESTINAL
   0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      1.  Serious GI complications have resulted from the
          ingestion of concentrated solutions and enemas with
          dilute peroxide solutions.
      2.  DILUTE - Exposure to dilute (3%) solutions may result
          in spontaneous vomiting, mild irritation to mucosal
          tissue, burns in the mouth, throat, esophagus, and
          stomach, colitis, enteritis, tenesmus, and papillae
          hypertrophy.  Gastric ulcer has been reported in a
          young child exposed to a small amount of hydrogen
          peroxide 3%.
      3.  Gastric distention and rupture of the colon secondary
          to liberation of oxygen may occur but is rare,
          especially following accidental ingestion of household
          solutions.
      4.  CONCENTRATED - Exposure to concentrated (greater than
          10%) solutions may cause extreme irritation and
          inflammation, intestinal gangrene, hemorrhagic
          gastritis, burns in the mouth, throat, esophagus, and
          stomach, rupture of the colon, intestinal gangrene
          with gas embolization, a fulminant acute ulcerating
          colitis resulting in death, and near fatal gas
          embolization.
  DERMATOLOGIC
   0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      1.  Dermal exposure to dilute (3%) solutions generally
          results in a bleaching of the affected area in
          association with a tingling sensation and lasts 2 to 3
          hours, if washed promptly after contact.
      2.  Dermal exposure to concentrated solutions has resulted
          in burns and gangrene.
  CARCINOGENICITY
   0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
     o   IARC (Hydrogen Peroxide, 30%) (RTECS, 1991)
      1.  Animal:  Limited evidence
      2.  Group 3
     o   IARC (Hydrogen Peroxide, 90%) (RTECS, 1991)
      1.  Animal:  Limited evidence
      2.  Human:  No adequate data
      3.  Group 3
  OTHER
   0.2.23.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     o   WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      1.  Following ingestion or instillation into a body cavity
          gas may develop within the body cavity and may
          progress to gas embolism.
     o   WITH THERAPEUTIC USE
      1.  Sepsis may develop as complication resulting from use
          of H2O2 enema.
      2.  Following ingestion or instillation into a body cavity
          gas may develop within the body cavity and may
          progress to gas embolism.                    
Laboratory:
  o   No routine laboratory tests are needed after small
      ingestions of 3% hydrogen  peroxide.
  o   Obtain abdominal and upright chest radiographs after a
      large or high  concentration ingestion to look for
      evidence of gas embolization or perforation.
  o   Obtain arterial blood gases and an ECG, and initiate
      continuous cardiac monitoring  in patients with suspected
      gas embolization.                              
Treatment Overview:
  ORAL EXPOSURE
    o   ADMINISTER WATER immediately to dilute the peroxide.
        Spontaneous vomiting is common.  In general, exposure to
        small amounts of a dilute solution will  NOT result in
        serious complications and requires little treatment.
    o   EMESIS SHOULD NOT BE INITIATED.  Activated charcoal is
        not of use.
     1.  Following ingestion of industrial strength (greater
         than 10%) solutions, patients should be monitored for
         burns to the mouth, throat, esophagus, and  stomach.
         Serious complications are possible.
    o   GASTRIC DISTENTION may require decompression via a
        nasogastric tube.
    o   Monitor for respiratory depression and hypoxia after
        severe exposure.
  INHALATION EXPOSURE Monitor for respiratory tract
      irritation and hypoxia after severe inhalation  exposure.
  EYE EXPOSURE
    o   DECONTAMINATION:  Irrigate exposed eyes with copious
        amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes.  If
        irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia
        persist, the patient should be seen in a health care
        facility.
    o   Ocular exposure to HOUSEHOLD STRENGTH (3%) solutions
        usually requires little more than thorough irrigation,
        since serious complications are rare.  However, ocular
        exposure to INDUSTRIAL STRENGTH (greater than 10%)
        solutions not only requires thorough irrigation, but
        given the possibility of corneal ulceration or
        perforation, evaluation in a health care facility is
        recommended.
  DERMAL EXPOSURE
    o   DECONTAMINATION:  Remove contaminated clothing and wash
        exposed  area thoroughly with soap and water.  A
        physician may need to  examine the area if irritation or
        pain persists.                                     
Range of Toxicity:
  o   Oral ingestion, dermal exposure, or eye exposure to 3%
      hydrogen peroxide solutions (household strength) generally
      does not result in severe toxicity.  Gastric ulcers
      developed in a young child who drank 2 to 4 ounces of 3%
      hydrogen peroxide.
  o   However, exposure to industrial strength solutions
      (greater than 10 to 30%) may result in burns of the mouth,
      throat, esophagus, stomach, and exposed skin.
      Concentrations exceeding 10% should be considered
      potentially very toxic.
  o   GAS EMBOLI secondary to irrigation with hydrogen peroxide
      has occurred during surgical procedures.  Its been
      suggested (extrapolating from animal data) that a 10 kg
      infant may only need 2 mL/kg of gas (20 mL) to sustain a
      cardiac arrest; 3% hydrogen peroxide 2 mL can release 20
      mL of oxygen microbubbles.                    

[Rumack BH: POISINDEX(R) Information System. Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2003; CCIS Volume 116, edition exp May, 2003. Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds):TOMES(R) Information System. Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2003; CCIS Volume 116, edition exp May, 2003.] **PEER REVIEWED**

Antidote and Emergency Treatment:

Basic treatment: Establish a patent airway. Suction if necessary. Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilations if necessary. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 10 to 15 L/min. Monitor for pulmonary edema and treat if necessary ... . Monitor for shock and treat if necessary ... . For eye contamination, flush eyes immediately with water. Irrigate each eye continuously with normal saline during transport ... . Do not use emetics. For ingestion, rinse mouth and administer 5 ml/kg up to 200 ml of water for dilution if the patient can swallow, has a strong gag reflex, and does not drool ... . Do not attempt to neutralize because of exothermic reaction. Cover skin burns with dry, sterile dressings after decontamination ... . /Oxidizers/
[Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994. 133]**PEER REVIEWED**

Advanced treatment: Consider orotracheal or nasotracheal intubation for airway control in the patient who is unconscious, has severe pulmonary edema, or is in, respiratory arrest. Early intubation, at the first sign of upper airway obstruction, may be necessary. Positive pressure ventilation techniques with a bag valve mask device may be beneficial. Monitor cardiac rhythm and treat arrhythmias as necessary ... . Start an IV with D5W /SRP: "To keep open", minimal flow rate/. Use lactated Ringer's if signs of hypovolemia are present. Watch for signs of fluid overload. Consider drug therapy for pulmonary edema ... . For hypotension with signs of hypovolemia, administer fluid cautiously. Watch for signs of fluid overload ... . Use proparacaine hydrochloride to assist eye irrigation ... . /Oxidizers/
[Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994. 133]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide poisoning is generally treated with symptomatic and supportive measures.
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1223]**PEER REVIEWED**

Peroxides should be washed promptly from the skin to prevent irritation. In the case of eye contact, the eyes should be flushed immediately with large amounts of water, and medical attention should be obtained. ... Medical attention should also be obtained in case of accidental ingestion. ... /Peroxides, Organic and Inorganic/
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.350]**PEER REVIEWED**

Animal Toxicity Studies:

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of hydrogen peroxide. There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of hydrogen peroxide. Overall evaluation: Hydrogen peroxide is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. 71 683 (1999)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A3. Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 42]**QC REVIEWED**

Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:

DOGS /EXPOSED/ 6 HR/DAY; 5 DAYS/WK FOR 6 MO AT AN AVG VAPOR CONCN OF 7 PPM OF 90% HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ... DEVELOPED skin IRRITATION, SNEEZING, LACRIMATION, AND BLEACHING OF THE HAIR. /90% SOLN/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 782]**PEER REVIEWED**

DOGS /WERE EXPOSED/ 6 HR/DAY, 5 DAYS PER WEEK FOR 6 MO @ AVG VAPOR CONCN OF 7 PPM OF 90% HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. ... AUTOPSY DISCLOSED GREATLY THICKENED SKIN BUT NO HAIR FOLLICLE DESTRUCTION. THE LUNGS WERE FOUND TO BE IRRITATED. NO SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN BLOOD OR URINARY CONSTITUENTS WERE OBSERVED. /90% SOLN/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 782]**PEER REVIEWED**

RABBITS EXPOSED DAILY FOR 3 MONTHS @ 22 PPM SHOWED NO EYE INJURY, ALTHOUGH THE HAIR WAS BLEACHED AND IRRITATION WAS NOTED AROUND NOSE. /90% SOLN/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 782]**PEER REVIEWED**

DROP APPLICATION OF 0.5% SOLN ON RABBIT CORNEA CAUSES DISTURBANCES OF EPITHELIUM, BUT EYE RETURNS TO NORMAL WITHIN 24 HR. HOWEVER, INTRACORNEAL INJECTION OF 0.1%-0.3% SOLN CAUSES RATHER SEVERE REACTION.
[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986. 493]**PEER REVIEWED**

A DROP OF 5%-30% H2O2 APPLIED TO RABBIT EYES HAVING NORMAL EPITHELIUM CAUSES SUPERFICIAL CLOUDING, WHICH IS PERSISTENT WHEN GREATER THAN 10% IS APPLIED. EVEN 5% SOLN HAS BEEN OBSERVED TO CAUSE SEVERE CORNEAL EDEMA, FLARE IN AQUEOUS, INTENSE CONGESTION OF IRIS, & VASCULARIZATION OF CORNEA IN RABBITS ... .
[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986. 493]**PEER REVIEWED**

SINGLE STRAND SCISSIONS WERE PRODUCED IN T7 DNA UPON INCUBATION WITH H2O2 IN AQ SOLN @ NEUTRAL PH. INHIBITION OF SCISSIONS BY HYDROXYL RADICAL SCAVENGERS INDICATES INTERMEDIACY OF HYDROXYL RADICALS.
[LESKO SA ET AL; BIOCHEMISTRY 19 (13): 3023 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pregnant rats were fed a diet containing up to 10% hydrogen peroxide. Maternal and fetal weights were reduced but no significant malformations were reported.
[Shepard, T.H. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 5th ed. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986. 296]**PEER REVIEWED**

In rabbits and cats that died after iv administration of hydrogen peroxide, the lungs were found to be pale and emphysematous, with considerable amounts of gas in the great veins and in the right side of the heart.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V36 297 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

After ip injection of 0.5 ml of 5% hydrogen peroxide into adult mice, a radiation like effect was observed; pyknotic nuclei were induced in the intestine and thymus within 2 hr and persisted for up to 24 hr.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V36 297 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Prophages are induced by treatment of lysogenized bacteria with hydrogen peroxide. In Escherichia coli, hydrogen peroxide induced single strand breaks in DNA and was positive in DNA repair assays.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V36 300 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA92 and TA102 and was positive in a forward mutation test in Salmonella typhimurium SV50.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V36 301 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Experiments on rabbit eyes ... showed corneal injury from dropped application to depend not only on the conc of hydrogen peroxide, but also on the integrity of the corneal epithelium, which had a protective influence. Application of a drop of 10 to 30% caused superficial corneal haze, and, if there were defects in the epithelium, could cause localized swelling and opacities in the corneal stroma. Also, 5% solution caused superficial corneal haze and much conjunctival reaction, but these effects were gone in 24 hr. The effect of 10% solution usually took longer to disappear, and occasionally could result in lasting localized opacities.
[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986. 493]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effect of hydrogen peroxide on perfusion flow, airway conductance and dynamic compliance of isolated perfused and ventilated guinea pig lungs was investigated. Hydrogen peroxide (50 uM in the perfusion buffer) induced a decrease in airway conductance and dynamic compliance and perfusion flow during 5 min. of exposure. Hydrogen peroxide also caused an increase in the levels of thromboxane in the perfusate of the lung. The constrictor effects as well as the formation of thromboxane were inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen (50 uM). The thromboxane/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor antagonist L-670,596 (1 uM) abolished the effects of hydrogen peroxide on perfusion flow, airway conductance and dynamic compliance, but did not affect the formation of thromboxane. The thromboxane synthetase inhibitor carboxyheptylimidazole (100 uM) reduced both the hydrogen peroxide induced formation of thromboxane and vaso and bronchoconstriction, suggesting a predominant role for thromboxane A2 versus prostaglandin H2 in these effects. A role for platelet activating factor in mediating the effect of hydrogen peroxide could not be supported, as the platelet activating factor receptor antagonist WEB 2086 (10 uM) did not affect hydrogen peroxide induced vaso and bronchoconstriction. Hydrogen peroxide induces thromboxane A2 mediated vaso and bronchoconstriction in the isolated perfused an ventilated guinea pig lung. Platelet activating factor does not appear to play a significant role in the hydrogen peroxide induced vaso and bronchoconstriction. The perfused guinea pig lung is more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than the perfused rat lung.
[Bannenberg G et al; Pharmacol Toxicol 72 (4-5): 1993 314-20 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide resistant sublines of Chinese hamster ovary cells were isolated by in vitro exposure to the oxidant (treatment for 1 hr followed by 3 days of growth in peroxide free medium). Stepwise increase in low level hydrogen peroxide concn produced variants which were progressively more resistant to the growth inhibitory effect elicited by the oxidant. Removal from hydrogen peroxide decreased resistance and the curve describing this process was biphasic in nature. The protein content constantly increased during the adaptation process and decreases upon removal from hydrogen peroxide. Catalase activity did not show large variations in resistant sublines with respect to the parental cell line, and these changes were at least partially related to differences in cell size/amount of total cell proteins of the sublines. In addition, the minor changes observed for catalase activity did not correlate with the degree of resistance to growth inhibition elicited by the oxidant.
[Cantoni O et al; Biochem Pharmacol 45 (11): 2251-57 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

To understand the role of protein-thiol mixed disulfide formation in relation to the sequence of events during cataract induction, we conducted a long term hydrogen peroxide exposure study for up to 96 hr to monitor the dynamic changes in glutathione and protein-glutathione mixed disulfide levels, the formation of protein-protein disulfide aggregate, protein solubility, and the progression in lens opacity. Rat lenses were cultured in 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide and harvested at intervals of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr for the examination of morphological and biochemical changes. Contralateral lenses cultured in hydrogen peroxide free media were used as controls. It was found that the lenses had only patchy opacity at the equator after 24 hr, but became hydrated suddenly at 48 hr (31% heavier than the control), with an opacity which involved the entire outer cortical region. By 72 hr incubation, the nucleus was opacified. Lens glutathione progressively decreased with time of hydrogen peroxide exposure, 40% was lost by 24 hr and over 95% by 48 hr. There was a concomitant elevation of protein-glutathione mixed disulfide, 16 fold over the controls by 24 hr and 45 fold by 48 hr followed by a decline to 34 fold after 72 hr. In addition, the level of protein-cysteine mixed disulfide was elevated after 48 hr incubation in hydrogen peroxide. At this time, protein-protein disulfide aggregates began to appear both in water soluble and urea soluble fractions along with a drastic reduction in protein solubility. Western blot analysis of the protein fractions identified beta and gamma, but not alpha-crystallin in the disulfide containing aggregates. The lens clarity and biochemical changes partially recovered if the oxidant was removed within 24 hr, indicating a potential therapeutic role for antioxidants.
[Cui XL, Lou MF; Exp Eye Res 57 (2): 157-67 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

DNA damage induced by oxidants includes formation of DNA strand breaks as well as oxidative damage to DNA bases. Both forms of DNA damage were measured concurrently in two model human breast epithelial cell lines treated with hydrogen peroxide to compare the dose-dependent induction of each form of DNA damage with growth inhibition. MCF-7 breast cancer cells had relatively higher levels of non-protein thiols, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase than did the MCF-10A line of immortalized, but not transformed human breast epithelial cells. The levels of antioxidant defenses were not predictive of endogenous oxidative DNA damage levels nor of toxicity and DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide. The endogenous levels of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine were higher in MCF-7 than MCF-10A cells. The cells were treated with 10-200 uM hydrogen peroxide for 15 min at 37 C in complete media. Low concn of hydrogen peroxide were growth stimulatory to both cell lines. At higher concn, growth inhibition by hydrogen peroxide was greater in MC-7 than in MCF-10A cells. Accordingly, induction of both single-strand DNA breaks and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine in DNA was greater in MCF-7 than MCF-10A cells. In both cell lines, the dose-dependent induction of single-strand breaks paralleled growth inhibition more closely than did formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine.
[Djuric Z et al; Free Radical Biol Med 14 (5): 541-7 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

An oxidant burden established by hydrogen peroxide overload may elicit postischemic myocardial damage. Exposure of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to 50 uM-1.0 mM hydrogen peroxide bolus rapidly shifted their pyridine-nucleotide redox balance toward oxidation. At least 30% of the observed NADPH oxidation was independent of glutathione cycle activity and appeared chemical in nature with hydrogen peroxide itself, and not a radical metabolite, acting as oxidant. Cell exposure to hydrogen peroxide also depleted cardiomyocyte pyridine nucleotides as a consequence of enhanced utilization. The oxidative stress activated one major route of pyridine nucleotide catabolism (i.e., protein ADP-ribosylation) without acute inhibitory effect upon the other (cleavage by NAD glycohydrolase). The limited NAD sparing by metal chelators and inhibitors of ADP-ribosylation reflected pyridine nucleotide utilization for repair of single-strand DNA breaks caused by hydroxyl-like radicals formed intracellularly through iron-dependent hydrogen peroxide reduction. Cardiomyocyte NAD depletion during hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress was independent of cell integrity and lipid peroxidation. The NAD lost after a discrete hydrogen peroxide pulse was only partly replenished over a 24 hr postinjury period. Cardiomyocyte pyridine nucleotide metabolism is a nonperoxidative injury target that is chronically affected by hydrogen peroxide overload.
[Janero DR et al; Am J Physiol 264 (6 Pt 1): C1401-10 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effect of the oxidant hydrogen peroxide on the vulnerability of the myocardium to reperfusion induced arrhythmias following global ischemia was investigated. After a 15 min equilibration period with or without experimental intervention, isolated perfused rat hearts were made globally ischemic for 5 min by cross-clamping the aortic line. No dysrhythmias were evoked upon reperfusion at the 5 min global ischemia time period. Hydrogen peroxide was added to the perfusate 5 min into the equilibration period with a total exposure of 10 min. Global ischemia was then induced for 5 min followed by 10 min of reperfusion. All hearts exposed to 200 uM hydrogen peroxide developed ventricular dysrhythmias during the reperfusion period. Coronary flow increased after 5 min of exposure to 200 uM hydrogen peroxide and remained elevated during reperfusion. Toxic oxygen derivedproducts are capable of increasing the susceptibility of the myocardium to reperfusion induced arrhythmias.
[Okabe E et al; Eur J Pharmacol 248 (1): 33-9 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The superoxide dismutase mimic, 4-hydroxy TEMPO (TEMPOL), was used to investigate the mechanism by which hydrogen peroxide damages cultured rabbit lens epithelial cells and to identify some of the targets of hydrogen peroxide insult. Most studies aimed at determining the mechanism by which hydrogen peroxide exerts its cytotoxic effect have used iron chelators to prevent the generation of the damaging hydroxyl radical. TEMPOL does not chelate transition metals. Cells at low or high density were cultured in MEM containing 5 mM TEMPOL and exposed to a single sub-lethal dose of 0.05 or 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Analysis of EPR spectra indicated that TEMPOL was stable in MEM, did not destroy hydrogen peroxide and penetrated the intracellular fluid. TEMPOL prevented or curtailed the hydrogen peroxide induced inhibition of cell growth, blebbing of the cell membrane, the decrease in NAD+, the activation of poly ADP-ribose polymerase, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, and limited the induction of single strand breaks in DNA normally brought about by hydrogen peroxide. TEMPOL did not prevent the hydrogen peroxide induced decrease in reduced glutathione, lactate production, and the activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, or the hydrogen peroxide induced increases in oxidized glutathione and hexose monophosphate shunt activity. Addition of TEMPOL 1-15 min after exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide offered partial protection from the inhibition of cell division. TEMPOL at 5 mM did not inhibit cell growth. Some of the hydrogen peroxide induced damage in cultured rabbit LECs is mediated by intracellular redox-active metals involved in the Haber-Weiss cycle. Cellular changes not protected by TEMPOL, including attack of hydrogen peroxide on the thiol groups of glutathione (mediated through glutathione peroxidase) and G3PDH, are likely brought about by hydrogen peroxide itself and not by reactions of oxygen free-radicals generated from hydrogen peroxide.
[Reddan JR et al; Exp Eye Res 56 (5): 543-54 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effect of extracellular acidosis on different types of cell injury and death was examined using suspensions of rabbit renal proximal tubules. Cell death produced by the mitochondrial inhibitors rotenone, antimycin A, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and oligomycin and by the ion exchangers valinomycin, nigericin and monensin was ameliorated by reducing extracellular pH from 7.4 to 6.4. The protection lasted for more than 5 hr and was not due to the release of mitochondrial inhibition or to the maintenance of tubular ATP levels. In contrast, extracellular acidosis potentiated the cell injury and death produced by the oxidants t-butyl hydroperoxide, hydrogen peroxide and ochratoxin A. Because a decrease in extracellular pH resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation and in glutathione disulfide formation, and caused a decrease in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, the mechanism of this potentiation is most likely the result of an increase in free-radical production or a decrease in free-radical detoxification. The findings with the oxidants are in marked contrast to those in hepatocytes.
[Rodeheaver DP, Schnellmann RG; J Pharmacol Exp Ther 265 (3): 1355-60 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide induced contractions of isolated rabbit intrapulmonary arteries mounted in standard tissue baths were studied. All vessels were pretreated with a thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548, to block immediate transient contractions to hydrogen peroxide and to isolate slowly developing sustained contractions. When exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 mM) for 30 min, vessels contracted in a concn-dependent fashion between 0.1 and 0.3 mM hydrogen peroxide; contractions at 0.6 and 1.0 mM hydrogen peroxide were not significantly different from those at 0.3 mM hydrogen peroxide. During recovery (90 min) from hydrogen peroxide exposures, baseline tension was significantly greater, but active tension (10 uM phenylephrine) was significantly less for vessels previously exposed to 0.6 and 1.0 mM hydrogen peroxide.
[Sheehan DW et al; Am J Physiol 264 (5 PART 2): H1542-H1547 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Free radical generation from hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides in the presence of chromium(III) was investigated by electron spin resonance spin trapping methodology. Incubation of chromium(III) with hydrogen peroxide at physiological pH generated hydroxyl radical, the yield of which reached saturation level in about 6 min. Deferoxamine reduced the hydroxyl radical yield by only about 20%, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid reduced it by about 70%, while cysteine, glutathione, and NADH exhibited no significant effect. The yield of hydroxyl radical formation also depended on the pH being 15 times higher at pH 10 than that at pH 7.2. At pH 3.0, hydroxyl radical generation became nondetectable, and addition of hydrogen peroxide to chromium(III) solution did not affect the intensity of the chromium(III) electron spin resonance signal while at pH 10, addition of hydrogen peroxide reduced the chromium(II) intensity by about 40%, showing that reaction of chromium(III) with hydrogen peroxide occurred only at higher pH. Chromium(III) is capable of producing free radicals from hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides.
[Shi X et al; Arch Biochem Biophys 302 (1): 294-99 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Electron spin resonance spin trapping was utilized to investigate the generation of free radicals from cumene hydroperoxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and hydrogen peroxide at pH 7.2 by cobalt(II) in the presence of cysteinyl and histidyl chelating agents. Incubation of cobalt(II) with cumene hydroperoxide or tert-butyl hydroperoxide did not generate any detectable amounts of free radicals. However, in the presence of glutathione, cysteine, penicillamine, or N-acetylcysteine, cobalt(II) generated cumene hydroperoxide-derived carbon-centered radicals, cumene alkoxyl radicals, and hydroxyl radicals. Oxidized glutathione and cysteine used instead of reduced glutathione or cysteine did not generate any free radical, indicating an important role of the -SH group in radical generation. While the addition of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid prevented radical generation, deferoxamine had only a slightly inhibitory effect. Incubation of cobalt(II) with hydrogen peroxide produced only a small amount of hydroxyl radicals. Addition of glutathione to the mixture of cobalt(II) and hydrogen peroxide resulted in generation of both glutathionyl and hydroxyl radicals, which could be inhibited by diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and deferoxamine. Under the same experimental conditions, cysteine, penicillamine, and N-acetylcysteine inhibited free radical generation from the reaction of cobalt(II) with hydrogen peroxide. Histidine and histidyl oligopeptides, homocarnosine, and carnosine did not have a significant effect. However, anserine enhanced the hydroxyl radical generation from this reaction. Cobalt(II) is capable of generating free radicals from lipid hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of certain chelating agents.
[Shi X et al; Chem Res Toxicol 6 (3): 277-83 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A comparison was made between the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus): the latter has > 2 fold greater life span and metabolic potential than the former. Longe life span and higher metabolic potential of Peromyscus were associated with low rates of mitochondrial superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, higher activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase and low levels of protein oxidative damage as well as low susceptibility to oxidative damage in response to experimental oxidative stress. Results support the role of oxidative stress in aging.
[Sohal RS et al; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 196 (1): 7-11 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Energy transduction, as measured by myocyte respiration, was inhibited by hydrogen peroxide, but the mitochondrial membrane potential was relatively unaffected. In mitochondrial energy transduction by measuring the sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide of NADH-CoQ reductase, ATP synthase, and adenine nucleotide translocase in situ in myocytes. Adult rat heart cells were isolated and incubated in the presence of 0.1-10 mM hydrogen peroxide for 30 min. The NADH-CoQ reductase and ATP synthase activities were inhibited to 77% and 67% of control, respectively, following an exposure to 10 mM hydrogen peroxide for 30 min. The adenine nucleotide translocase activities were inhibited in a concn- and time-dependent manner and by 10 mM hydrogen peroxide to 44% of control. The dose-response relationship indicated that the translocase was the most susceptible to hydrogen peroxide among the three enzymes studied. Combined treatment of myocytes with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and diethyl maleate (to inactivate catalase, to inhibit glutathione reductase activity, and to deplete glutathione, respectively) enhanced the sensitivity of translocase to hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide can cause dysfunction in mitochondrial energy transduction, principally as the result of inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocase.
[Tatsumi T, Kako KJ; Basic Res Cardiol 88 (3): 199-211 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Inhalation of 90% hydrogen peroxide induces lung inflammation in animals.
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1222]**PEER REVIEWED**

Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

Metabolism/Metabolites:

WHEN HYDROGEN PEROXIDE COMES IN CONTACT WITH CATALASE, AN ENZYME FOUND IN BLOOD AND MOST TISSUES, IT IS RAPIDLY DECOMPOSED INTO OXYGEN AND WATER ... IN WOUNDS & ON MUCOUS MEMBRANES.
[American Medical Association. AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1991. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, 1991. 1438]**PEER REVIEWED**

Absorption, Distribution & Excretion:

There are no procedures that will enhance the elimination of hydrogen peroxide except for those surgical procedures required after vascular occlusion by the peroxide.
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1223]**PEER REVIEWED**

WHEN ... APPLIED TO TISSUE ... SOLUTIONS OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE HAVE POOR PENETRABILITY.
[Gilman, A. G., L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980. 974]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mechanism of Action:

The "snow white" color change (mucosal whitening and frothy bubbles) in the colonic mucosa seen after topical application arise secondary to penetration by hydrogen peroxide into the epithelial interstices and capillaries, with the subsequent production of microbubbles of molecular oxygen causing the blanching. Blood is forced out of the intramural vasculature and replaced by oxygen in a reaction mediated by tissue catalase.
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1222]**PEER REVIEWED**

At the cellular level, hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage appears to involve a role for transition metal ions bound to DNA, which may interact with H2O2 resulting in the production of a reactive radical species, most likely OH. This radical species found close to the DNA interacts with DNA forming purine and pyrimidine products characteristic of those found after the exposure of aqueous DNA solutions to ionizing radiation.
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1222]**PEER REVIEWED**

The pharmacologic activity of the drug depends on the release of nascent oxygen which has a powerful oxidizing effect that destroys some microorganisms and chemically alters many organic substances. When hydrogen peroxide topical solution comes in contact with tissues that contain the enzyme catalase, the solution releases oxygen which exerts antibacterial action; the mechanical effect of effervescence loosens tissue debris and pus. The release of nascent oxygen and effervescence is more rapid on wounds, denuded areas, and mucous membranes than on unbroken skin. The presence of reactive organic material such as pus and blood diminishes the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide. The antibacterial activity of hydrogen peroxide is relatively weak and slow and the drug exhibits poor tissue and wound penetration. Hydrogen peroxide's mechanical effect of effervescence and resultant removal of tissue debris is probably a more effective means of reducing the bacterial content of wounds, denuded areas, and mucous membranes than actual antibacterial activity. The drug also appears to have a styptic effect when applied topically to minor wounds. Concentrated solutions of hydrogen peroxide have a bleaching effect on hair and may injure tissue.
[McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2000.Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2000 (Plus Supplements). 2576]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide solution (3%) liberates oxygen when in contact with catalase present on wound surfaces and mucous membranes. The effervescent action mechanically helps remove pus and cellular debris from the wounds and is valuable for cleaning and deodorizing infected tissue. The antimicrobial action is of short duration and is limited to the superficial layer of the applied surface because there is no penetration of the tissue.
[Aiello, S.E. (ed). The Merck Veterinary Manual. 8th ed. Merck & Co., Inc., National Publishing Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 1998. 1848]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pharmacology:

Therapeutic Uses:

Anti-Infective Agents, Local; Oxidants
[National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings online file (MeSH, 1999)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide topical solution is used to cleanse wounds, suppurating ulcers, and local infections. Hydrogen peroxide topical solution has been used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions of the external auditory canal and as a mouthwash or gargle (eg, in the treatment of pharyngitis or Vincent's stomatitis). Hydrogen peroxide has also been applied in root canals of teeth or other dental pulp cavities.
[McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2000.Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2000 (Plus Supplements). 2576]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide topical solution has also been used as a vaginal douche and, following rectal instillation of warm mineral oil, as a rectal enema in the treatment of fecal impaction. More potent solutions (eg, 20-30%) have been used as a hair bleach and as a tooth bleaching agent.
[McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2000.Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2000 (Plus Supplements). 2576]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide topical gel is used to cleanse minor wounds or minor gum inflammation resulting from minor dental procedures, orthodontic appliances, denture irritations, accidental injury, and other mouth and gum irritations (eg, canker sores).
[McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2000.Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2000 (Plus Supplements). 2576]**PEER REVIEWED**

A chemical agent that destroys microorganisms, but usually not bacterial spores; it does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, but reduces them to a level that is harmful neither to health nor the quality of perishable goods. /Antiseptics and disinfectants/
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1204]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide is useful as a disinfectant that has also been used for removal of inspissated meconium, demonstrating rectovaginal fistulae and in the therapy of constipation or fecal impaction. Radiologists have employed H2O2 to aid in eliminating gas from the intestine during roentgenography of abdominal vicera and as a mixture with barium to identify the exact site of gastrointestinal hemorrhage under fluoroscopy ... . It has been recommended as a disinfectant for tonometer tips, ophthalmic instruments, and trial contact lenses to prevent the transmission of viruses ...
[Ellenhorn, M.J., S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, J. Wasserberger. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997. 1222]**PEER REVIEWED**

IT IS USED AS DISINFECTING GARGLE IN PHARYNGITIS & AS DEODORIZING MOUTH WASH IN STOMATITIS. ... IT IS ALSO EMPLOYED AS MEANS OF CLEANSING WOUNDS & SUPPURATING ULCERS. ... MAIN VALUE IS PROBABLY DUE TO ITS BUBBLING ACTION WHICH REMOVES ORGANIC DETRITUS THAN TO ANY ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT.
[American Hospital Formulary Service. Volumes I and II. Washington, DC: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, to 1984.,p. 52:28]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide(3%) or salt applied to the back of the pharynx will stimulate vomiting via the ninth cranial nerve. Small doses (5-10 ml) of hydrogen peroxide can be administered via oral syringe until emesis occurs. It should be administered cautiously, especially in cats, because aspiration of hydrogen peroxide foam causes severe aspiration pneumonia.
[Aiello, S.E. (ed). The Merck Veterinary Manual. 8th ed. Merck & Co., Inc., National Publishing Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 1998. 1681]**PEER REVIEWED**

Drug Warnings:

Hydrogen peroxide topical solution /SRP: at concentrations higher than 3 percent/ is acidic to the taste and to litmus paper and produces a froth in the mouth; because hydrogen peroxide concentrate is /SRP: corrosive/, it should not be tasted undiluted.
[McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2000.Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2000 (Plus Supplements). 2576]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate & Exposure:

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Inhalation of vapor or mist, ingestion, eye and skin contact.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985. 510]**PEER REVIEWED**

Natural Pollution Sources:

Gaseous hydrogen peroxide is recognized to be a key component and product of the earth's lower atmospheric photochemical reactions, both in a clean and polluted atmosphere. Atmospheric hydrogen peroxide is believed to be generated exclusively by gas-phase photochemical reactions.
[IARC MONOGRAPHS 1972-PRESENT V36 p.291]**PEER REVIEWED**

Atmospheric Concentrations:

Measurements of hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the gas-phase and in cloud water were obtained in the vicinity of the USA Carolinas coast between late Jan and early Mar 1986. Gas phase concentrations, determined by a fluorometric method, were always less than 2.4 ppb and generally less than 1 ppb. Vertical profiles of hydrogen peroxide in the clear air around clouds and storm systems were highly variable. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in cloud water ranged from the detection limit of 0.3 uM to 112 uM, with higher values generally occurring in the vicinity of lightning activity. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations in cloud water were well below those calculated to be in Henry's law equilibrium with gas-phase concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the cloudy air.
[Barth MC et al; Tellus 41B (1): 61-9 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Standards & Regulations:

FIFRA Requirements:

As the federal pesticide law FIFRA directs, EPA is conducting a comprehensive review of older pesticides to consider their health and environmental effects and make decisions about their future use. Under this pesticide reregistration program, EPA examines health and safety data for pesticide active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and determines whether they are eligible for reregistration. In addition, all pesticides must meet the new safety standard of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Pesticides for which EPA had not issued Registration Standards prior to the effective date of FIFRA, as amended in 1988, were divided into three lists based upon their potential for human exposure and other factors, with List B containing pesticides of greater concern and List D pesticides of less concern. Hydrogen peroxide is found on List D. Case No: 4072; Pesticide type: Fungicide, Herbicide, Rodenticide, and Antimicrobial; Case Status: RED Approved 12/93; OPP has made a decision that some/all uses of the pesticide are eligible for reregistration, as reflected in a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) document.; Active ingredient (AI): Hydrogen peroxide; AI Status: OPP has completed a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) document for the case/AI.
[USEPA/OPP; Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration and Special Review p.330 (Spring, 1998) EPA 738-R-98-002]**PEER REVIEWED**

An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of hydrogen peroxide in or on all food commodities at the rate of less than or equal to 1% hydrogen peroxide per application on growing crops and post harvest potatoes when applied as an algaecide, fungicide and bactericide.
[40 CFR 180.1197 (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CERCLA Reportable Quantities:

Releases of CERCLA hazardous substances are subject to the release reporting requirement of CERCLA section 103, codified at 40 CFR part 302, in addition to the requirements of 40 CFR part 355. Hydrogen peroxide (Conc >52%) is an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) subject to reporting requirements when stored in amounts in excess of its threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 1,000 lbs.
[40 CFR 355 (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

FDA Requirements:

Hydrogen peroxide is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
[21 CFR 175.105 (4/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Substance added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) only when used to treat the following food within /specific/ limitations: milk, whey, dried eggs, tripe, beef feet, herring, wine, starch, instant tea, corn syrup, colored (annatto) cheese whey, wine vinegar, and emulsifiers containing fatty acid esters.
[21 CFR 184.1366 (4/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide used as a bleaching agent in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
[21 CFR 582.1366 (4/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Allowable Tolerances:

An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of hydrogen peroxide in or on all food commodities at the rate of less than or equal to 1% hydrogen peroxide per application on growing crops and post harvest potatoes when applied as an algaecide, fungicide and bactericide.
[40 CFR 180.1197 (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical/Physical Properties:

Molecular Formula:

H2-O2
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989. 760]**PEER REVIEWED**

Molecular Weight:

34.01
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

Color/Form:

Colorless liquid
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

At low temperatures a crystalline solid
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Vol 1-3 7th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989. 1910]**PEER REVIEWED**

Colorless liquid ... [Note: The pure compound is a crystalline solid below 12 degrees F. Often used in an aqueous solution].
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Odor:

ODORLESS, OR HAVING AN ODOR RESEMBLING THAT OF OZONE
[Osol, A. and J.E. Hoover, et al. (eds.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 15th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1975. 1092]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Slightly sharp odor ...
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Taste:

SLIGHTLY ACID
[Osol, A. and J.E. Hoover, et al. (eds.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 15th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1975. 1092]**PEER REVIEWED**

Bitter
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

Boiling Point:

152 deg C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

Melting Point:

-0.43 deg C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

Critical Temperature & Pressure:

Critical temperature: 457 deg C; critical pressure: 20.99 Mpa
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 (89) 445]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density/Specific Gravity:

1.4425 @ 25 deg C
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 962]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dissociation Constants:

pKa = 11.75
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 963]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Vaporization:

1.517 kJ/g @ 25 deg C
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 962]**PEER REVIEWED**

pH:

Weak acid; H2O2 concn wt% = 35, 50, 70, 90; corresponding true pH: 4.6, 4.3, 4.4, 5.1
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 962]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solubilities:

Miscible with water; sol in ether; insol in petroleum ether
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

Soluble in alcohol
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997. 591]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide and highly concentrated aqueous solutions (>65 wt%) are soluble in a variety of organic solvents such as carboxylic esters.
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 (89) 444]**PEER REVIEWED**

In water, 1X10+6 mg/l @ 25 deg C
[Radding SB et al; Review of The Environmental Fate of Selected Chemicals. NTIS 68-01-2681 (1977)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Spectral Properties:

Index of refraction: 1.4061 @ 28 deg C
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 79th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1998-1999.,p. 4-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

Surface Tension:

80.4 dynes/cm @ 20 deg C
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997. 591]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor Pressure:

1.97 mm Hg @ 25 deg C
[Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Viscosity:

1.245 centipoises (liquid)
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997. 591]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

Strong oxidizer
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density, solid: 1.71 g/cc
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997. 591]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density of 3% soln: about 1.00; density of 30% soln: about 1.11
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 823]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of fusion: 12.5 kJ/mol
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 73rd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1992-1993.,p. 5-95]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Decomposition: -1220 Btu/lb = -676 cal/g = -28.3X10+5 J/kg
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Solution: -20.2 Btu/lb = -11.2 cal/g = -0.469X10+5 J/kg
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Distillable in high vacuum; may decompose violently if traces of impurities are present; decomposed by many organic solvents; Solutions of hydrogen peroxide gradually deteriorate and are usually stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials; agitation or contact with rough surfaces, metals or many other substances accelerates decomposition; rapidly decomposes with alkalies and finely divided metals; the presence of mineral acids renders it more stable
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

...forms salts with various metals
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 (89) 446]**PEER REVIEWED**

Henry's Law = 7.04X10-9 atm cu m/mol @ 25 deg C
[Betterton EA; Gaseous Pollutants, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. p.25 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical Safety & Handling:

DOT Emergency Guidelines:

Fire or explosion: These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 8% but less than 20% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 20% but not more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-140]**QC REVIEWED**

Health: Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns, or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 8% but less than 20% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 20% but not more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-140]**QC REVIEWED**

Public safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. ... Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 10 to 25 meters (30 to 80 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 8% but less than 20% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 20% but not more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-140]**QC REVIEWED**

Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 8% but less than 20% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 20% but not more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-140]**QC REVIEWED**

Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 8% but less than 20% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 20% but not more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-140]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire: Small fires: Use water. Do not use dry chemicals or foams. CO2, or Halon may provide limited control. Large fires: Flood fire area with water from a distance. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Do not move cargo or vehicle if cargo has been exposed to heat. Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 8% but less than 20% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 20% but not more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-140]**QC REVIEWED**

Spill or leak: Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Do not get water inside containers. Small dry spills: With clean shovel place material into clean, dry container and cover loosely; move containers from spill area. Small liquid spills: Use a non-combustible material like vermiculite, sand or earth to soak up the product and place into a container for later disposal. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Following product recovery, flush area with water. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 8% but less than 20% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 20% but not more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-140]**QC REVIEWED**

First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 8% but less than 20% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, with not less than 20% but not more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-140]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire or explosion: May explode from friction, heat or contamination. These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, stabilized, with more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, stabilized/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-143]**QC REVIEWED**

Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns, or death. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Toxic fumes or dust may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars, etc.). Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, stabilized, with more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, stabilized/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-143]**QC REVIEWED**

Public safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. ... Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 50 to lOO meters (160 to 330 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, stabilized, with more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, stabilized/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-143]**QC REVIEWED**

Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, stabilized, with more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, stabilized/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-143]**QC REVIEWED**

Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, stabilized, with more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, stabilized/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-143]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire: Small fires: Use water. Do not use dry chemicals or foams. CO2 or Halon may provide limited control. Large fires: Flood fire area with water from a distance. Do not move cargo or vehicle if cargo has been exposed to heat. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Do not get water inside containers: a violent reaction may occur. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Dike fire-control water for later disposal. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, stabilized, with more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, stabilized/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-143]**QC REVIEWED**

Spill or leak: Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Small spills: Flush area with flooding quantities of water. Large spills: DO NOT CLEAN-UP OR DISPOSE OF, EXCEPT UNDER SUPERVISION OF A SPECIALIST. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, stabilized, with more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, stabilized/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-143]**QC REVIEWED**

First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. /Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution, stabilized, with more than 60% Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, stabilized/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-143]**QC REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

Marked irritation - eye, nose, throat, skin
[Cralley, L.J., L.V. Cralley (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volume III: Theory and Rationale of Industrial Hygiene Practice. 2nd ed., 3A:The Work Environment. New York, NY: John Wiley Sons, 1985. 171]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fire Potential:

DANGEROUS/FIRE HAZARD/ BY CHEMICAL REACTION WITH FLAMMABLE MATERIALS. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IS A POWERFUL OXIDIZER, PARTICULARLY IN THE CONCENTRATED STATE. IT IS IMPORTANT TO KEEP CONTAINERS ... COVERED BECAUSE UNCOVERED CONTAINERS ... MORE PRONE TO REACT WITH FLAMMABLE VAPORS, GASES, ETC.; ... IF UNCOVERED, THE WATER FROM HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SOLN CAN EVAPORATE, CONCENTRATING THE /REMAINING/ MATERIAL AND THUS INCREASING THE FIRE HAZARD.
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1841]**PEER REVIEWED**

... SOLNs OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE in CONCN IN EXCESS OF 65 WT% HEAT UP SPONTANEOUSLY WHEN DECOMPOSING TO WATER + 1/2 OXYGEN. THUS 90 WT% SOLN, WHEN CAUSED TO DECOMPOSE RAPIDLY DUE TO THE INTRODUCTION OF A CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION AGENT, CAN GET QUITE HOT AND PERHAPS START FIRES.
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1842]**PEER REVIEWED**

Since the compound is such a strong oxidizer, when spilled on combustible materials it can set fire to them. Detonation can occur if the peroxide is mixed with incompatible (most) organic compounds.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.350]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide is not itself flammable but can cause spontaneous combustion of flammable materials and continued support of the combustion because it liberates oxygen as it decomposes.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1089]**PEER REVIEWED**

Drying of concentrated product on clothing or other combustible material may cause fire.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991. 181]**PEER REVIEWED**

Leakage from drums of 35% hydrogen peroxide onto a wooden pallet caused ignition of the latter when it was moved. Combustion, though limited in area, was fierce and took some time to extinguish. Leakage of 50% peroxide onto supporting pallets under polythene sheeting led to spontaneous ignition and a fierce fire. Contact of 50% peroxide with wood does not usually lead to spontaneous ignition, but hot weather, dry wood and the thermal insulation of the cover may have contributed to ignition.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1214]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fire Fighting Procedures:

Fires caused by the compound are best controlled by large amounts of water. Chemical extinguishers should be used as they hasten decomposition of the peroxide. Fire fighters should wear goggles and self contained breathing apparatus.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1089]**PEER REVIEWED**

Water for fires resulting from spillage.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material involved in fire: use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 585]**PEER REVIEWED**

Evacuation: If fire becomes uncontrollable - consider evacuation of one-half (1/2) mile radius.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 585]**PEER REVIEWED**

In case of fire, water should be applied by the sprinkler system or by hose from a safe distance, preferably with a fog nozzle. Foam may be necessary instead if the peroxide is diluted in a low density flammable solvent. Portable extinguishers should not be used except for very small fires. Peroxides threatened by fire should be wetted from a safe distance for cooling. /Peroxides, Organic and Inorganic/
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.350]**PEER REVIEWED**

Explosive Limits & Potential:

Although pure hydrogen peroxide solutions are not usually explosive at atmospheric pressure, equilibrium vapor concentrations of hydrogen peroxide above 26 mol per cent (40 weight per cent) become explosive in a temperature range below the boiling point of the liquid.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.350]**PEER REVIEWED**

EXPLOSION HAZARD: SEVERE, WHEN HIGHLY CONCENTRATED OR PURE H2O2 IS EXPOSED TO HEAT, MECHANICAL IMPACT, DETONATION OF A BLASTING CAP, OR CAUSED TO DECOMPOSE CATALYTICALLY BY METALS & THEIR SALTS, DUSTS & ALKALIES.
[Martin, E. W. (ed.). Hazards of Medication. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., l978. 730]**PEER REVIEWED**

ALTHOUGH MANY MIXTURES OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE & ORG MATERIALS DO NOT EXPLODE UPON CONTACT, THE RESULTANT COMBINATION IS DETONATABLE EITHER UPON CATCHING FIRE OR BY IMPACT. DETONATION VELOCITY OF AQ SOLN ... FOUND TO BE ABOUT 6500 M/SEC FOR SOLN OF BETWEEN 96 WT% & 100 WT% HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1842]**PEER REVIEWED**

ANOTHER SOURCE OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE EXPLOSIONS IS FROM SEALING THE MATERIAL IN STRONG CONTAINERS. UNDER SUCH CONDITIONS EVEN GRADUAL DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE TO WATER + 1/2 OXYGEN CAN CAUSE LARGE PRESSURES TO BUILD UP IN THE CONTAINERS WHICH MAY BURST EXPLOSIVELY.
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1842]**PEER REVIEWED**

Soluble fuels (acetone, ethanol, glycerol) will detonate on admixture with peroxide of over 30% concentration, the violence increasing with concentration.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1198]**PEER REVIEWED**

An organic sulfur compound containing an acetal function had been oxidized to the sulfone with 30% hydrogen peroxide in acetic acid. After the liquor had been concentrated by vacuum distillation at 50-60 deg C, the residue exploded during handling. ... Interaction /with acetaldehyde/ gives the extremely explosive poly(ethylidene) peroxide.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1200]**PEER REVIEWED**

Acetone and hydrogen peroxide readily form explosive dimeric and trimeric cyclic peroxides, particularly during evaporation of the mixture. Many explosions have occurred during work-up of peroxide reactions run in acetone solvent, including partial hydrolysis of a nitrile and oxidation of 2,2'-thiodiethanol and of an unspecified material.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1201]**PEER REVIEWED**

Homogeneous mixtures of concentrated peroxide with alcohols or other peroxide miscible organic liquids are capable of detonation by shock or heat. ... During conversion of alcohols to hydroperoxides, the order of mixing of reagents is important. Addition of concentrated acid to mixtures of an alcohol and concentrated peroxide almost inevitably leads to explosion, particularly if the mixture is inhomogeneous and the alcohol is a solid.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1202]**PEER REVIEWED**

Conversion of the acid to diperoxyazelaic acid in hydrogen peroxide/sulfuric acid medium at 45-50 deg C was uncontrollabley exothermic and led to explosion.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1203]**PEER REVIEWED**

Evaporation of an ethereal solution of hydrogen peroxide gave a residue of which a drop on a platinum spatula exploded weakly on exposure to flame. When the sample (1-2 g) was stirred with a glass rod (not fire polished), an extremely violent detonation occurred.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1205]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interaction gives a hydrated basic peroxide which decomposes explosively at 80-90 deg C.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1207]**PEER REVIEWED**

Addition of 30% peroxide and sulfuric acid to 2-methylpyridine and iron(II) sulfate caused a sudden exotherm, followed by a vapor phase explosion and ignition.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1208]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interaction with excess ketene rapidly forms explosive diacetyl peroxide.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1208]**PEER REVIEWED**

Directions given for the preparation of 2-phenyl-1,1-dimethylethyl hydroperoxideby adding sulfuric acid to a mixture of the alcohol and 90% hydrogen peroxide are wrong and will lead to explosion.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1212]**PEER REVIEWED**

Preparative reactions involving oxidation of tetrahydrothiophene to the sulfoxide by slow addition of 37% peroxide solutions exploded violently on 3 occasions. No explanation is apparent, and similar reactions had been run uneventfully over a period of 10 years.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1214]**PEER REVIEWED**

It is not considered to be an explosive; however, when mixed with organic chemicals, hazardous impact-sensitive compounds may result. Materials with metal catalysts can cause explosive decomposition.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.350]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

Oxidizable materials, iron, copper, brass, bronze, chromium, zinc, lead, silver, manganese [Note: Contact with combustible material may result in SPONTANEOUS combustion].
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Most cellulose materials contain enough catalyst to cause spontaneous ignition with 90% peroxide. Soluble fuels (acetone, ethanol, glycerol) will detonate on admixture with peroxide of over 30% concentration, the violence increasing with concentration. Handling systems must exclude fittings of iron, brass, copper, Monel, and screwed joints caulked with red lead. /Explosive with acetic acid, acetic anhydride, acetone, alcohols, carboxylic acids, nitrogen-containing bases, organic compounds./ Addition of charcoal to concentrated peroxide results in violent decompositon.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991. 181]**PEER REVIEWED**

The solid peroxide produced by action of hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid on thiourea (and possibly a hydrogen peroxidate of thiourea dioxide) decomposed violently on drying in air, with evolution of sulfur dioxide and free sulfur.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1211]**PEER REVIEWED**

Concentrated peroxide may decompose violently in contact with iron, copper chromium and most other metals and their salts, and dust.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1199]**PEER REVIEWED**

The violent decomposition observed on adding charcoal to concentrated hydrogen peroxide is mainly owing to catalysis by metallic impurities present and the active surface of the charcoal, rather than to direct oxidation of the carbon.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 1204]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Decomposition:

Decomposition continuously occurs even at a slow rate when the compound is inhibited, and thus it must be stored properly and in vented containers. High-strength hydrogen peroxide is a very high-energy material. When it decomposes to oxygen and water, large amounts of heat are liberated, leading to an increased rate of decomposition, since decomposition is accelerated by increases in temperature. This rate increases about 2.2 times per 10 deg C temperature increase between 20 and 100 deg C.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.350]**PEER REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

75 ppm
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Protective Equipment & Clothing:

Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 10 ppm. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator. May require eye protection.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 25 ppm. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous flow mode. May require eye protection.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 50 ppm. Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 75 ppm. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concn or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece and operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

Protective garments, both outer and inner, made of a woven polyester fabric or of modacrylic or polyvinylidene fabrics; impermeable apron made of polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene film; neoprene gloves and boots; goggles.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Persons handling peroxides should use safety glasses with side shields, goggles or face shield for eye protection. Emergency eyewash facilities should be provided. Gloves, aprons and other protective clothing as necessary should be used to prevent skin contact. Clothing and equipment that generate static electricity should be avoided. Smoking should be prohibited. /Peroxides, Organic and Inorganic/
[International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th edition, Volumes 1-4 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1998.,p. 104.350]**PEER REVIEWED**

Preventive Measures:

THE BASIC VENTILATION METHODS ARE LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION AND DILUTION OR GENERAL VENTILATION.
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 5th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold, 1979. 730]**PEER REVIEWED**

... SUBSTITUTION OF LESS IRRITATING SUBSTANCES ... REDESIGN OF OPERATIONS ... PREVENT CONTACT, PROVISION OF A PHYSICAL BARRIER AGAINST CONTACT, PROPER WASHINGFACILITIES, WORK CLOTHING AND STORAGE FACILITIES, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, AND BARRIER CREAMS. MEDICAL CONTROL ... .
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 4th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975. 819]**PEER REVIEWED**

Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
**PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
**PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
**PEER REVIEWED**

The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 169]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 585]**PEER REVIEWED**

Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemical protective clothing. Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 585]**PEER REVIEWED**

Compatible protective equipment construction materials include: Butyl rubber, neoprene, neoprene/styrene-butadiene rubber, nitrile rubber, polyurethane, polyvinyl chloride, vitan.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 585]**PEER REVIEWED**

Stability/Shelf Life:

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IS A VERY UNSTABLE COMPOUND THAT BREAKS DOWN READILY TO FORM MOLECULAR OXYGEN AND WATER.
[Gilman, A. G., L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman. (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1980. 974]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide topical solution deteriorates upon standing or upon repeated agitation, undergoes accelerated decomposition when exposed to light or when in contact with many oxidizing or reducing substances, and decomposes suddenly when heated. Hydrogen peroxide topical solution should be stored in tight, light-resistant containers at 15-30 deg C. To ensure greater stability, the inside surfaces of containers should be as free as possible from rough points since these promote decomposition.
[McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2000.Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2000 (Plus Supplements). 2576]**PEER REVIEWED**

PURE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SOLN, COMPLETELY FREE FROM CONTAMINATION, ARE HIGHLY STABLE
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 617]**PEER REVIEWED**

RELATIVELY STABLE SAMPLE OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE TYPICALLY DECOMP @ THE RATE OF ABOUT 0.5%/YR @ ROOM TEMP
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 617]**PEER REVIEWED**

SOLN OF H2O2 GRADUALLY DETERIORATE & ARE USUALLY STABILIZED BY ADDITION OF ACETANILIDE OR SIMILAR ORGANIC MATERIALS. AGITATION OR CONTACT WITH ROUGH SURFACES, METALS OR MANY OTHER SUBSTANCES ACCELERATES DECOMP. RAPIDLY DECOMP BY ALKALIES, FINELY DIVIDED METALS; PRESENCE OF MINERAL ACID RENDERS IT MORE STABLE.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989. 760]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipment Methods and Regulations:

No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
[49 CFR 171.2 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
[IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 41st Ed.Montreal, Canada and Geneva, Switzerland: International Air Transport Association, Dangerous Goods Regulations, 2000. 171]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
[IMDG; International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; International Maritime Organization p.5151,5150,5152,5191 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Storage Conditions:

STORE IN ORIGINAL CLOSED CONTAINER. BE SURE THAT CONTAINER VENT IS WORKING... DO NOT ADD ANY OTHER PRODUCT TO CONTAINERS. WHEN EMPTY, RINSE THOROUGHLY WITH CLEAN WATER. /30% SOLN/
[The Merck Index. 9th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck & Co., Inc., 1976. 633]**PEER REVIEWED**

Storage tanks should be constructed of high-purity aluminium alloy. Undesirable contamininants must not become imbedded in the aluminium surface, and extreme care should be taken to ensure proper welding techniques. Hydrogen peroxide should be stored only in original containers or in containers of compatible materials which have been properly designed and thoroughly passivated.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1089]**PEER REVIEWED**

STORAGE: IN SMALL PACKAGES, SOLN OF H2O2 ARE ALWAYS KEPT IN TIGHT, LIGHT-RESISTANT BOTTLES & PREFERABLY NOT ABOVE 35 DEG C. ... HIGH CONCN OF H2O2 ARE BEST PRESERVED IN PLASTIC (POLYETHYLENE) CONTAINERS, EQUIPPED WITH A PRESSURE RELEASE VALVE IN THE STOPPER, TO MINIMIZE EXPLOSION DUE TO DECOMPOSITION.
[Osol, A. and J.E. Hoover, et al. (eds.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 15th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1975. 376]**PEER REVIEWED**

Storage Temperature: Ambient; Venting: Safety relief or pressure-vacuum.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Once removed from the original container, the hydrogen peroxide must not be returned to it. Storage containers should be properly vented and kept away from direct heat and sun and combustible materials.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983. 1089]**PEER REVIEWED**

Cleanup Methods:

Dilute and drain into the sewer with abundant water.
[ITII. Toxic and Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1988. 278]**PEER REVIEWED**

Disposal Methods:

SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear butyl rubber gloves, eye protection, and laboratory coat. A body shield should be available. In the fume hood, prepare, a dilute solution (5%) of peroxide by cautiously adding to a large volume of water. Gradually, with stirring, add to a 50% excess of aqueous sodium metabisulfite in a round bottom flask equipped with a thermometer. An increase in temperature indicates that the reaction is taking place. Acidify the reaction if it does not proceed spontaneously. Neutralize the reaction mixture and wash down the drain with at least 50 times its volume of water.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991. 183]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dilute and drain with abundant water. Recommended method: Discharge to sewer. Recommendable method: Discharge to sewer. Not recommendable methods: Evaporation & oxidation. Peer-review: Extreme caution - potentially explosive. Strong oxidizing agent. Handle in new glass or polished clean aluminum. Avoid inhalation. Highly unstable material. (Peer-review conclusions of an IRPTC expert consultation (May 1985))
[United Nations. Treatment and Disposal Methods for Waste Chemicals (IRPTC File). Data Profile Series No. 5. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Environmental Programme, Dec. 1985. 191]**PEER REVIEWED**

Occupational Exposure Standards:

OSHA Standards:

Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-1 8-hr Time Weighted Avg: 1 ppm (1.4 mg/cu m).
[29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Threshold Limit Values:

8 hr Time Weighted Avg (TWA) 1 ppm
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 42]**PEER REVIEWED**

Excursion Limit Recommendation: Excursions in worker exposure levels may exceed three times the TLV-TWA for no more than a total of 30 min during a work day, and under no circumstances should they exceed five times the TLV-TWA, provided that the TLV-TWA is not exceeded.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 6]**PEER REVIEWED**

A3. Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 2000. 42]**QC REVIEWED**

NIOSH Recommendations:

Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hr Time-Weighted Avg: 1 ppm (1.4 mg/cu m).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

75 ppm
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Occupational Permissible Levels:

Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPG): ERPG(1) 10 ppm (no more than mild, transient effects) for up to 1 hr exposure; ERPG(2) 50 ppm (without serious, adverse effects) for up to 1 hr exposure; ERPG(3) 100 ppm (not life threatening) up to 1 hr exposure.
[American Industrial Hygiene Association. The AIHA 1999 Emergency Response Planning Guidelines and Workplace Environmental Exposure Level Guides Handbook.American Industrial Hygiene Association. Fairfax, VA 1999. 26]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturing/Use Information:

Major Uses:

For Hydrogen Peroxide (USEPA/OPP PC Code: 000595) active products with label matches. /SRP: Registered for use in the U.S. but approved pesticide uses may change periodically and so federal, state and local authorities must be consulted for currently approved uses./
[U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Pesticide Program's Chemical Ingredients Database on Hydrogen Peroxide (7722-84-1). Available from the Database Query page at http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/epa/epamenu.htm as of June 14, 2000.]**PEER REVIEWED**

In plastics indust; white discharge printing on indigo-dyed wool; bleaching feathers, hair, silk, straws, ivory, flour, bone, gelatin, and textile fabrics; oxidizer in mfr dyes; renovating old painting, engravings; disinfecting water and hides; artificially aging wines, liquors, etc; refining oils and fats; as antichlor; with paraphenylenediamine as dye for furs, dead hair, etc; in photography as hypo eliminant; with NaOH for cleaning metal surfaces, for gilding, silvering, etc; in pharmaceutical prepn, mouthwashes, dentifrices, sanitary lotions /3% Soln/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 823]**PEER REVIEWED**

WHEN DILUTED WITH ONE OR MORE PARTS OF WATER ... IS SOMETIMES EMPLOYED AS A MOUTHWASH, BUT ITS USE TO TREAT STOMATITIS AND GINGIVITIS MAY IRRITATE TONGUE AND BUCCAL MUCOSA. THE 3% SOLUTION OR A SOLUTION DILUTED TO 1.5% IS OFTEN INSTILLED IN EXTERNAL EAR TO AID IN REMOVAL OF CERUMEN.
[American Medical Association. AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1991. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, 1991. 1439]**PEER REVIEWED**

Used to make inorganic peroxide derivatives and organic peroxides
[CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SYNOPSIS: Hydrogen Peroxide (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Used for hydroxylation and epoxidation
[CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SYNOPSIS: Hydrogen Peroxide (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Used in food and pharmaceuticals as a bleach and disinfectant
[CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SYNOPSIS: Hydrogen Peroxide (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Used to leach uranium, hydrometallurgical processing, metal finishing and pollution control
[CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SYNOPSIS: Hydrogen Peroxide (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

90% soln is used in rocket propulsion; as dough conditioner, maturing and bleaching agent in food; medication: antiseptic, disinfectant; medication (vet): topical antiseptic and cleansing agent (as a dilute soln)
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide is used in the manufacture of acetone, antichlor, antiseptics, benzoyl peroxide, buttons, disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, felt hats, plastic foam, rocket fuel, sponge rubber and pesticides. It is also used in bleaching bone, feathers, flour, fruit, fur, gelatin, glue, hair, ivory, silk, soap, straw, textiles, was, and wood pulp, and as an oxygen source in respiratory protective equipment.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985. 510]**PEER REVIEWED**

Deodorizing of textiles, wood pulp, hair, fur; source of organic and inorganic peroxides; pulp and paper industry; plasticizers; rocket fuel; foam rubber; manufacture of glycerol; antichlor; dyeing; electroplating; antiseptic; laboratory reagent; epozidation, hydroxylation, oxidation, and reduction; viscosity control for starch and cellulose derivatives; refining and cleaning metals; bleaching and oxidizing agent in foods; neutralizing agent in wine distillation; seed disinfectant; substitute for chlorine in water and sewage treatment.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997. 591]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wastewater treatment.
[Eul W et al; Chem Oxid, Proc Int Symp, 1st; 68-77 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sterilization and disinfection in industry, water purification.
[Fraser JA L; Effluent Water Treat J 26 (5-6): 186-99 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Degradation of organic pollutants by advanced oxidation.
[Yue PL; Process Saf Environ Prot 70 (B3): 145-8 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Removal of organic cmpd from wastewater by chemical oxidation with ozone or hydrogen peroxide.
[Assink JW; Proces Technol 2 (10): 42-6 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEDICATION
**PEER REVIEWED**

Sulfuric acid solns of hydrogen peroxide are used for the pickling and chemical polishing of copper, brass, and other copper alloys...for etching and cleaning printed circuit boards.
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA 13 (89) 463]**PEER REVIEWED**

Highly purified hydrogen peroxide is used in the manufacture of silicon semiconductor chips to clean silicon disks and to remove photoresist layers...also used for insitu leaching in underground uranium mining.
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 (95) 987]**PEER REVIEWED**

Air-pollution control agent...used in the manufacture of a number of organic and inorganic chemicals...used as an oxidant for in-place solution mining...propellant.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 987]**PEER REVIEWED**

...used in environmental protection to detoxify effluents containing formaldehyde, phenols, or cyanide (e.g., wastewater from mines and tempering works, galvanizer concentrate, photochemical effluents), and to deodorize sulfur-containing effluents...as a propellant in space technology.
[SRI. 1999 Directory of Chemical Producers - United States. Menlo Park, CA. SRI Consulting 1999. 676]**PEER REVIEWED**

A common oxidizing agent, hydrogen peroxide is widely used for the bleaching or deodorizing of textiles, wood pulp, hair, fur, and foods; in the treatment of water and sewage; as a disinfectant; as a component of rocket fuels; and in the manufacture of many chemicals and chemical products.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 782]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturers:

DeGussa Corporation, Hq, 65 Challenger Rd, Ridgefield Park, NJ 07660, (201) 641-6100; Production site: Theodore, AL 36590
[SRI. 1999 Directory of Chemical Producers - United States. Menlo Park, CA. SRI Consulting 1999. 675]**PEER REVIEWED**

Eka Nobel Inc, Hq, 1775 W. Oak Commons Court, Marietta, GA 30062, (770) 578-0858, (800) 241-3900; Production site: Columbus, MS 39702
[SRI. 1999 Directory of Chemical Producers - United States. Menlo Park, CA. SRI Consulting 1999. 675]**PEER REVIEWED**

Elf Atochem North America, Inc., Hq, 2000 Market St, 21st Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103-3222 (215) 419-7000; Production site: Memphis, TN 38127
[SRI. 1999 Directory of Chemical Producers - United States. Menlo Park, CA. SRI Consulting 1999. 675]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fort James Corp., Hq, 1650 Lake Cook Rd, Deerfield, IL 60015 (847) 317-5000; Production site: Muskogee, OK 74401
[SRI. 1999 Directory of Chemical Producers - United States. Menlo Park, CA. SRI Consulting 1999. 675]**PEER REVIEWED**

FMC Corporation, Hq, 200 E Randolph Dr, Chicago, IL 60601, (312) 861-6000; Chemical Products Group, 1735 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19103; Peroxygen Chemicals Div; Production sites: Bayport, TX 77062; Spring Hill, WV 25303
[SRI. 1999 Directory of Chemical Producers - United States. Menlo Park, CA. SRI Consulting 1999. 675]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solvay Interox, Inc., Hq, 3333 Richmond Ave, Houston, TX 77098-3099, (713) 525-6500; Production sites: Deer Park, TX 77536, Longview, WA 98632
[SRI. 1999 Directory of Chemical Producers - United States. Menlo Park, CA. SRI Consulting 1999. 675]**PEER REVIEWED**

Methods of Manufacturing:

CYCLIC REDUCTION AND OXIDATION OF ALKYL ANTHRAQUINONES
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

Prepd by treating barium peroxide with acid.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

Prodn of anhydrous hydrogen peroxide by continuous fractional crystallization.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

Autoxidation of an alkyl anthrahydroquinone, such as the 2-ethyl derivative, in a cyclic continuous process in which the quinone formed in the oxidation step is reduced to the starting material by hydrogen in the presence of a supported palladium catalyst; by electrolytic processes in which aqueous sulfuric acid or acidic ammonium bisulfate is converted electrolytically to the peroxydisulfate, which is then hydrolyzed to form hydrogen peroxide; by autoxidation of isopropyl alc.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997. 591]**PEER REVIEWED**

Electrolysis of potassium bisulfate solution to form the corresponding persulfate radical, which was then heated and hydrolysed in an evaporator to remove water and hydrogen peroxide vapors
[CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SYNOPSIS: Hydrogen Peroxide, 1984]**PEER REVIEWED**

Oxidation of isopropyl alcohol to acetone and hydrogen peroxide
[CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SYNOPSIS: Hydrogen Peroxide, 1984]**PEER REVIEWED**

In practice, 100 wt% hydrogen peroxide is obtained by fractional crystallization of highly concentrated (ca. 90 wt%) aqueous solutions.
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. VA13 (89) 445]**PEER REVIEWED**

General Manufacturing Information:

Incompatibilities: alkalies, ammonia and their carbonates, albumin, balsam peru, phenol, charcoal, chlorides, alkali citrates; ferrous, mercurous or gold salts; hypophosphites, iodides, lime water, permanganates, sulfites, tinctures, and organic matter in general. /3% soln/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 823]**PEER REVIEWED**

(VET): FORMERLY, AS AN ORAL EMETIC WITH SECONDARY ANTHELMINTIC BENEFITS IN CATS, DOGS, & PIGS, & OF LOW EFFICACY AS WHIPCIDE BY ENEMA. EXPERIMENTALLY, AS AN IV SOURCE OF OXYGEN; TO HELP LOCALIZE ISOTOPES IN CERTAIN TUMORS & POTENTIATE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON TUMORS; & TO INCR CIRCULATING PLATELETS.
[Rossoff, I.S. Handbook of Veterinary Drugs. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1974. 267]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEAT INSPECTION DIVISION OF US DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATION: BLEACHING AGENT IN TRIPE; MUST BE REMOVED FROM THE PRODUCT BY RINSING WITH CLEAR WATER.
[Furia, T.E. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Food Additives. 2nd ed. Cleveland: The Chemical Rubber Co., 1972. 867]**PEER REVIEWED**

MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR LIMITED CONTACT, EG 7 DAYS @ ATMOSPHERIC TEMP, INCLUDE: 99% PURE ALUMINUM: CERTAIN LOW-COPPER, STD ALUMINUM PIPING ALLOYS & ALUMINUM-SILICON-MAGNESIUM CASTING ALLOYS; 18% CHROMIUM-8% NICKEL STAINLESS STEELS; CERTAIN FLUOROCARBON LUBRICANTS; POLYVINYL CHLORIDE & SILICONE SYNTHETIC RUBBERS.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Volumes I and II. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971. 697]**PEER REVIEWED**

IRON, STEEL, BRASS, ETC MUST NOT BE USED ... IN CONTACT WITH H2O2. MATERIALS RECOMMENDED FOR UNLIMITED CONTACT ...: SPECIAL MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS WITH LO COPPER & MANGANESE CONTENTS; BOROSILICATE GLASS; WHITE CHEM PORCELAIN; POLYTETRAFLUORETHYLENE; POLYCHLOROTRIFLUOROETHYLENE; & POLYETHYLENE ... .
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Volumes I and II. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971. 697]**PEER REVIEWED**

... it is a substance which migrates to food from packaging materials.
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Vol 1-3 7th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989. 1910]**PEER REVIEWED**

A low percentage of an inhibitor such as acetanilide or sodium stannate, is usually added to counteract the catalytic effect of traces of impurities such as iron, copper, and other heavy metals.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997. 591]**PEER REVIEWED**

Potency of hydrogen peroxide is often described in terms of volume of active oxygen it yields. Each 1% w/w hydrogen peroxide is equivalent to 3.3% by volume; 100 volume hydrogen peroxide is approximately equivalent to 30% w/w, 30 volume to 9% w/w, and 10 volume to 3% w/w, respectively.
[McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2000.Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2000 (Plus Supplements). 2576]**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

USEPA/OPP PC Code 000595; Trade Names: Albone; Superoxol; Actril, Component of (with 063201) (Cold Sterilant).
[U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Pesticide Program's Chemical Ingredients Database on Hydrogen Peroxide (7722-84-1). Available from the Database Query page at http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/epa/epamenu.htm as of June 14, 2000.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Grades: USP (3%); technical (3, 6, 27.5, 30, 35, 50 & 90%); FCC. Most common commercial strengths are 27.5, 35, 50, and 70%.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997. 591]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide soln 30% - contains 2.5-3.5% by wt of H2O2= 8-12 vol oxygen. ... Hydrogen peroxide soln 30% - contains 30% by wt of H2O2= 100 vol of oxygen. /3% ... 30% soln/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 823]**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SOLUTIONS CONTAIN 3% OF H2O2 IN WATER WITH 0.5% OF ACETANILID OR ACETOPHENETIDIN AS A STABILIZING AGENT.
[American Hospital Formulary Service. Volumes I and II. Washington, DC: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, to 1984.,p. 52:28]**PEER REVIEWED**

Now replacing the 3% soln for industrial uses; diluted to the required strength immediately before use. It also is used for making the 3% soln. /30% soln/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 823]**PEER REVIEWED**

DOSE: TOPICAL, FOR CLEANSING WOUNDS, 1.5-3% SOLN; AS A MOUTHWASH, 3% SOLN; INTRAVAGINAL, 2% SOLN.
[Osol, A. and J.E. Hoover, et al. (eds.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 15th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1975. 1092]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide is available only as aqueous solutions containing 3-98% hydrogen peroxide.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V36 286 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Marketed as a soln in water in concentrations of 3-90% by wt.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

Common commercial strengths are 27.5%, 35%, 50%, 70%, 90%, and 98%. "High strength" means greater than 52%.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Topical concentrate: 30.5% (w/w) (available by nonproprietary name); Gel: 1.5% Peroxyl Oral Spot Treatment, Colgate Oral; Solution: 1.5% Peroxyl Mouthrinse (with alcohol 6%), Colgate Oral; 3% (available by nonproprietary name)
[McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2000.Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2000 (Plus Supplements). 2576]**PEER REVIEWED**

Consumption Patterns:

30% IN TEXTILES; 28% IN PLASTICIZERS & OTHER CHEMS; 9% FOR GLYCERIN; 8% FOR PULP & PAPER; 4% IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT; 21% IN MISC APPLICATIONS (1974).
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pulp and paper, 25%; Chemical synthesis, 25%; Environmental, 20%; Textile, 10%; Mining and Uranium, 5%; Miscellaneous, 15% (1984).
[CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SYNOPSIS: Hydrogen Peroxide (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEMICAL PROFILE: Hydrogen Peroxide. Chemical synthesis, 24%; pulp and paper, 23%; environmental uses (includes municipal and industrial water treatment and geothermal steam treatment), 18%; textiles, 14%; mining, 3%; electronics, 3%; miscellaneous (including food and cosmetic uses and the distribution market, 15%.
[Kavaler AR; Chemical Marketing Reporter 230 (17): 58 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEMICAL PROFILE: Hydrogen peroxide. Demand: 1985: 300 million lb; 1986: 320 million lb; 1990 /projected/: 410 million lb. (Canada and US)
[Kavaler AR; Chemical Marketing Reporter 230 (17): 58 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEMICAL PROFILE: Hydrogen peroxide. Pulp and paper, 38%; chemical synthesis, 18%; environmental uses (including municipal and industrial water treatment), 17%; textiles, 11%; exports, 5%; miscellaneous (including mining, electronic, food and cosmetic uses and distributor market), 11%.
[Kavaler AR; Chemical Marketing Reporter 236 (14): 50 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEMICAL PROFILE: Hydrogen peroxide. Demand: 1988: 425 million lb; 1989: 475 million lb; 1993 /projected/: 720 million lb (Includes net exports of 20 million lb). 1993 /projected/: 720 million lb (Includes net exports of 20 million lb).
[Kavaler AR; Chemical Marketing Reporter 236 (14): 50 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Demand: 1997: 1.19 billion lbs; 1998: 1.26 billion lbs; 2002: 1.55 billion lbs (demand is for Canada and U.S. and includes exports, but not imports)
[Chemical Marketing Reporter; Chemical Profile Hydrogen Peroxide. August 24. NY, NY: Schnell Pub Co (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pulp and paper, 56%; chemical synthesis, 12%; environmental uses, including water treatment, 12%; textiles, 10%; miscellaneous, including mining, electronics, food and cosmetic uses, and distributor market, 10%.
[Chemical Marketing Reporter; Chemical Profile Hydrogen Peroxide. August 24. NY, NY: Schnell Pub Co (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Production:

(1972) 6.83X10+10 GRAMS
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1984) 1.26X10+11 g
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. CURRENT INDUSTRIAL REPORTS: INORGANIC CHEMICALS 1984 p.9]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fort Howard Corp.: 3X10+3 tons/year
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 982]**PEER REVIEWED**

3.58X10+3 tons/yr (estimated US capacity)
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 982]**PEER REVIEWED**

U.S. production: 1960: 26,000 tons/year; 1970: 55,700 tons/year; 1980: 105,800 tons/year; 1982: 98,500 tons/year; 1984: 12,600 tons/year; 1986: 138,000 tons/year; 1988: 161,000 tons/year; 1990: 216,600 tons/year; 1992: 271,800 tons/year; 1994: 360,000 (estimated) tons/year; 1996: 470,000 (estimated) tons/year; 1998: 580,000 (estimated) tons/year; 2000: 700,000 (estimated) tons/year
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V13 (95) 981]**PEER REVIEWED**

Total annual capacity = 478,000 short tons
[SRI. 1999 Directory of Chemical Producers - United States. Menlo Park, CA. SRI Consulting 1999. 676]**PEER REVIEWED**

Total U.S. capacity: 1,656 million pounds per year (100% basis)
[Chemical Marketing Reporter; Chemical Profile. Hydrogen Peroxide. August 24. NY, NY: Schnell Pub Co (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Imports:

(1972) 3.84X10+9 GRAMS
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1984) 1.74X109+10 g
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. U.S. IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION AND GENERAL IMPORTS 1984 p.1-353]**PEER REVIEWED**

1996: 174 million lbs (includes U.S. and Canada)
[Chemical Marketing Reporter; Chemical Profile Hydrogen Peroxide. August 24. NY, NY: Schnell Pub Co (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Exports:

(1984) 2.32X10+10 g
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. U.S. EXPORTS, SCHEDULE E, 1984 p.2-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

1996: 60 million lbs (includes U.S. and Canada)
[Chemical Marketing Reporter; Chemical Profile Hydrogen Peroxide. August 24. NY, NY: Schnell Pub Co (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Laboratory Methods:

Analytic Laboratory Methods:

An iodometric method for the flow injection amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide in water is described. The range of 1x10-3 to 1x10-6 M for hydrogen peroxide. When this method was used to determine 3X10-6 M hydrogen peroxide in the presence of chloride, bromide, sulfate and carbonate ions, no interference from these ions was observed. In addition, organic peroxides present in a variety of natural water did not interfere with this method.
[Abdalla MA, Al-Swaidan HM; Anal Lett 22 (7): 1729-42 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

AOAC Method 957.08. Hydrogen peroxide in milk. Qualitative color test. Prepare reagent by dissolving 1 g vanadium oxide in 100 ml sulfuric acid (6 + 94). Add 10-20 drops reagent in ca 10 ml sample and mix. Pink or red indicates hydrogen peroxide.
[Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. and Supplements. Washington, DC: Association of Analytical Chemists, 1990,p. V2 1149]**PEER REVIEWED**

Special References:

Special Reports:

Cantoni O et al; Role of Metal Ions in Oxidant Cell Injury. Biol Trace Elem Res 21): 277-81 (1989). This paper represents a short review of recent data on the molecular mechanism(s) of hydrogen peroxide cytotoxicity.

Ward PA; Mechanisms of Endothelial Cell Killing by H2O2 or Products of Activated Neutrophils. Am J Med 91 (3C): 89S-94S (1991).

Synonyms and Identifiers:

Synonyms:

ALBONE
**PEER REVIEWED**

ALBONE DS
**PEER REVIEWED**

Hioxyl
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROGEN DIOXIDE
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROGEN DIOXIDE SOLUTION
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SOLUTION
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROPEROXIDE
**PEER REVIEWED**

INHIBINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

PERHYDROL
**PEER REVIEWED**

PEROSSIDO DI IDROGENO (ITALIAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

PEROXAAN
**PEER REVIEWED**

PEROXAN
**PEER REVIEWED**

Peroxide
**PEER REVIEWED**

PEROXYDE D'HYDROGENE (FRENCH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

SUPEROXOL
**PEER REVIEWED**

WASSERSTOFFPEROXID (GERMAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

WATERSTOFPEROXYDE (DUTCH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

USEPA/OPP PC Code 000595; Trade Names: Albone; Superoxol; Actril, Component of (with 063201) (Cold Sterilant).
[U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Pesticide Program's Chemical Ingredients Database on Hydrogen Peroxide (7722-84-1). Available from the Database Query page at http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/epa/epamenu.htm as of June 14, 2000.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Grades: USP (3%); technical (3, 6, 27.5, 30, 35, 50 & 90%); FCC. Most common commercial strengths are 27.5, 35, 50, and 70%.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997. 591]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide soln 30% - contains 2.5-3.5% by wt of H2O2= 8-12 vol oxygen. ... Hydrogen peroxide soln 30% - contains 30% by wt of H2O2= 100 vol of oxygen. /3% ... 30% soln/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 823]**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SOLUTIONS CONTAIN 3% OF H2O2 IN WATER WITH 0.5% OF ACETANILID OR ACETOPHENETIDIN AS A STABILIZING AGENT.
[American Hospital Formulary Service. Volumes I and II. Washington, DC: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, to 1984.,p. 52:28]**PEER REVIEWED**

Now replacing the 3% soln for industrial uses; diluted to the required strength immediately before use. It also is used for making the 3% soln. /30% soln/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 823]**PEER REVIEWED**

DOSE: TOPICAL, FOR CLEANSING WOUNDS, 1.5-3% SOLN; AS A MOUTHWASH, 3% SOLN; INTRAVAGINAL, 2% SOLN.
[Osol, A. and J.E. Hoover, et al. (eds.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 15th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1975. 1092]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide is available only as aqueous solutions containing 3-98% hydrogen peroxide.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer,1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work).,p. V36 286 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Marketed as a soln in water in concentrations of 3-90% by wt.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 822]**PEER REVIEWED**

Common commercial strengths are 27.5%, 35%, 50%, 70%, 90%, and 98%. "High strength" means greater than 52%.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Topical concentrate: 30.5% (w/w) (available by nonproprietary name); Gel: 1.5% Peroxyl Oral Spot Treatment, Colgate Oral; Solution: 1.5% Peroxyl Mouthrinse (with alcohol 6%), Colgate Oral; 3% (available by nonproprietary name)
[McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 2000.Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2000 (Plus Supplements). 2576]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

UN 2014; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solution with less than 8% hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)

UN 2984; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions, stabilized, with not less than 8% but less than 20% hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary); Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions, stabilized, with more than 8% but less than 20% hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)

UN 2014; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions with more than 40% but 60% or less hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary); Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions with more 20% or more but 40% or less hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary); Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions, with not less than 20% but not more than 60% hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)

IMO 5.1; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions with more than 40% but 60% or less hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary); Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions with more 20% or more but 40% or less hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary); Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions, with not less than 20% but not more than 60% hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary); Hydrogen peroxide, stabilized, with more than 60% hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions, stabilized, with more than 60% hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, solid; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions, stabilized, with not less than 8% but less than 20% hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary); Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions, stabilized, with more than 8% but less than 20% hydrogen peroxide (stabilized as necessary)

UN 2015; Hydrogen peroxide, stabilized, with more than 60% hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen peroxide, aqueous solutions, stabilized, with more than 60% hydrogen peroxide

UN 1511; Hydrogen peroxide, solid

RTECS Number:

NIOSH/MX0900000

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