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HYDROBROMIC ACID

Human Health Effects:

See Occupational Exposure Standards

Human Toxicity Excerpts:

SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES OF SIX VOLUNTEERS EXPOSED ... 2-6 PPM FOR SEVERAL MIN INDICATED THAT 5 & 6 PPM CAUSE NASAL IRRITATION IN ALL ... & THROAT IRRITATION IN ... ONE OF SIX, WITH EYE IRRITATION NEGATIVE @ ALL CONCN. ... NOSE & THROAT IRRITATION OCCURRED @ 3 & 4 PPM, WHERE ONE OF SIX @ 3, & THREE OF SIX @ 4 PPM ... /NOTED/ EFFECTS.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 4510]**PEER REVIEWED**

.... HIGHLY TOXIC /GAS/ ... BEING SEVERELY IRRITATING TO UPPER RESP TRACT. THE ... /ACID/ FORMED NEUTRALIZES THE ALKALI OF TISSUES & CAN CAUSE DEATH AS A RESULT OF EDEMA OR SPASM OF LARYNX & INFLAMMATION OF UPPER RESP SYSTEM. CONCN OF 0.13-0.2% ARE LETHAL ... IN EXPOSURES LASTING A FEW MIN.
[National Research Council. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. 98]**PEER REVIEWED**

/GAS/ ... ALSO CORROSIVE TO SKIN & MUCOUS MEMBRANES & CAN CAUSE SEVERE BURNS. EXPOSURE TO HIGH CONCN MAY ... RESULT IN DERMATITIS. CONTACT WITH EYES RAPIDLY CAUSES SEVERE IRRITATION OF EYES & EYELIDS.
[National Research Council. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. 98]**PEER REVIEWED**

Inhalation of hydrogen bromide causes irritation of the upper respiratory tract, and a concentration of about 35 ppm causes irritation of the throat after short exposure. More severe exposures result in pulmonary edema, and often in laryngeal spasm.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th Ed p.372 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

INHALATION CAUSES SEVERE IRRITATION OF NOSE & UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT, LUNG INJURY. INGESTION CAUSES BURNS OF MOUTH & STOMACH. CONTACT WITH EYES CAUSES SEVERE IRRITATION & BURNS. CONTACT WITH SKIN CAUSES IRRITATION & BURNS.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

SMOKE PRODUCTION TESTS FOR MATERIALS USED IN AIRCRAFT SEAT CUSHIONS SHOW POLYCARBONATES PRODUCE CARBON MONOXIDE 400 MG/G WITH HYDROBROMIC ACID YIELD BUT NOT HYDROCYANIC ACID.
[SARKOS CP; RECENT TEST RESULTS FROM THE FAA/NAFEC CABIN FIRE SAFETY PROGRAM, NBS SPEC PUBL 540: 589 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin contact with the vapor or liquid causes severe tissue irritation and necrosis.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th Ed p.373 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Contact of solutions of hydrobromic acid with the eyes, skin, or mucous membranes may cause burns.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.771]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

MAY BE HIGHLY IRRITATING TO EYES, SKIN, MUCOUS MEMBRANES, RESPIRATORY TRACT. /GAS/
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 696]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin contact with the vapor or liquid causes severe tissue irritation. ...
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th Ed p.373 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The vapors of hydrogen bromide are severely irritating to the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th Ed p.373 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

MAY BE HIGHLY IRRITATING TO EYES, SKIN, MUCOUS MEMBRANES, RESPIRATORY TRACT. /GAS/
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 696]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emergency Medical Treatment:

Emergency Medical Treatment:

EMT Copyright Disclaimer:
Portions of the POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) database have been provided here for general reference. THE COMPLETE POISINDEX(R) DATABASE OR MEDITEXT(R) DATABASE SHOULD BE CONSULTED FOR ASSISTANCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OR TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC CASES. The use of the POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) databases is at your sole risk. The POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) databases are provided "AS IS" and "as available" for use, without warranties of any kind, either expressed or implied. Micromedex makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, timeliness, usefulness or completeness of any of the information contained in the POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) databases. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED. Micromedex does not assume any responsibility or risk for your use of the POISINDEX(R) or MEDITEXT(R) databases. Copyright 1974-2004 Thomson MICROMEDEX. All Rights Reserved. Any duplication, replication, "downloading," sale, redistribution or other use for commercial purposes is a violation of Micromedex' rights and is strictly prohibited.

The following Overview, *** BROMIDES ***, is relevant for this HSDB record chemical.

Life Support:
   o   This overview assumes that basic life support measures
       have been instituted.
Clinical Effects:
  0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
   0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  ACUTE - Bromide poisoning following acute ingestion is
         rare. Acute effects may include CNS depression, coma,
         hypotension, tachycardia, and respiratory distress.
     B)  CHRONIC - Chronic ingestion of excessive amounts may
         produce a toxic syndrome, "bromism", characterized by
         behavioral changes, irritability, headache, confusion,
         anorexia, slurred speech, and lethargy. Chronic
         intoxication usually develops over 2 to 4 weeks or
         longer.
  0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
   0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Fever may occur with chronic intoxication.
  0.2.4 HEENT
   0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Pupils may be normal, miotic or mydriatic. Nystagmus is
         common.
  0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
   0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Tachycardia and hypotension have occurred with acute
         intoxication.
  0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
   0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Acute intoxication can result in CNS depression and
         coma.
     B)  Chronic effects may include behavioral changes,
         irritability, confusion, muscular weakness, anorexia,
         ataxia, lethargy, abnormal reflexes, and slurred
         speech.
  0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
   0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Nausea and vomiting occur following acute or chronic
         ingestion. Anorexia and weight loss may occur with
         chronic intoxication.
  0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
   0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Acute renal failure is rare. Incontinence may develop
         with chronic intoxication.
  0.2.12 FLUID-ELECTROLYTE
   0.2.12.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Spuriously elevated chloride level and low anion gap
         are characteristic of bromism, due to laboratory
         interference by the bromide ion.
  0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
   0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Bromide toxicity is associated in about 25% of cases
         with the development of bromoderma, an erythematous,
         nodular or acneiform rash over the face and possibly
         the entire body. One case of toxic epidermal necrolysis
         has been reported.
  0.2.18 PSYCHIATRIC
   0.2.18.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Chronic bromism has been associated with toxic
         psychosis resembling paranoid schizophrenia,
         personality changes, and mania with paranoid delusions.
  0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
    A)  Bromides cross the placenta and may be detected in the
        milk of nursing mothers. Case reports suggest that
        prenatal exposure may cause growth retardation,
        craniofacial abnormalities and developmental delay.
Laboratory:
   A)  Obtain serum electrolytes and bromide level. Monitor
       fluids and electrolytes carefully.
Treatment Overview:
  0.4.2 ORAL EXPOSURE
    A)  No specific antidote is available for bromide toxicity.
        Discontinue bromide intake and obtain a serum bromide
        level.
    B)  Aggressive hydration and increasing urinary bromide
        excretion is the mainstay of therapy.
    C)  In chronic poisoning rehydrate patient and administer
        sodium chloride intravenously (0.9% NaCl) at two to
        three times maintenance fluid rate.
     1)  Continue until the serum bromide levels decrease to
         less than 100 to 150 mg/dL and symptoms begin to clear.
    D)  Diuretics such as furosemide, ethacrynic acid, thiazides
        or mannitol administered in addition to intravenous
        sodium chloride to obtain a urine flow of 3 to 6
        mL/kg/hour administration may increase bromide
        clearance.
    E)  Bezoars may form from intestinal bromide, causing
        prolonged absorption. Consider whole bowel irrigation or
        endoscopic removal.
    F)  HEMODIALYSIS - May be of value in severe cases when
        other treatment cannot be used.
Range of Toxicity:
   A)  Serum bromide levels greater than 50 to 100
       milligrams/deciliter are usually associated with signs
       and symptoms of toxicity. Bromide levels higher than 200
       milligrams/deciliter are uniformly associated with signs
       of toxicity.
    1)  There is great interpatient variation in severity of
        symptoms at a given bromide level.
    2)  Acceptable daily intake 1 milligram/kilogram.

[Rumack BH POISINDEX(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2004; CCIS Volume 122, edition expires Nov, 2004. Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds): TOMES(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2004; CCIS Volume 122, edition expires Nov, 2004.]**PEER REVIEWED**

EMT Copyright Disclaimer:
Portions of the POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) database have been provided here for general reference. THE COMPLETE POISINDEX(R) DATABASE OR MEDITEXT(R) DATABASE SHOULD BE CONSULTED FOR ASSISTANCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OR TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC CASES. The use of the POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) databases is at your sole risk. The POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) databases are provided "AS IS" and "as available" for use, without warranties of any kind, either expressed or implied. Micromedex makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, timeliness, usefulness or completeness of any of the information contained in the POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) databases. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED. Micromedex does not assume any responsibility or risk for your use of the POISINDEX(R) or MEDITEXT(R) databases. Copyright 1974-2004 Thomson MICROMEDEX. All Rights Reserved. Any duplication, replication, "downloading," sale, redistribution or other use for commercial purposes is a violation of Micromedex' rights and is strictly prohibited.

The following Overview, *** ACIDS ***, is relevant for this HSDB record chemical.

Life Support:
   o   This overview assumes that basic life support measures
       have been instituted.
Clinical Effects:
  0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
   0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  INGESTION - may produce mild to moderate oral and
         esophageal burns with more severe burns occurring in
         the stomach. Perforations occur rarely. Pyloric
         strictures may develop after moderate to severe burns,
         generally delayed 3 weeks after ingestion.
      1)  Initial signs and symptoms may not reliably predict
          the extent GI burns.
     B)  DERMAL - Severe burns may occur. Complications may
         include cellulitis, sepsis, contractures,
         osteomyelitis, and systemic toxicity.
     C)  INHALATION - may result in dyspnea, pleuritic chest
         pain, pulmonary edema, hypoxemia, bronchospasm,
         pneumonitis, tracheobronchitis and persistent pulmonary
         function abnormalities. Pulmonary dysfunction similar
         to asthma has been reported.
     D)  EYE - Irritation may develop. Splash contact may cause
         corneal erosions.
  0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  0.2.4 HEENT
   0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Eye exposure may result in pain, swelling, corneal
         erosions and blindness.
  0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
   0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Cardiovascular collapse may develop soon after severe
         poisonings.
  0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
   0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Inhalation may produce dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain,
         upper airway edema, pulmonary edema, hypoxemia,
         bronchospasm, pneumonitis, and persistent pulmonary
         function abnormalities. Airway hyperreactivity has also
         been reported.
      1)  The onset of respiratory symptoms may be delayed for
          several hours.
  0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
   0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Abnormal neuropsychologic function has been reported
         following hydrochloric acid exposure from a leaking
         tanker truck.
  0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
   0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Ingestion of acids may result in burns,
         gastrointestinal bleeding, gastritis, perforations,
         dilation, edema, necrosis, vomiting, stenosis, fistula,
         and duodenal/jejunal injury.
  0.2.9 HEPATIC
   0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Systemic toxicity may result in acute hepatic injury.
         Hepatic injury has been reported following chronic
         exposure to chromic acid.
  0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
   0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Renal failure is a rare complication of severe
         poisonings. Hemoglobinuria may develop secondary to
         hemolysis. Nephritis may develop after hydrochloric
         acid ingestion.
  0.2.11 ACID-BASE
   0.2.11.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Metabolic acidosis may develop following significant
         acid ingestion.
  0.2.12 FLUID-ELECTROLYTE
   0.2.12.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Massive fluid and electrolyte shifts may occur with
         extensive dermal or gastrointestinal burns.
         Hyperkalemia may occur with hemolysis.
         Hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hyperchloremia have
         been reported.
  0.2.13 HEMATOLOGIC
   0.2.13.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Hemolysis may occur following significant acid
         ingestion. Disseminated intravascular coagulation has
         been reported.
  0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
   0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
     A)  Chemical burns to the skin are often associated with
         concurrent thermal burns and trauma. Complications seen
         with thermal burns including cellulitis, sepsis,
         contractures, osteomyelitis, may occur as well as
         systemic toxicity from absorbed acid. Deep or extensive
         burns may require grafting.
     B)  Alopecia was reported following application of an
         acidic formulation of a hair-relaxing product.
   0.2.14.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
     A)  Prolonged or repeated exposure to chromic acid mist can
         result in dermatitis. Ulcerations may also occur.
  0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
    A)  Single doses of dibromoacetic acid has resulted in
        reductions of sperm and serum testosterone in
        experimental animals. Repeated or single oral
        administration of monobromoacetic acid did not produce
        effects on male rat reproductive organs or sperm.
Laboratory:
   A)  Obtain baseline CBC and electrolytes in patients with
       significant burns. Monitor renal function and coagulation
       studies in patients with severe burns. Obtain an upright
       chest radiograph in patients with pulmonary symptoms or
       suspected perforation.
Treatment Overview:
  0.4.2 ORAL EXPOSURE
    A)  MUCOSAL DECONTAMINATION: If no respiratory compromise is
        present, dilute immediately with water or mill; no more
        than 8 ounces in adults and 4 ounces in children.
    B)  GASTRIC DECONTAMINATION: Ipecac contraindicated.
        Consider insertion of a small, flexible nasogastric or
        orogastric tube to suction gastric contents after recent
        large ingestions; the risk of further mucosal injury
        must be weighed against potential benefits.
    C)  ENDOSCOPY: Because acid ingestion may cause severe
        gastric burns with relatively few initial signs and
        symptoms, endoscopic evaluation is recommended within 24
        hours in any patient with a definite history of
        ingesting a strong acid, even if asymptomatic. If burns
        are found, follow 10 to 20 days later with a barium
        swallow.
    D)  PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT: Corticosteroids are
        controversial. Consider use in second degree burns
        within 48 hours of ingestion in patients without
        gastrointestinal bleeding or evidence of perforation.
        Antibiotics are indicated for suspected perforation or
        infection and in patients receiving corticosteroids.
    E)  SURGICAL OPTIONS: Initially, if severe esophageal burns
        are found a string may be placed in the stomach to
        facilitate later dilation. Insertion of a specialized
        nasogastric tube after confirmation of a circumferential
        burn may prevent strictures. Dilation is indicated after
        2 to 4 weeks if strictures are confirmed; if
        unsuccessful, either colonic intraposition or gastric
        tube placement may be performed. Consider early
        laparotomy in patients with severe esophageal and/or
        gastric burns.
  0.4.3 INHALATION EXPOSURE
    A)  INHALATION: Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for
        respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing
        develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation,
        bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist
        ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled
        beta2 agonist and oral or parenteral corticosteroids.
    B)  INHALATION: Administer oxygen. If respiratory symptoms
        develop obtain chest x-ray, monitor pulse oximetry
        and/or blood gases. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled beta
        agonists. If acute lung injury develops, consider PEEP.
        Evaluate for esophageal, dermal and eye burns as
        indicated.
  0.4.4 EYE EXPOSURE
    A)  DECONTAMINATION: Irrigate exposed eyes with copious
        amounts of room temperature water for at least 15
        minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or
        photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a
        health care facility.
    B)  MEDICAL FACILITY: Irrigate with sterile 0.9% saline for
        at least an hour or until the cul-de-sacs are free of
        particulate matter and returned to neutrality (confirm
        with pH paper).
    C)  EYE ASSESSMENT: The extent of eye injury (degree of
        corneal opacification and perilimbal whitening) may not
        be apparent for 48 to 72 hours after the burn.
  0.4.5 DERMAL EXPOSURE
    A)  OVERVIEW
     1)  DECONTAMINATION: Remove contaminated clothing and
         jewelry; wash exposed area with copious amounts of
         water. A physician may need to examine the area if
         irritation or pain persists.
Range of Toxicity:
   A)  Undiluted acids are caustic especially to the oropharynx
       and pyloric end of the stomach. Dilute solutions are less
       hazardous.

[Rumack BH POISINDEX(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2004; CCIS Volume 122, edition expires Nov, 2004. Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds): TOMES(R) Information System Micromedex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2004; CCIS Volume 122, edition expires Nov, 2004.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Antidote and Emergency Treatment:

Basic treatment: Establish a patent airway. Suction if necessary. Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilations if necessary. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 10 to 15 L/min. Monitor for pulmonary edema and treat if necessary ... . Monitor for shock and treat if necessary ... . Anticipate seizures and treat if necessary ... . For eye contamination, flush eyes immediately with water. Irrigate each eye continuously with normal saline during transport ... . Do not use emetics. For ingestion, rinse mouth and administer 5 mL/kg up to 200 mL of water for dilution if the patient can swallow, has a strong gag reflex, and does not drool. Administer activated charcoal ... . Cover skin burns with dry sterile dressings after decontamination ... . /Bromine, methyl bromide, and related cmpds/
[Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994.,p. 404-5]**PEER REVIEWED**

Advanced treatment: Consider orotracheal or nasotracheal intubation for airway control in the patient who unconscious. Positive-pressure ventilation techniques with a bag-valve-mask device may be beneficial. Monitor cardiac rhythm and treat arrhythmias if necessary ... . Start an IV with D5W TKO /SRP: "To keep open", minimal flow rate/. Use lactated Ringer's if signs of hypovolemia are present. Watch for signs of fluid overload. Consider drug therapy for pulmonary edema ... . Consider vasopressors to treat hypotension without signs of hypovolemia ... . Treat seizures with diazepam (Valium) ... . Use proparacaine hydrochloride to assist eye irrigation ... . /Bromine, methyl bromide, and related cmpds/
[Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994. 405]**PEER REVIEWED**

Animal Toxicity Studies:

Non-Human Toxicity Values:

LC50 Rat ihl 2858 ppm/1 hr
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1834]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Mouse ihl 814 ppm/1 hr
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1834]**PEER REVIEWED**

Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

Pharmacology:

Therapeutic Uses:

MEDICATION (VET): HAS BEEN USED AS A SEDATIVE /HYDROGEN BROMIDE LIQUID/
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 692]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate & Exposure:

Natural Pollution Sources:

Hydrogen bromide is a /a component/ of volcano gas.
[Matteucei M; CR Acad Sci 129: 65-7 (1899) as cited in Graedel TE et al; Atmospheric Chemical Compounds p.94 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Standards & Regulations:

Chemical/Physical Properties:

Molecular Formula:

Br-H
**PEER REVIEWED**

Molecular Weight:

80.91
[Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Color/Form:

Colorless or faintly yellow liquid
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Odor:

Stinging, stimulating odor.
[ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982. 271]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sharp, irritating odor.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-116. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1994. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Corrosivity:

Corrosive
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. A4 (85) 423]**PEER REVIEWED**

pH:

Aq soln are strongly acidic
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solubilities:

221 G/100 CC water @ 0 deg C
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. B-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

130 G/100 CC water @ 100 deg C
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. B-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

SOL IN ALCOHOL
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. B-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

Spectral Properties:

INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.325
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. B-95]**PEER REVIEWED**

1.0005591 @ 25 deg C /Gas/
[Dean SA; Langre's Handbook of Chemistry 13 Ed p.9-116 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

Density: 1.517 (50% Hydrogen bromide); 1.38 (40%); 1.31 (34%); 1.08 (10%)
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

BP: 74.12 deg C @ 100 mm Hg (49.80% Hydrogen bromide), 107.00 deg C @ 400 mm Hg (48.47%), 122 deg C @ 700 mm Hg (47.74%), 125.79 deg C @ 800 mm Hg (47.56% Hydrogen bromide)
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

Specific heat (cal/g/deg C): 0.152 @ -91 deg C /solid/, 0.176 /Liq/, 0.085 @ 27 deg C /gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of fusion @ MP: 7.44 Cal/g /Hydrogen bromide gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

BP of constant boiling mixt: 122.5 deg C @ 740 mm Hg & 126 deg C @ 760 mm Hg; (47.38% at 752 mm Hg)
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

HEAT OF SOLUTION: 445 BTU/LB= 247 CAL/G= 10.3X10+5 JOULES/KG
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Saturated aq soln contains 68.85% Hydrogen bromide @ 0 deg C & 66% @ 25 deg C /gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrobromic acid is a soln of hydrogen bromide gas in water
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Specific volume: 4.8 cu ft/lb (70 deg F, 1 atm)
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 616]**PEER REVIEWED**

WHITE CRYSTALS /DIHYDRATE/
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. B-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

COLORLESS LIQUID /MONOHYDRATE/
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. B-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

Acrid /Hydrobromic acid gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fumes in moist air forming clouds which have a sour taste /gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

BP: -66.8 deg C @ 760 mm Hg /gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

MP: -86.9 deg C /gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

HIGHLY CORROSIVE TO MOST METALS, WITH EVOLUTION OF FLAMMABLE HYDROGEN GAS /HYDROBROMIC ACID GAS/
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of vaporization: 51.3 cal/g @ BP /gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sol in organic solvents, & alcohol /gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

1 vol water dissolves 600 vol @ 0 deg C /gas/
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 696]**PEER REVIEWED**

Critical temperature: 363.15 K; Critical pressure: 8.5518X10+6 Pa /Hydrogen bromide gas/
[Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density/Specific gravity: 2.77 @ -67 deg C /Hydrogen bromide gas/
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 69th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1988-1989.,p. B-94]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of vaporization: 185.15 K, 1.9008X10+7 J/mol /Hydrogen bromide gas/
[Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Surface tension: At 185.15 K 3.1508X10-2 N/m /Hydrogen bromide gas/
[Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor pressure: 1.84X10+4 mm Hg @ 25 deg C /Hydrogen bromide gas/
[Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Viscosity: 9.1481X10-4 Pa.s at 186.19 K /Hydrogen bromide gas/
[Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical Safety & Handling:

DOT Emergency Guidelines:

Health: TOXIC, inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Hydrobromic acid; Hydrobromic acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire or explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. /Hydrobromic acid; Hydrobromic acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

Public safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. ... Isolate spill or leak area immediately for at least 25 to 50 meters (80 to 160 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Hydrobromic acid; Hydrobromic acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

Protective clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY, it is not effective in spill situations. /Hydrobromic acid; Hydrobromic acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Hydrobromic acid; Hydrobromic acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Hydrobromic acid; Hydrobromic acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

Spill or leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Hydrobromic acid; Hydrobromic acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

First aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. /Hydrobromic acid; Hydrobromic acid, solution/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

Odor Threshold:

Odor threshold= 6.6667 mg/cu m. Irritating concentration= 10.00 mg/cu m.
[Ruth JH; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 47: A-142-51 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

MAY BE HIGHLY IRRITATING TO EYES, SKIN, MUCOUS MEMBRANES, RESPIRATORY TRACT. /GAS/
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 696]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin contact with the vapor or liquid causes severe tissue irritation. ...
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th Ed p.373 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The vapors of hydrogen bromide are severely irritating to the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th Ed p.373 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

MAY BE HIGHLY IRRITATING TO EYES, SKIN, MUCOUS MEMBRANES, RESPIRATORY TRACT. /GAS/
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 696]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fire Fighting Procedures:

Extinguish fire using agent suitable for surrounding fire. Use flooding quantities of water. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors. /Hydrobromic acid solution/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49--76]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 580]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. /Hydrobromic acid solutions/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 575]**PEER REVIEWED**

Toxic Combustion Products:

... if involved in a fire decomposes to produce irritants and toxic gases. /Hydrobromic acid solution/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-76]**PEER REVIEWED**

Firefighting Hazards:

PRESSURIZED CONTAINER MAY EXPLODE & RELEASE TOXIC, IRRITATING VAPOR.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

MODERATELY REACTIVE WITH WATER WITH EVOLUTION OF HEAT /LIQUID/
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE REACTION OF FLUORINE WITH GASEOUS OR AQUEOUS HYDROBROMIC ACID IS ACCOMPANIED BY FLAME.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-86]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Reaction with water or steam it emits toxic and corrosive fumes of Br- and HBr.
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 18345]**PEER REVIEWED**

/HYDROGEN BROMIDE & OZONE/ REACT INSTANTANEOUSLY, EXPLODING EXCEPT @ LOW PRESSURE OF 2-3 MM HG. /GAS/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-139]**PEER REVIEWED**

The reaction of /hydrogen bromide and ammonia/ is vigorous even at -80 deg C with intensely dried reactants.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 491-96]**PEER REVIEWED**

Strong oxidizers, strong caustics, moisture, copper, brass, zinc (Note: Hydrobromic acid is highly corrosive to most metals).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Reacts violently with a broad range of materials, including most metals. /Hydrobromic acid solution/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-76]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Decomposition:

When heated to decomposition ... it emits toxic and corrosive fumes of /hydrogen bromide/.
[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. 1834]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Hazardous Reaction:

Work with liquid hydrogen bromide under pressure in glass at or above room temp should be avoided, as chemical attack, possibly intergranular and not obvious, can lead to unexpected shattering.
[Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984.,p. 4(78) 245]**PEER REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

30 ppm
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Protective Equipment & Clothing:

FULL FACE MASK & ACID GAS CANISTER; SELF CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS; CHEMICAL GOGGLES; RUBBER APRON & GLOVES; ACID PROOF CLOTHING; SAFETY SHOWER.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear special protective clothing and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-76]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. /Solution/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent the skin from becoming frozen from contact with the liquid or from contact with vessels containing the liquid.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact. /Solution/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact with the liquid that could result in burns or tissue damage from frostbite.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possbility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. /Solution/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] /Solution/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Quick drench facilities and/or eyewash fountains should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is any possibility of exposure to liquids that are extremely cold or rapidly evaporating.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 50 ppm. Respirator Class(es): Any chemical cartridge respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. May require eye protection. Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. May require eye protection. Any supplied-air respirator. May require eye protection. Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concn or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted acid gas canister. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Preventive Measures:

VENTILATION CONTROL: ... SHOULD BE HANDLED ONLY IN ADEQUATELY VENTILATED AREAS. A CHECK VALVE, VACUUM BREAK, OR TRAP SHOULD ALWAYS BE USED TO PREVENT FOREIGN MATERIALS FROM BEING SUCKED BACK INTO CYLINDER BECAUSE THIS CAN CAUSE THE DEVELOPMENT OF DANGEROUS PRESSURES.
[National Research Council. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. 99]**PEER REVIEWED**

Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.
[NIOSH. Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 2nd Printing. DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 85-114. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, NIOSH/Supt. of Documents, GPO, February 1987.137]**PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
**PEER REVIEWED**

The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated. /Solution/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. Neutralize spilled material with crushed limestone, soda ash, or lime. Do not use water on material itself.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994.,p. 580\]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. Neutralize spilled material with crushed limestone, soda ash, or lime. /Hydrobromic acid solutions/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 575]**PEER REVIEWED**

Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriaet personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. ... If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemical protective equipment. /Hydrobromic acid solutions/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994. 575]**PEER REVIEWED**

Stability/Shelf Life:

Yellow color slowly darkens on exposure to air and light.
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 692]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipment Methods and Regulations:

No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
[49 CFR 171.2 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
[IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 38th ed. Montreal, Canada and Geneva, Switzerland: International Air Transport Association, Dangerous Goods Board, January, 1997.,p. 160-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
[IMDG; International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; International Maritime Organization p.8174 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Storage Conditions:

Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated location. Separate from alkalies, oxidizing materials, amines, halogens, and metals. /Hydrobromic acid solution/
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997. ,p. 49-76]**PEER REVIEWED**

Cleanup Methods:

1) VENTILATE AREA OF LEAK TO DISPERSE GAS. 2) IF IN GASEOUS FORM, STOP FLOW OF GAS. IF SOURCE OF LEAK IS A CYLINDER & LEAK CANNOT BE STOPPED IN PLACE, REMOVE LEAKING CYLINDER TO A SAFE PLACE IN OPEN AIR, & REPAIR LEAK OR ALLOW CYLINDER TO EMPTY. 3) IF IN LIQUID FORM, ALLOW TO VAPORIZE & DISPERSE THE GAS.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.2]**PEER REVIEWED**

NEUTRALIZING AGENTS: FLUSH WITH WATER; APPLY POWDERED LIMESTONE, SLAKED LIME, SODA ASH, OR SODIUM BICARBONATE.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Disposal Methods:

SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
**PEER REVIEWED**

Stir hydrogen bromide slowly into a large vol of a soln containing soda ash and slaked lime. Discharge the soln with large quantities of water into a sink lined with protective matting and filled with chipped marble.
[ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982. 271]**PEER REVIEWED**

Occupational Exposure Standards:

OSHA Standards:

Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-1 8-Hr Time Weighted Avg: 3 ppm (10 mg/cu m).
[29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/97)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Threshold Limit Values:

Ceiling Limit: 3 ppm.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs & BEIs: Threshold limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices for 2002. Cincinnati, OH. 2002.36]**QC REVIEWED**

NIOSH Recommendations:

Recommended Exposure Limit: Ceiling Value: 3 ppm (10 mg/cu m).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

30 ppm
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997. 166]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Occupational Permissible Levels:

Australia: peak limitation 3 ppm (1990); Federal Republic of Germany: 5 ppm, short-term level 10 ppm, 5 min, 8 times per shift (1991); United Kingdom: 10-min STEL 3 ppn (1991).
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.772]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturing/Use Information:

Major Uses:

In analytical chemistry & organic preparations.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacture of organic bromides, reducing agent & catalyst in controlled oxidation alkylation of aromatic cmpd, isomerization of conjugated diolefins. /Hydrogen bromide gas/
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983. 696]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solvent for ore minerals
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 612]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEM INTERMED FOR INORGANIC BROMIDES (EG, LITHIUM, NICKEL SALTS)
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEM INTERMED FOR ALKYL BROMIDES
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

ALKYLATION CATALYST IN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

REAGENT IN MEDICINE
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

ANALYTICAL REAGENT
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEDICATION (VET)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturers:

Albemarle Corporation, 451 Florida St., Baton Rouge, LA 70801 (504) 388-8011, Production Site: Magnolia, AK 71753
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 666]**PEER REVIEWED**

DOW Chemical USA, 2020 Dow Center, Midland, MI 48674, (517) 636-1000; Production site: Midland, MI 48667
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 666]**PEER REVIEWED**

Great Lakes Chemical Corp, Hq, Highway 52, NW, W Lafayette, IN 47906, (317) 463-2511; Production site: PO Box 1878, El Dorado, AK 71730
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 666]**PEER REVIEWED**

Zeneca Inc., Zeneca Speicalties, New Murphy road and Concord Pike, Wilmington, DE 19897, (302)886-3000 Production Site: Mount Pleasant, TN 38474
[SRI. 1998 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. 1998.. 666]**PEER REVIEWED**

Methods of Manufacturing:

... Commercially by direct combination of elements @ 375 deg C preferably over a catalyst such as platinized silica gel or platinized asbestos. /Gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

Prepn: by dissolving hydrogen bromide in water, or by distilling from a mixture of sodium bromide & 50% sulfuric acid.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 612]**PEER REVIEWED**

Prepn: review of prepn & properties of hydrogen bromide & other hydrogen halides. /Hydrogen bromide gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 821]**PEER REVIEWED**

Burning a mixture of hydrogen & bromine
[Gerhartz, W. (exec ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed.Vol A1: Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH Publishers, 1985 to Present.,p. A4 (85) 422]**PEER REVIEWED**

General Manufacturing Information:

Anhydrous hydrogen bromide is marketed ... In the form of a gas over liquid. /Hydrobromic acid gas/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 918]**PEER REVIEWED**

When dil hydrobromic acid (HBr) is distilled, a weaker acid comes over first & when a very concn acid is boiled, hydrogen bromide gas chiefly distills over first; in both cases a "constant boiling" acid containing about 47.5% HBr remains which distills unchanged @ 126 deg C.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

LIQUEFIED HYDROGEN BROMIDE IS AVAILABLE COMMERCIALLY ... & VARIOUS STRENGTHS OF AQUEOUS HYDROBROMIC ACID, USUALLY 48%. ...
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 4510]**PEER REVIEWED**

Liquefied hydrobromic acid is available commercially in cylinders and various strengths of aqueous hydrobromic acid are available in drums or tank cars.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 4510]**PEER REVIEWED**

Prepn: lab prepn according to the equation sulfuric acid + potassium bromide= potassium sulfate + hydrogen bromide.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996. 818]**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

Grades: Technical 40%; Medicinal 48%, 62%
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 612]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Production:

(1977) 4.99X10+9 G
[SRI]**PEER REVIEWED**

Laboratory Methods:

Analytic Laboratory Methods:

MONITORING METHODS: ANALYTE: HYDROGEN BROMIDE; MATRIX: AIR; PROCEDURE: BUBBLER COLLECTION IN 0.01 NORMAL SODIUM HYDROXIDE, ION SPECIFIC ELECTRODE; RANGE: 6.14-20.37 MG/CU M.
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present.p. V3 S175-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

MONITORING METHODS: ANALYTE: HYDROGEN BROMIDE; MATRIX: AIR; PROCEDURE: SILICA GEL TUBE COLLECTION, ELUENT DESORPTION, ION CHROMATOGRAPHY; VALIDATION RANGE: 2.0-20 MG/CU M; SENSITIVITY: 1.4 UG/SAMPLE/MM; LOWEST ANALYTICAL QUANTIFIABLE LEVEL (LAQL): 2.0 UG/SAMPLE.
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present.p. V7 339-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH Method 7903. Determination of Acids and Inorganics by Ion Chromatography. Analyte: bromide ion (Br-); Sample: solid sorbent tube; Technique: ion chromatography.
[U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 4th ed. Methods A-Z & Supplements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Aug 1994.]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sampling Procedures:

AIR IS COLLECTED IN A SILICA GEL SAMPLING TUBE AT A FLOW RATE OF 0.2 L/MIN FOR A 4 HR PERIOD FOR DETERMINATION BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY. ANAL RANGE FOR HBR IS 0.2-20 UG/ML.
[CASSINELLI ME, TAYLOR DG; MONITORING FOR AIRBORNE INORGANIC ACIDS, ACS SYMP SER 149(CHEM HAZARDS WORKPLACE: MEAS CONTROL) 137 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Special References:

Synonyms and Identifiers:

Synonyms:

ACIDE BROMHYDRIQUE (FRENCH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Acido bromhidrico (Spanish)
**PEER REVIEWED**

ACIDO BROMIDRICO (ITALIAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

ANHYDROUS HYDROBROMIC ACID
**PEER REVIEWED**

BROMOWODOR (POLISH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Bromure d'hydrogene anhydre (French)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Bromuro de hidrogeno anhidro (Spanish)
**PEER REVIEWED**

BROMWASSERSTOFF (GERMAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

BROOMWATERSTOF (DUTCH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROGEN BROMIDE, ANHYDROUS
**PEER REVIEWED**

HYDROGEN BROMIDE (HBR)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

Grades: Technical 40%; Medicinal 48%, 62%
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 612]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

UN 1788; Hydrobromic acid, solution, more than 49% strength; Hydrobromic acid, solution, not more than 49% strength

UN 1048; Hydrobromic acid, anhydrous

IMO 8.0; Hydrobromic acid, solution, more than 49% strength; Hydrobromic acid, solution, not more than 49% strength

IMO 2.3; Hydrogen bromide, anhydrous

Standard Transportation Number:

49 042 60; Hydrogen bromide

49 302 32; Hydrobromic acid, (not more than 49% strength)

49 302 27; Hydrobromic acid, (more than 49% strength)

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